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ARR > SEC Filings for ARR > Form 10-Q on 3-Nov-2011All Recent SEC Filings

Show all filings for ARMOUR RESIDENTIAL REIT, INC.



Quarterly Report

Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this report.

References to "we", "us", "our", "ARMOUR" or the "Company" are to ARMOUR Residential REIT, Inc. References to "ARRM" are to ARMOUR Residential Management LLC, a Delaware limited liability company. References to "Enterprise" are to Enterprise Acquisition Corp., which is a wholly-owned subsidiary of ARMOUR.


This report contains various "forward-looking statements." Forward-looking statements relate to expectations, beliefs, projections, future plans and strategies, anticipated events or trends and similar expressions concerning matters that are not historical facts. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by the use of forward-looking terminology such as "believes," "expects," "may," "will," "would," "could," "should," "seeks," "approximately," "intends," "plans," "projects," "estimates" or "anticipates" or the negative of these words and phrases or similar words or phrases. All forward-looking statements may be impacted by a number of risks and uncertainties, including statements regarding the following subjects:

our business and investment strategy;

our anticipated results of operations;

statements about future dividends;

our ability to obtain financing arrangements;

our understanding of our competition and ability to compete effectively;

market, industry and economic trends; and

interest rates.

The forward-looking statements in this report are based on our beliefs, assumptions and expectations of our future performance, taking into account all information currently available to us. These beliefs, assumptions and expectations are subject to risks and uncertainties and can change as a result of many possible events or factors, not all of which are known to us. If a change occurs, our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations may vary materially from those expressed in our forward-looking statements. You should carefully consider these risks before you make an investment decision with respect to our common stock.

We cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements. You should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which apply only as of the date of this report. We do not intend and disclaim any duty or obligation to update or revise any industry information or forward-looking statements set forth in this report to reflect new information, future events or otherwise, except as required under the U.S. Federal securities laws.


We are an externally-managed Maryland corporation organized in 2008, managed by ARRM. We invest primarily in hybrid adjustable rate, adjustable rate and fixed rate residential mortgage backed securities issued or guaranteed by a U.S. Government-chartered entity, such as the Federal National Mortgage Association (more commonly known as Fannie Mae) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (more commonly known as Freddie Mac), or guaranteed by the Government National Mortgage Administration, a U.S. Government corporation (more commonly known as Ginnie Mae), which we refer to collectively as Agency Securities. From time to time, a portion of our portfolio may be invested in unsecured notes and bonds issued by U.S. Government-chartered entities, which we refer to as Agency Debt, U.S. Treasuries and money market instruments, subject to certain income tests we must satisfy for our qualification as a real estate investment trust, or REIT.

We seek attractive long-term investment returns by investing our equity capital and borrowed funds in our targeted asset class. We earn returns on the spread between the yield on our assets and our costs, including the interest cost of the funds we borrow, after giving effect to our hedges. We intend to qualify and have elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code ("the Code"). We will generally not be subject to federal income tax to the extent that we distribute our taxable income to our shareholders, and as long as we satisfy the ongoing REIT requirements including meeting certain asset, income and stock ownership tests. Our business plan is to identify and acquire Agency Securities, finance our acquisitions with borrowings under a series of short-term repurchase agreements at the most competitive interest rates available to us and then cost-effectively hedge our interest rate and other risks based on our entire portfolio of assets, liabilities and derivatives and our management's view of the market. Successful implementation of our business plan requires us to address interest rate risk, maintain adequate liquidity and effectively hedge interest rate risks. We execute our business plan in a manner consistent with our intention of qualifying as a REIT and avoiding regulation as an investment company.

On August 31, 2011, the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") voted to request comment on the Investment Company Act of 1940, ("the Act") treatment of mortgage-related pools, which includes mortgage REITs. Currently, mortgage REITs avoid classification as investment companies by claiming an exemption provided by Section 3(c)(5)(C) of the Act and relying on private letter rulings, which allows them to use financial leverage far in excess of the leverage limitations of 0.5x to 1.0x that apply to mutual funds and closed-end funds. While we believe the primary goal of the SEC is to clarify the 3(c)(5)(C) exemption, which was created to exclude companies engaged in the mortgage banking business and has not been reviewed for over 50 years, we do not believe the SEC is concerned with "safety and soundness" issues related to mortgage REITs generally, and believe the most likely outcome will be that mortgage REITs will continue to be allowed to be classified as investment companies and not face specific leverage limitations. However, if mortgage REITs are no longer allowed to claim exemption from the Act, or if leverage is explicitly limited, mortgage REIT business economics could be materially adversely impacted.

