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ADUS > SEC Filings for ADUS > Form 10-Q on 1-Nov-2012All Recent SEC Filings

Show all filings for ADDUS HOMECARE CORP



Quarterly Report


You should read the following discussion together with our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and the related notes. This discussion contains forward-looking statements about our business and operations. Our actual results may differ materially from those we currently anticipate.


We are a provider of home-based social and medical services focused on the elderly who are enrolled in both Medicare and Medicaid, also known as dual eligibles. Our services include personal care and assistance with activities of daily living, skilled nursing and rehabilitative therapies, and adult day care. The individuals who receive our services may be at risk of hospitalization or institutionalization, such as the elderly, chronically ill and disabled. Our payor clients include federal, state and local governmental agencies, commercial insurers, and private individuals. We provide our services through 117 locations across 19 states to over 26,000 individuals.

We operate our business through two segments, home & community services and home health services. Our home & community services are social, or non-medical, in nature and include assistance with bathing, grooming, dressing, personal hygiene and medication reminders, and other activities of daily living. We provide home & community services on a long-term and continuous basis. Our home health services are primarily medical in nature and include physical, occupational and speech therapy, as well as skilled nursing. We generally provide home health services on a short-term, intermittent or episodic basis to individuals recovering from an acute medical condition.

We utilize a coordinated care model that is designed to enhance individual outcomes and satisfaction as well as reduce service duplication and lower the cost of and/or prevent acute care treatment. Through our coordinated care model, we utilize our social services to observe and report changes in the condition of individuals for the purpose of early intervention in the disease process, thereby preventing or reducing the cost of medical services, and/or institutionalization.

We also utilize an integrated service delivery model, in markets where we operate both home & community services and home health services, which maximizes the long-term relationship we have with individuals in our home & community segment through on-going monitoring and possible provision of our home health services to this same population as their needs warrant. Our care and service coordinators work with our caregivers, consumers and their medical providers to review our consumers' current and anticipated service needs and, based on this continuous review, identify coordination and/or integration opportunities including the possible provision of home & community services to our home health individuals and the referral sources in that segment. This provides us with an additional source of revenue, enables individuals to access both social and medical services from one homecare provider and appeals to referral sources who are seeking a single provider with a breadth of services.

Our ability to grow our net service revenues is directly related to the number of individuals to whom we provide our services. Our continued growth depends on our ability to maintain our existing payor client relationships, establish relationships with new payors, enter into new contracts and increase our referral sources. Our continued growth is also dependent upon the authorization by state agencies of new individuals to receive our services.

Finally, we believe the provision of home & community services is more effective and cost-efficient than the provision of similar services in an institutional setting for long-term care. We also believe payors and governmental agencies are increasingly recognizing the benefits of providing care in a sub-acute setting in the home where we also believe the overwhelming majority of individuals prefer to receive care especially as an alternative to an institutional long-term care setting.

On November 1, 2012, we announced that we have decided to explore strategic alternatives relative to our home health services business and have retained a financial advisor to assist us in the process. There can be no assurance that this review process will result in a transaction or strategic alternative of any kind or of the potential timing or terms of any such transaction or strategic alternative. We do not intend to disclose developments or provide updates on the progress or status of this process unless it deems further disclosure is appropriate or required.

With the passage of the Health Reform Act, discussed below, the states and the federal government are proposing to combine the administrative activities for benefits provided to dual eligibles. Several states in which we are doing business are currently in the process of requesting proposals from various managed care insurance providers for the administration of these programs. We are in active discussions with several of these managed care providers to be a core provider of services to more effectively manage this population.

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In March 2010, the President signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Healthcare and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively, both laws are referred to herein as the "Health Reform Act"). The Health Reform Act includes several provisions that may affect reimbursement for home health agencies. The Health Reform Act is broad, sweeping reform, and is subject to change, including through the adoption of related regulations, the way in which its provisions are interpreted and the manner in which it is enforced. We cannot assure you that the provisions of the Health Reform Act will not adversely impact our business, results of operations or financial position. We may be unable to mitigate any adverse effects resulting from the Health Reform Act.

On July 14, 2010, the Office for Civil Rights of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ("OCR") published proposed regulations to implement the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (the "HITECH Act"). The HITECH Act imposed additional privacy and security requirements on health care providers and on their business associates. Failure to comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, or HIPAA, could result in fines and penalties that could have a material adverse effect on our company. Recently, the OCR has imposed substantial financial and other penalties on covered entities that improperly disclosed individuals' health information.

