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AMRS > SEC Filings for AMRS > Form 10-Q on 9-Nov-2012All Recent SEC Filings

Show all filings for AMYRIS, INC.

Form 10-Q for AMYRIS, INC.


Quarterly Report


Forward-Looking Statements

The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our condensed consolidated financial statements and the related notes that appear elsewhere in this Form 10-Q. These discussions contain forward-looking statements reflecting our current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties which are subject to safe harbors under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning our strategy, future production capacity and other aspects of our future operations, ability to improve our production efficiencies, future financial position, future revenues, projected costs, expectations regarding demand and acceptance for our technologies, growth opportunities and trends in the market in which we operate, prospects and plans and objectives of management. The words "anticipates," "believes," "estimates," "expects," "intends," "may," "plans," "projects," "will," "would" and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements, including, without limitation, the risks set forth in Part II, Item 1A, "Risk Factors," in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and in our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements.


Amyris®, the Amyris logo, Biofene® and No Compromise® are trademarks or registered trademarks of Amyris, Inc. This report also contains trademarks and trade names of other businesses that are the property of their respective holders.


We are building an integrated renewable products company to provide sustainable alternatives to a broad range of petroleum-sourced products used in specialty chemical and transportation fuel markets worldwide. We do this by applying our industrial synthetic biology technology platform to modify microorganisms, primarily yeast, to function as living factories in established fermentation processes to convert plant-sourced sugars into a variety of hydrocarbon molecules that can serve as flexible building blocks to be used in a wide range of products.

We were incorporated in 2003 and commenced research, development, marketing and administrative activities in 2005. To further develop our business we have established two subsidiaries, Amyris Brasil, which oversees the establishment and expansion of our production in Brazil, and Amyris Fuels. Through the third quarter of 2012, we also conducted an ethanol and reformulated ethanol-blended gasoline business through Amyris Fuels, but have, as of September 30, 2012, transitioned out of that business.

While our technology enables us to design yeast and other microorganisms to produce many different kinds of molecules, our current priority is the commercialization and production of Biofene, and its derivatives for sale in a range of specialty chemical applications within the following six identified markets: cosmetics, lubricants, flavors and fragrances, polymers and plastic additives, home and personal care products and transportation fuels.

In April 2010, we entered into a definitive agreement with Usina São Martinho to establish a joint venture entity for construction and operation of a large-scale production facility in Brazil. In March 2011, we entered into an agreement with Paraíso Bioenergia (Paraíso), under which we are designing and building a fermentation and separation plant on leased space at the Paraíso Bioenergia facility and Paraíso will supply sugar cane juice and other utilities. The manufacturing facility at Paraíso Bioenergia is our initial principal focus for production capacity. Based on our shifting manufacturing priorities and uncertainty regarding financing availability, we cannot currently predict, when or if, our facility at Usina São Martinho will be completed or commence commercial operations.

Total Relationship

In June 2010, we entered into a collaboration agreement with Total. This agreement provided for joint collaboration on the development of products through the use of our synthetic biology platform. In connection with this agreement, Total invested $133.2 million in our equity. At the end of the second quarter of 2010, we recorded a deferred charge asset of $27.9 million associated with the Total investment. This deferred charge asset resulted from the difference between a third party valuation of

our stock and the price paid by Total. This deferred charge asset was to be offset against future revenue earned under arrangements with Total. As of September 30, 2012, we recognized a cumulative reduction of $27.9 million against the deferred charge asset based on collaboration services provided by us and, the settlement of the contingently repayable advance from Total pursuant to an amendment of the collaboration agreement (as described below).

In November 2011, we entered into an amendment of the collaboration agreement with Total with respect to development and commercialization of Biofene for diesel. This represented an expansion of the initial collaboration that the parties established in 2010, and established a global, exclusive collaboration for the development of Biofene for diesel and a framework for the creation of a joint venture to manufacture and commercialize Biofene for diesel. In addition, a limited number of other potential products were subject to development for the joint venture on a non-exclusive basis.

In July 2012, we entered into a further amendment of the collaboration agreement with Total that expanded Total's investment in the Biofene collaboration, incorporated the development of certain joint venture products for use in diesel and jet fuel into the scope of the collaboration, and changed the structure of the funding from Total to include a convertible debt mechanism. Under the new agreements, we issued senior unsecured convertible notes to Total for an aggregate of $30.0 million in new cash in the third quarter of 2012. Further funding will be triggered by Total at annual decision points in mid-2013 and 2014. Upon completion of the research and development program, we and Total would form a joint venture company that would have exclusive rights to produce and market renewable diesel and/or jet fuel. Should Total decide not to pursue commercialization, under certain conditions, it is eligible to recover up to $105 million, payable in March 2017, in the form of cash or in the form of common stock at a conversion price of $7.0682 per share.