Our Manager

We are externally-managed by ARRM pursuant to our Management Agreement (see Note 8 to the condensed consolidated financial statements). All of our executive officers are also employees of ARRM. ARRM manages our day-to-day operations, subject to the direction and oversight of the Board of Directors ("Board"). The Management Agreement expires on November 6, 2014 and is thereafter automatically renewed for an additional one-year term unless terminated under certain circumstances. ARRM must provide 180 days prior notice of any such termination.

ARRM is entitled to receive a management fee payable monthly in arrears in an amount equal to 1/12th of an amount, with a minimum based on 1/12th of $900,000, (inclusive of the original gross merger equity as defined in the management agreement), determined as follows:

our gross equity raised up to $50 million, 1% (per annum) of gross equity;

our gross equity raised up to $1.0 billion, 1.5% (per annum) of gross equity;

our gross equity raised in excess of $1.0 billion, 0.75% (per annum) of gross equity

Factors that Affect our Results of Operations and Financial Condition

Our results of operations and financial condition are affected by various factors, many of which are beyond our control, including, among other things, our net interest income, the market value of our assets and the supply of and demand for such assets. We invest in financial assets and markets, and recent events, such as those discussed below, can affect our business in ways that are difficult to predict, and may produce results outside of typical operating variances. Our net interest income varies primarily as a result of changes in interest rates, borrowing costs and prepayment speeds, the behavior of which involves various risks and uncertainties. Prepayment rates, as reflected by the rate of principal pay downs, and interest rates vary according to the type of investment, conditions in financial markets, government actions, competition and other factors, none of which can be predicted with any certainty. In general, as prepayment rates on our Agency Securities purchased at a premium increase, related purchase premium amortization increases, thereby reducing the net yield on such assets. Because changes in interest rates may significantly affect our activities, our operating results depend, in large part, upon our ability to manage interest rate risks and prepayment risks effectively while maintaining our status as a REIT. In addition, since we have elected not to use cash flow hedge accounting, earnings reported in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. ("GAAP") will fluctuate even in situations where our hedges are operating as intended. As a result of this mark-to-market accounting treatment, our results of operations are likely to fluctuate far more than if we were to designate our hedging activities as cash flow hedges. Comparisons with companies that use cash flow hedge accounting for all or part of their hedging activities may not be meaningful.

We anticipate that, for any period during which changes in the interest rates earned on our assets do not coincide with interest rate changes on our borrowings, such assets will reprice more slowly than the corresponding liabilities. Consequently, changes in interest rates, particularly short-term interest rates, may significantly influence our net interest income. With the maturities of our assets generally of longer term than those of our liabilities, interest rate increases will tend to decrease our net interest income and the market value of our assets (and therefore our book value). Such rate increases could possibly result in operating losses or adversely affect our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.

Prepayments on Agency Securities and the underlying mortgage loans may be influenced by changes in market interest rates and a variety of economic and geographic factors beyond our control, as well as policy decisions by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and Ginnie Mae. Consequently prepayment rates cannot be predicted with certainty. To the extent we have acquired Agency Securities at a premium or discount to par, or face value, changes in prepayment rates may impact our anticipated yield. In periods of declining interest rates, prepayments on our Agency Securities will likely increase. If we are unable to reinvest the proceeds of such prepayments at comparable yields, our net interest income may suffer. The recent climate of government intervention in the mortgage markets significantly increases the risk associated with prepayments.

While we intend to use strategies to economically hedge some of our interest rate risk, we do not intend to hedge all of our exposure to changes in interest rates and prepayment rates, as there are practical limitations on our ability to insulate our portfolio from all potential negative consequences associated with changes in short-term interest rates in a manner that will allow us to seek attractive net spreads on our portfolio.

In addition, a variety of other factors relating to our business may also impact our financial condition and operating performance. These factors include:

our degree of leverage;

our access to funding and borrowing capacity;

our use of derivatives to hedge interest rate risk; and

the REIT requirements, the requirements to qualify for an exemption under the Act and other regulatory and accounting policies related to our business.

ARRM, our manager, is entitled to receive a monthly management fee that is based on our equity (as defined in our Management Agreement), regardless of the performance of our portfolio. Accordingly, the payment of our monthly management fee may not decline in the event of a decline in our profitability and may cause us to incur losses.

For a discussion of additional risks relating to our business see "Risk Factors" in Item 1A, Risk Factors, below, and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2010.