In November 2010, CMS released its Home Health Prospective Payment System Update for Calendar Year 2011. It included a 1.1% market basket increase for 2011 (after application of the mandated 1% reduction) and a mandated 3.79% rate reduction. The rate reduction resulted from the CMS determination that there had been a general increase in case mix that CMS believed was unwarranted. CMS believed that this "case-mix creep" was due to improved coding, coding practice changes, and other behavioral responses to the change in reimbursement that went in to effect in 2009, including greater use of high therapy treatment plans above what CMS believed was related to an increase in patient acuity. CMS warned that it would continue to monitor changes in case-mix. If new data identifies additional increases in case-mix, CMS would immediately impose further reductions. The final 2011 payment base rate reflected a 0.3% decrease from the proposed market basket rate in July 2010. CMS announced that it was postponing its proposed 3.79% reduction in home health rates for calendar year 2012 pending its further monitoring of case-mix changes. Home health agencies that did not submit required quality data would be subject to a 2% reduction in the market basket update.

On August 2, 2011 the President signed into law the Budget Control Act of 2011, which raised the debt ceiling and put into effect a series of actions for deficit reduction. The Budget Control Act created a Congressional Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction that was tasked with proposing additional deficit reduction of at least $1.5 trillion. The committee was unsuccessful which triggered automatic across the board reductions in spending of $1.2 trillion. Medicare is subject to these reductions but Medicare reductions are capped at 2%.

As mandated by the Health Reform Act, on October 20, 2011, CMS released final regulations for the Medicare Shared Savings Program. Although the Health Reform Act mandates that the program be established no later than January 1, 2012, CMS set start dates of April 1, 2011 and July 1, 2011. The Medicare Shared Savings Program is designed to give financial incentives to healthcare providers and suppliers that meet criteria established by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ("DHHS") that work together to manage and coordinate care through Accountable Care Organizations ("ACOs") for fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries assigned to the ACO by CMS to increase quality of care and reduce costs. On December 19, 2011, CMS announced 32 pilot "pioneer ACOs". In proposed regulations published April 7, 2011, CMS requested comments on a number of issues including the range of providers and suppliers that could participate in an ACO. Reaction to the proposed regulations issued on April 7, 2011 was generally negative especially with regard to start up costs, retroactive assignment of beneficiaries, antitrust issues, the proposed quality measures (both the number and complexity), and the lack of a model that only includes shared savings. The final regulations addressed several but not all of these concerns. The final regulations set a "savings-only model" where providers share any savings over a threshold amount but do not share any losses, as well as a two sided model where the ACO shares in the savings but is also at risk for losses. The number of quality measures is reduced by almost one half, and beneficiaries are assigned prospectively. The first performance period began on January 1, 2012. On April 10, 2012, CMS announced the selection of the first 27 ACOs to participate in the Medicare Shared Savings Program. On July 9, 2012, CMS announced 88 additional ACOs bringing the total to 147 ACOs.

In connection with the ACO rules, also on October 20, 2011, the Federal Trade Commission ("FTC") and the Department of Justice ("DOJ") released a joint antitrust policy statement, the Internal Revenue Service released a fact sheet, and the Office of Inspector General ("OIG") released an interim final rule with five fraud waivers (waiving prosecution under the federal anti-kickback statute applicable to federal and state healthcare programs, the federal Ethics in Patient Referral Act or physician referral law and the Civil Monetary Penalty Law and laws regarding gain sharing arrangements). The FTC and the DOJ antitrust policy statement addressed some but not all antitrust concerns. The OIG waivers set forth who would be protected by the waivers and under what circumstances. A home health agency cannot qualify for a waiver for activities during ACO pre-participation, which would include activities in the start-up period until an application is accepted but which CMS states could also occur during the participation period. Post-acute care facilities, such as skilled nursing facilities ("SNFs") and inpatient rehabilitation facilities ("IRFs"), can qualify for pre-participation waivers. Without a pre-participation waiver, it may be difficult for home health agencies, such as ours, to participate in the planning process for formation of an ACO and this may put us at a disadvantage in negotiating sharing of savings if we were to participate in an ACO. In addition, because other post-acute care providers, such as SNFs and IRFs, can participate in the planning process they may more readily participate in ACOs and may attract referrals that otherwise would have been made to us. Although provider and supplier participation in an ACO is voluntary, participation by our competitors in some markets may force us to participate as well, or if we do not participate, result in loss of business. Also, where we do not participate we will need to be mindful of quality measure criteria and if we are unable to meet those criteria we could be at risk for losing Medicare referrals. In addition, other savings programs similar to ACOs may be adopted by government and commercial payors to control costs and reduce hospital readmissions in which we could be financially at risk. We cannot predict what effect, if any, ACOs will have on our company.

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On July 15, 2011, DHHS published two sets of proposed regulations relating to health insurance exchanges established under the Health Reform Act providing guidance and options to states on how to structure their exchanges. On September 30, 2011, DHHS extended the date for public comment from September 28 to October 31, 2011. CMS published final regulations on March 27, 2012. On December 16, 2011, CMS issued an "Essential Benefits Bulletin," which provided a broad outline of benefit categories, including habilitative and rehabilitative services, but left the definition of essential benefits to the states, to be defined in a benchmark plan selected by each state. The benchmark plan is supposed to reflect the scope of services and limits in a plan offered by a typical employer in the state. At this point it is uncertain what services will be mandated for coverage by exchanges or at what level services will be paid or what impact the exchanges will have on other payors.