Contract Manufacturing

In 2010 and 2011, to support our initial commercial production of Biofene , we entered into contract manufacturing agreements with Biomin, Tate & Lyle and Antibióticos.

We also established contract manufacturing relationships to support conversion of Biofene into finished chemical products. For example, in January 2011, we entered into a production service agreement with Glycotech under which Glycotech performs finishing steps to convert Biofene into squalane, diesel, base oils for industrial lubricants, and other products. In addition, in July 2011, we entered into a contract manufacturing agreement with Albemarle under which Albemarle is to provide toll manufacturing services at its facility in South Carolina and we are obligated to reimburse Albemarle for capital expenditures related to facility modifications required for the services. In February 2012, we entered into an amended and restated agreement with Albemarle, which superseded the original contract manufacturing agreement with Albemarle. The term of the new agreement continues through December 31, 2019. The agreement includes certain obligations for us to pay fixed costs totaling $7.5 million, of which $3.5 million and $4.0 million are payable in 2012 and 2014, respectively. In addition, fixed costs of $2.0 million per quarter are payable in 2013 if we exercise our option to have product manufactured in the facility in 2013. The agreement also includes variable pricing during the contract term. We may seek to enter into additional contract manufacturing arrangements. We expect to work with third parties specializing in particular industries to convert Biofene by simple chemical processes and initially to sell it primarily in the forms of squalane, diesel, base oils for industrial lubricants, and other products.

Under the terms of these contract manufacturing agreements, we provided necessary equipment for the manufacturing of products, over which we retained ownership. We also reimbursed the contract manufacturers for an aggregate of $13.8 million in expenditures related to the modification of their facilities, which we recorded as facility modification costs in other assets and amortized them as an offset against purchases of inventory. Certain of these contract manufacturing agreements also impose fixed purchase commitments on us, regardless of the production volumes.

Beginning in March 2012, we initiated a plan to shift production capacity from the contract manufacturing facilities to Amyris-owned plants that are currently under construction. As a result, we evaluated our contract manufacturing agreements and recorded a loss of $31.2 million related to $10.0 million in facility modification costs and $21.2 million of fixed purchase commitments in the first quarter of 2012. We recognized an additional charge of $1.4 million in the third quarter of 2012 associated with loss on fixed purchase commitments. We computed the loss on facility modification costs and fixed purchase commitments using the same lower of cost or market approach that is used to value inventory. The computation of the loss on firm purchase commitments is subject to several estimates, including cost to complete and the ultimate selling price of any of our products manufactured at the relevant production facilities, and is therefore inherently uncertain. We also recorded a loss on write off of production assets of $5.5 million related to Amyris-owned production equipment at contract manufacturing facilities in the three months ended March 31, 2012. We will continue to evaluate the potential for losses in future periods based on updated production and sales price assumptions.

During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2012, we incurred $3.0 million and $33.2 million, respectively, of scale-up costs to support our production of farnesene-derived products that are included within cost of products sold. These scale-up costs include the contract manufacturing cost related to production of farnesene-derived products and the finishing of farnesene into finished products. We continue to commit significant resources to our production process in advance of our achieving full commercial production volume. As only a portion of our production costs varies with our revenue, our production costs will be greater than our revenue until we achieve significant product volume. We anticipate that our production costs will decrease as we continue to improve our processes and increase throughput.


To commercialize our initial farnesene derived product, squalane, for sale to cosmetics companies for use as a moisturizing ingredient in cosmetics and other personal care products, we entered into marketing and distribution agreements with a number of distributors since June 2010. As an initial step towards commercialization of farnesene based diesel, we have entered into agreements with several bus operators in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Our diesel fuel is supplied to BR Distribudora, a division of Petrobras, which in turn blends our product with petroleum diesel and sells to a number of bus operators including Santa Brigida, the largest bus fleet operator in Sao Paulo. For the industrial lubricants market, in June 2011 we established a joint venture with Cosan for the worldwide development, production and commercialization of renewable base oils. In September 2011, for development and commercialization of isoprene for use in tires, we entered into a development agreement with Michelin.

We have also entered into agreements to sell Biofene and its derivatives directly to various potential customers, including with P&G for use in cleaning products, with M&G for use in plastics, with Kuraray for use in production of polymers, with Firmenich and Givaudan for ingredients for the flavors and fragrances market, with Method for use in home and personal care products, and with Wilmar for use as a surfactant. Production and sale of our products pursuant to any of these relationships will depend on the achievement of contract-specific technical, development and commercial milestones.