Market and Interest Rate Trends and the Effect on our Portfolio

Credit Market Disruption and Current Conditions

During the past few years, the residential housing and mortgage markets in the United States have experienced a variety of difficulties and changed economic conditions including loan defaults, credit losses and decreased liquidity. These conditions have resulted in volatility in the value of the Agency Securities we purchase and an increase in the average collateral requirements under our repurchase agreements. While these markets recovered a great deal in 2010, further increased volatility and deterioration in the broader residential mortgage and Residential Mortgage Backed Securities ("RMBS") markets may adversely affect the performance and market value of the Agency Securities and other high quality RMBS.

The uncertainty in the U.S. interest rate markets in 2011 has produced volatility and opportunities in our markets. Early in 2011, optimism about an economic acceleration caused many economists to increase their U.S. GDP forecast, with some predicting a U.S. Federal Reserve tightening of monetary policy in early 2012. However, due to (i) U.S. Department of Labor payroll data,
(ii) states continued paring of payrolls and the potential of the federal government implementing further deficit reduction measures, and (iii) the cautious pace of private sector job growth, most economists are now expecting continued lackluster economic growth in the U.S. As a result, many economists have pushed out their forecasts for a tightening of monetary policy in the U.S. to late 2012 or 2013 at the earliest. This environment has created strong demand for Agency Securities and has also reduced the costs of our financing and hedging.

On August 5, 2011, Standard & Poor's Corporation downgraded the U.S.'s credit rating from AAA to AA+, and on August 8, 2011, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac's credit ratings were downgraded from AAA to AA+. Because Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are in conservatorship of the U.S. Government, the U.S.'s credit rating downgrade and Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac's credit rating downgrades will impact the credit risk associated with Agency Securities and, therefore, may decrease the value of the Agency Securities in our portfolio.

Developments at Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac

Payments on the Agency Securities in which we invest are guaranteed by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Because of the guarantee and the underwriting standards associated with mortgages underlying Agency Securities, Agency Securities historically have had high stability in value and been considered to present low credit risk. In 2008, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac were placed under the conservatorship of the U.S. Government due to the significant weakness of their financial condition. The turmoil in the residential mortgage sector and concern over the future role of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have generally increased credit spreads and decreased price stability of Agency Securities. It is unclear how and when Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac may be restructured by the U.S. Government and the impact that may have on our existing portfolio and continuing investment strategy.

In response to the credit market disruption and the deteriorating financial condition of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, Congress and the U.S. Treasury undertook a series of actions in 2008 aimed at stabilizing the financial markets in general, and the mortgage market in particular. These actions include the large-scale buying of mortgage backed securities, significant equity infusions into banks and aggressive monetary policy.

In addition, the U.S. Federal Reserve initiated a program in 2008 to purchase $200.0 billion in direct obligations of Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and the Federal Home Loan Banks and $1.3 trillion in Agency Securities issued and guaranteed by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or Ginnie Mae. The U.S. Federal Reserve stated that its actions were intended to reduce the cost and increase the availability of credit for the purchase of houses, which in turn was expected to support housing markets and foster improved conditions in financial markets more generally. This purchase program was completed on March 31, 2010. We are unable to predict the timing or manner in which the U.S. Treasury or the Federal Reserve will liquidate their holdings or make further interventions in the Agency Securities markets, or what impact, if any, such action could have on the Agency Securities market, the Agency Securities we hold, our business, results of operations and financial condition.

In February 2010, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac announced that they would execute wholesale repurchases of loans which they considered seriously delinquent from existing mortgage pools. This action temporarily decreased the value of these securities until complete details of the programs and the timing were announced and reduced our yield in the months of repayment. Freddie Mac implemented its purchase program in February 2010 with actual purchases beginning in March 2010. Fannie Mae began their process in March 2010 and announced it would implement the initial purchases over a period of three months, beginning in April 2010. Further, both agencies announced that on an ongoing basis they would purchase loans from the pools of mortgage loans underlying their mortgage pass-through certificates that became 120 days delinquent.

In February 2011, the U.S. Treasury along with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development released a report entitled, "Reforming America's Housing Finance Market" to Congress outlining recommendations for reforming the U.S. housing system, specifically Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and transforming the U.S. Government's involvement in the housing market. It is unclear how future legislation may impact the housing finance market and the investing environment for Agency Securities as the method of reform is undecided and has not yet been defined by the regulators. Without U.S. Government support for residential mortgages, we may not be able to execute our current business model in an efficient manner.