In the Final Home Health Prospective Payment System Update for Calendar Year 2012 CMS imposed a 5.1% reduction to the national standardized 60-day episode rates that is being phased in over 2 years. The reduction in calendar year 2012 is 3.8% and the remaining 1.3% will be applied for calendar year 2013. After offset of the reduction for calendar year 2012, the market basket update is 1.4%, which results in a 2012 rate that is less than the 2011 rate. Home health agencies that do not meet quality data reporting requirements have a market basket update of 0.6%. CMS also implemented several other changes. It removed two codes for hypertension from the home health PPS case-mix model's hypertension group. In addition, CMS revised payment weights, lowering the relative weights, and thus payments, for home health episodes with a high number of therapy visits and increasing the weights, and payments, for episodes with little or no therapy.

CMS also reported that it plans to do further analysis of the costs for providing therapy visits and the use of therapy assistants for future rulemaking and plans to make further rate adjustments in accordance with its findings. In its March 2012 Report to Congress, the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission, or MedPAC, an independent congressional agency that advises Congress on issues involving the Medicare program, reiterated its belief that home health agency margins are too high and its recommendation that payments for 2013 should be rebased.

On July 13, 2012, CMS published the proposed Medicare 2013 Home Health update. CMS proposes a 1.5% payment update reduced by 1.32% to offset what it views as case mix "creep". CMS also proposes additional methods to enforce compliance with home health conditions of participation and the imposition of alternative sanctions for home health agencies with deficiencies, including civil monetary penalties.

Reductions in Medicare home health agency payments, whether through rebasing or otherwise, would decrease our revenue, which would have a negative effect on our profits and liquidity.

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We operate our business through two segments, home & community services and home health services. We have organized our internal management reports to align with these segment designations. As such, we have identified two reportable segments, home & community and home health, applying the criteria in ASC 280, "Disclosure about Segments of an Enterprise and Related Information". The following table presents our locations by segment, setting forth acquisitions, start-ups and closures for the period January 1, 2012 to September 30, 2012:

                                            Home &        Home
                                          Community      Health       Total
            Total at December 31, 2011            89          29         118
            Merged/Sold                           (1 )        (1 )        (2 )
            Start-up                               1          -            1

            Total at September 30, 2012           89          28         117

Our payor clients are principally federal, state and local governmental agencies. The federal, state and local programs under which they operate are subject to legislative, budgetary and other risks that can influence reimbursement rates. Our commercial insurance carrier payor clients are typically for profit companies and are continuously seeking opportunities to control costs. We are seeking to grow our private duty business in both of our segments.

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For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2012 and 2011, our payor revenue mix by segment was as follows:

                                                              Home & Community
                                                    For the Three           For the Nine
                                                    Months Ended            Months Ended
                                                    September 30,           September 30,
                                                  2012        2011        2012        2011
  State, local and other governmental programs      95.0 %      94.4 %      95.3 %      94.4 %
  Commercial                                         1.0         1.4         1.0         1.0
  Private duty                                       4.0         4.2         3.7         4.6

                                                   100.0 %     100.0 %     100.0 %     100.0 %

                                                                 Home Health
                                                    For the Three           For the Nine
                                                    Months Ended            Months Ended
                                                    September 30,           September 30,
                                                  2012        2011        2012        2011
  Medicare                                          68.0 %      64.8 %      64.8 %      65.5 %
  State, local and other governmental programs      16.4        18.6        18.1        18.5
  Commercial                                        10.9        11.7        12.4        10.6
  Private duty                                       4.7         4.9         4.7         5.4

                                                   100.0 %     100.0 %     100.0 %     100.0 %

We also measure the performance of each segment using a number of different metrics. For our home & community segment, we consider billable hours, billable hours per business day, revenues per billable hour and the number of consumers, or census. For our home health segment, we consider Medicare admissions, non-Medicare admissions, and Medicare revenues per episode completed.

We derive a significant amount of our net service revenues from our operations in Illinois and California, which represented 61.5% and 9.2%; and 56.7% and 10.0%, of our total net service revenues for the three months ended September 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively. Net service revenues from our operations in Illinois and California represented 62.4% and 8.5%; and 55.5% and 10.4%, of our total net service revenues for the nine months ended September 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively.

A significant amount of our net service revenues are derived from two specific payor clients. The Illinois Department on Aging, in the home & community segment, and Medicare, in the home health segment, which accounted for 49.4% and 10.8%; and 43.5% and 12.4%; of our total net service revenues for the three months ended September 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively. The Illinois Department on Aging and Medicare accounted for 48.7% and 10.6%; and 42.2% and 12.6%; of our total net service revenues for the nine months ended September 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively.