Financing and Revenues

In the first three quarters of 2012, we have completed multiple financings involving loans and convertible debt and equity offerings. In February 2012, we completed a private placement of 10.2 million shares of common stock for total proceeds of $58.7 million and raised $25.0 million through convertible promissory notes. In May 2012, we completed a private placement of 1.7 million shares of common stock for an aggregate proceeds of $4.1 million. In July 2012, we completed a sale of a convertible promissory note for cash proceeds of $15.0 million and, in September 2012, we completed a sale of additional convertible promissory note for additional cash proceeds of $15.0 million. We expect to need additional financing in the coming quarters, and expect that such financing will include additional offerings of securities or incurring additional debt if such financing sources become available on appropriate terms for the company and its stockholders.

Since inception through September 30, 2012, we have recognized $386.7 million in revenue, primarily from the sale of ethanol and reformulated ethanol-blended gasoline. We transitioned out of the ethanol and ethanol-blended business during the third quarter ended September 30, 2012, which resulted in the loss of the majority of such revenues during the period. We do not expect to be able to replace much of the revenues lost in the near term as a result of this transition, particularly in 2012 and 2013 while we continue our efforts to establish a renewable products business.


We expect to fund operations for the foreseeable future with cash and investments currently on hand, with cash inflows from existing collaboration and grant funding, cash contributions from product sales, and with new debt and equity financing. Our anticipated working capital needs and our planned operating and capital expenditures for the remainder of 2012 and for 2013 will require significant inflows of cash from collaboration partners, as well as funding from equity or debt offerings, credit facilities or loans, or combinations of these sources. Specifically, we will need to raise cash in the fourth quarter in order to fund our operations beyond the fourth quarter of 2012. Meeting our anticipated working capital needs and funding our strategic plans for the remainder of 2012 and for 2013 will depend on our ability to identify and secure substantial additional sources of funding beyond those we have currently identified. Furthermore, some of our anticipated financing sources are subject to risk that we cannot meet milestones, or are not yet subject to definitive agreements or funding commitments. If we fail to secure such funding in a timely manner, either in the short or long term, we may be forced to curtail our operations, which could include reductions or delays of planned capital expenditures or scaling back our operations. If we are forced to curtail our operations, we may be unable to proceed with construction of certain planned production facilities, including our planned large-scale production plants at Usina São Martinho and Paraíso Bioenergia, enter into definitive agreements for supply of feedstock and associated production arrangements that are currently subject to letters of intent, commercialize our products within the timeline we expect, or otherwise continue our business as currently contemplated.

If, to support our planned operations, we seek additional types of funding that involve the issuance of equity securities, our existing stockholders could suffer dilution. Furthermore, the convertible notes we have issued in recent financings include various covenants, including restrictions on the amount of debt we are permitted to incur. For example, our total outstanding debt at any time can not exceed the greater of $200.0 million or 50% of our consolidated total assets. We may conduct additional financings if they become available on appropriate terms and we deem them to be consistent with our financing strategy. If we raise additional debt financing, we may be subject to additional restrictive covenants that limit our ability to conduct our business and could cause us to be at risk of defaults.

We may not be able to raise sufficient additional funds on terms that are favorable to us, if at all. If we fail to raise sufficient funds and continue to incur losses, our ability to fund our operations, take advantage of strategic opportunities, develop and commercialize products or technologies, or otherwise respond to competitive pressures could be significantly limited. If this happens, we may be forced to delay or terminate research and development programs or the commercialization of products resulting from our technologies, curtail or cease operations, or obtain funds through collaborative and licensing arrangements that may require us to relinquish commercial rights, or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us. If adequate funds are not available, we will not be able to successfully execute our business plan or continue our business.

As part of our operating plan for 2012, we continually look at ways to reduce our cost structure by improving efficiency in our operations and reducing non-critical expenditures. We expect these efforts to include adjustments to the timing and scope of planned capital and operating expenditures in the coming quarters.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and related disclosures. We base our estimates and assumptions on historical experience and on various other factors that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. The results of our analysis form the basis for making assumptions about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Our actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

We believe the following critical accounting policies involve significant areas of management's judgments and estimates in the preparation of our financial statements.

Revenue Recognition

We currently recognize revenues from the sale of farnesene-derived products, from the delivery of collaborative research services and from government grants. Through the third quarter of 2012, we also sold ethanol and reformulated ethanol-blended gasoline under short-term agreements and in spot transactions at prevailing market prices. Revenues are recognized when all of the following criteria are met: persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, the fee is fixed or determinable and collectibility is reasonably assured.

If sales arrangements contain multiple elements, we evaluate whether the components of each arrangement represent separate units of accounting. We have determined that all of our revenue arrangements should be accounted for as a single unit of accounting. Application of revenue recognition standards requires subjective determination and requires management to make judgments about the fair values of each individual element and whether it is separable from other aspects of the contractual relationship.