Components of our Statements of Income

Net Service Revenues

We generate net service revenues by providing our home & community services and home health services directly to individuals. We receive payment for providing such services from our payor clients, including federal, state and local governmental agencies, commercial insurers and private individuals.

Home & community segment revenues are typically generated on an hourly basis. Our home & community segment revenues were generated principally through reimbursements by state, local and other governmental programs which are partially funded by Medicaid programs, and to a lesser extent from private duty and insurance programs. Net service revenues for our home & community segment are principally provided based on authorized hours, determined by the relevant agency, at an hourly rate, which is either contractual or fixed by legislation, and recognized as net service revenues at the time services are rendered.

Home health segment revenues are primarily generated on a per episode or visit basis rather than on a flat fee or an hourly basis. Our home health segment revenues are generated principally through reimbursements by the Medicare program, and to a lesser extent from Medicaid programs, commercial insurers and private duty. Net service revenues from home health payors, other than Medicare, are readily determinable and recognized as net service revenues at the time the services are rendered. Medicare reimbursements are based on 60-day episodes of care. The anticipated net service revenues from an episode are initially recognized as accounts receivable and deferred revenues and subsequently amortized as net service revenues ratably over the 60-day episodic period. At the end of each episode of care, a final billing is submitted to Medicare and any changes between the initial anticipated net service revenues and final billings are recorded as an adjustment to net service revenues. For open episodes, we estimate net service revenues based on historical data and adjust for the difference between the initial anticipated net service revenues and the ultimate final claim amount.

Cost of Service Revenues

We incur direct care wages, payroll taxes and benefit-related costs in connection with our employees providing our home & community and home health services. We also provide workers' compensation and general liability coverage for these employees.

Employees are also reimbursed for their travel time and related travel costs. For home health services, we provide medical supplies and occasionally hire contract labor services to supplement existing staffing in order to meet our consumers' needs.

General and Administrative Expenses

Our general and administrative expenses consist of expenses incurred in connection with our segments' activities and as part of our central administrative functions.

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Our general and administrative expenses for home & community and home health services consist principally of supervisory personnel, care coordination and office administration costs. Our general and administrative expenses for home health also include additional staffing for clinical and admissions processing. These expenses consist principally of wages, payroll taxes and benefit-related costs; facility rent; operating costs such as utilities, postage, telephone and office expenses; and bad debt expense. Our company has initiated efforts to centralize administrative tasks currently conducted at the branch locations. The costs related to these initiatives are included in the general and administrative expenses for each division.

Our corporate general and administrative expenses cover the centralized administrative departments of accounting, information systems, human resources, billing and collections and contract administration, as well as national program coordination efforts for marketing and private duty. These expenses primarily consist of compensation, including stock-based compensation, payroll taxes, and related benefits; legal, accounting and other professional fees; rents and related facility costs; and other operating costs such as software application costs, software implementation costs, travel, general insurance and bank account maintenance fees.

Depreciation and Amortization Expenses

We amortize our intangible assets with finite lives, consisting of customer and referral relationships, trade names, trademarks and non-compete agreements, principally on accelerated methods based upon their estimated useful lives. Depreciable assets at the segment level consist principally of furniture and equipment, and for the home & community segment, also include vehicles for our adult day centers.

A substantial portion of our capital expenditures is infrastructure-related or for our corporate office. Corporate asset purchases consist primarily of network administration and telephone equipment, operating system software, furniture and equipment. Depreciable and leasehold assets are depreciated or amortized on a straight-line method over their useful lives or, if less and if applicable, their lease terms.

Interest Income

Legislation enacted in Illinois entitles designated service program providers to receive a prompt payment interest penalty based on qualifying services approved for payment that remain unpaid after a designated period of time. As the amount and timing of the receipt of these payments are not certain, the interest income is recognized when received and reported in the income statement caption, interest income. While we may be owed additional prompt payment interest, the amount and timing of receipt of such payments remains uncertain and we have determined that we will continue to recognize prompt payment interest income when received. The state amended its prompt payment interest terms, effective July 1, 2011, which changed the measurement period for outstanding invoices from a 60-day to a 90-day outstanding period. We believe this change in terms will reduce future amounts paid for prompt payment interest.

Interest Expense

Interest expense consists of interest costs on our credit facility and other debt instruments.

Income Tax Expense

All of our income is from domestic sources. We incur state and local taxes in states in which we operate. The differences from the federal statutory rate of 34% are principally due to state taxes and the use of federal employment tax credits.

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Results of Operations

Three Months Ended September 30, 2012 Compared to Three Months Ended
September 30, 2011

The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, our unaudited
consolidated results of operations.

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