For each source of revenues, we apply the above revenue recognition criteria in the following manner:

Product Sales

Starting in the second quarter of 2011, we commenced sales of farnesene-derived products. Through the third quarter of 2012 we also sold ethanol and reformulated ethanol-blended gasoline under short-term agreements and in spot transactions at prevailing market prices. Revenues are recognized, net of discounts and allowances, once passage of title and risk of loss have occurred, provided all other revenue recognition criteria have also been met.

Shipping and handling costs charged to customers are recorded as revenues. Shipping costs are included in cost of products

sold. Such charges were not significant in any of the periods presented.

Grants and Collaborative Research Services

Revenues from collaborative research services are recognized as the services are performed consistent with the performance requirements of the contract. In cases where the planned levels of research services fluctuate over the research term, we recognize revenues using the proportionate performance method based upon actual efforts to date relative to the amount of expected effort to be incurred by us. When up-front payments are received and the planned levels of research services do not fluctuate over the research term, revenues are recorded on a ratable basis over the arrangement term, up to the amount of cash received. When up-front payments are received and the planned levels of research services fluctuate over the research term, revenues are recorded using the proportionate performance method, up to the amount of cash received. Where arrangements include milestones that are determined to be substantive and at risk at the inception of the arrangement, revenues are recognized upon achievement of the milestone and is limited to those amounts whereby collectibility is reasonably assured.

Government grants are made pursuant to agreements that generally provide cost reimbursement for certain types of expenditures in return for research and development activities over a contractually defined period. Revenues from government grants are recognized in the period during which the related costs are incurred, provided that the conditions under which the government grants were provided have been met and only perfunctory obligations are outstanding. Under the DARPA contract signed in June 2012, we will receive funding based on achievement of program milestones and accordingly we will recognize revenue based on achievement of the milestones.


We have interests in certain joint venture entities that are variable interest entities or VIEs. Determining whether to consolidate a variable interest entity may require judgment in assessing (i) whether an entity is a variable interest entity and (ii) if we are the entity's primary beneficiary and thus required to consolidate the entity. To determine if we are the primary beneficiary of a VIE, we evaluate whether we have (i) the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the VIE's economic performance and (ii) the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits of the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE. Our evaluation includes identification of significant activities and an assessment of our ability to direct those activities based on governance provisions and arrangements to provide or receive product and process technology, product supply, operations services, equity funding and financing and other applicable agreements and circumstances. Our assessment of whether we are the primary beneficiary of our VIEs requires significant assumptions and judgment.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

We assess impairment of long-lived assets, which include property and equipment and test long-lived assets for recoverability when events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amount may not be recoverable. Circumstances which could trigger a review include, but are not limited to, significant decreases in the market price of the asset; significant adverse changes in the business climate or legal factors; accumulation of costs significantly in excess of the amount originally expected for the acquisition or construction of the asset; current period cash flow or operating losses combined with a history of losses or a forecast of continuing losses associated with the use of the asset; or expectations that the asset will more likely than not be sold or disposed of significantly before the end of its estimated useful life.

Recoverability is assessed based on the fair value of the asset, which is calculated as the sum of the undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and the eventual disposal of the asset. An impairment loss is recognized in the consolidated statements of operations when the carrying amount is determined not to be recoverable and exceeds fair value, which is determined on a discounted cash flow basis.

We make estimates and judgments about future undiscounted cash flows and fair values. Although our cash flow forecasts are based on assumptions that are consistent with our plans, there is significant exercise of judgment involved in determining the cash flow attributable to a long-lived asset over its estimated remaining useful life. Our estimates of anticipated cash flows could be reduced significantly in the future. As a result, the carrying amounts of our long-lived assets could be reduced through impairment charges in the future. We recorded losses on write off of production assets of $5.5 million and zero during the nine months ended September 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively.


Inventories, which consist of farnesene-derived products, ethanol and reformulated ethanol-blended gasoline, are stated at the lower of cost or market. In the quarter ended September 30, 2012 we sold the remaining inventory of ethanol and reformulated

ethanol-blended gasoline as we transitioned out of this business. We evaluate the recoverability of our inventories based on assumptions about expected demand and net realizable value. If we determine that the cost of inventories exceeds its estimated net realizable value, we record a write-down equal to the difference between the cost of inventories and the estimated net realizable value. If actual net realizable values are less favorable than those projected by management, additional inventory write-downs may be required that could negatively impact our operating results. If actual net realizable values are more favorable, we may have favorable operating results when products that have been previously written down are sold in the normal course of business. We also evaluate the terms of our agreements with our suppliers and establish accruals for estimated losses on adverse purchase commitments as necessary, applying the same lower of cost or market approach that is used to value inventory.

Goodwill and Intangible Assets

Goodwill represents the excess of the cost over the fair value of net assets acquired from our business combinations. Intangible assets are comprised . . .

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