We cannot predict whether or when new actions may occur, the timing and pace of current actions already implemented, or what impact if any, such actions, or future actions, could have on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

U.S. Government Market Intervention

One of the main factors impacting market prices was the U.S. Federal Reserve's program to purchase agency securities which had commenced in January 2009 and was terminated on March 31, 2010. In total, $1.3 trillion of agency securities were purchased. In addition, through the course of 2009, the U.S. Treasury purchased $250.0 billion of agency securities. An effect of these purchases has been an increase in the prices of agency securities, which has decreased our net interest margin. When these programs terminated, the market expectation was that it might cause a decrease in demand for these securities which would likely reduce their market price. However, this has not happened and we continue to see strong demand as these securities remain desirable assets in this rather volatile economic environment. It is difficult to quantify the impact, as there are many factors at work at the same time that affect the price of Agency Securities and, therefore, our yield and book value. Due to the unpredictability in the markets for our securities in particular and yield generating assets in general, there is no pattern that can be implied with any certainty. In March 2011, the U.S. Treasury announced that it will begin the orderly wind down of its remaining agency securities with sales up to $10.0 billion per month, subject to market conditions. It is unclear how these sales will affect market conditions and pricing. On September 21, 2011, the U.S. Federal Reserve announced that it will begin reinvesting principal payments from its holdings of Agency Debt and Agency MBS into Agency MBS.

Financial Regulatory Reform Bill and Other Government Activity

Certain programs initiated by the U.S. Government, through the Federal Housing Administration ("FHA") and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, to provide homeowners with assistance in avoiding residential mortgage loan foreclosures are currently in effect. The programs may involve, among other things, the modification of mortgage loans to reduce the principal amount of the loans or the rate of interest payable on the loans, or to extend the payment terms of the loans. While the effect of these programs has not been as extensive as originally expected, the effect of such programs for holders of agency securities could be that such holders would experience changes in the anticipated yields of their agency securities due to (i) increased prepayment rates and (ii) lower interest and principal payments.

On July 21, 2010, President Obama signed into law the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. This legislation aims to restore responsibility and accountability to the financial system. It is unclear how this legislation may impact the borrowing environment, investing environment for agency securities and interest rate swaps as much of the legislation implementation has not yet been defined by the regulators.

During the third quarter of 2011, concern intensified about the financial conditions and creditworthiness of several European nations, particularly Greece. European nations have been working through a variety of entities and strategies to resolve these concerns though success is uncertain. Continuation and worsening of these concerns may severely impact financial market conditions including the valuation of our investments, the terms of, and potentially, our ability to borrow in order to finance our investment operations.

Interest Rates

The overall credit market deterioration since August 2007 has also affected prevailing interest rates. For example, interest rates have been unusually volatile since the third quarter of 2007. Since September 18, 2007, the U.S. Federal Reserve has lowered the target for the Federal Funds Rate nine times from 4.75% to 1.00% in October 2008. In December 2008, the Federal Reserve stated that it was adopting a policy of "quantitative easing" and would target keeping the Federal Funds Rate between 0.00% and 0.25%. To date, the Federal Reserve has maintained that target range. Our funding costs, which traditionally have tracked the 30-day London Interbank Offered Rate ("LIBOR") have generally benefited by this easing of monetary policy, although to a somewhat lesser extent. Because of continued uncertainty in the credit markets and U.S. economic conditions, we expect that interest rates are likely to experience continued volatility, which will likely affect our financial results since our cost of funds is largely dependent on short-term rates.

Historically, 30-day LIBOR has closely tracked movements in the Federal Funds Rate and the Effective Federal Funds Rate. The Effective Federal Funds Rate can differ from the Federal Funds Rate in that the Effective index represents the volume weighted average of interest rates at which depository institutions lend balances at the Federal Reserve to other depository institutions overnight (actual transactions, rather than target rate).

Our borrowings in the repurchase market have also historically closely tracked LIBOR. So traditionally, a lower Federal Funds Rate has indicated a time of increased net interest margin and higher asset values. However, since July 2007 (prior to our commencement of operations) LIBOR and repurchase market rates have varied greatly, and often have been significantly higher than the target and the Effective Federal Funds Rate. The difference between 30-day LIBOR and the Effective Federal Funds rate has also been quite volatile, with the spread alternately returning to more normal levels and then widening out again. The volatility in these rates and divergence from the historical relationship among these rates could negatively impact our ability to manage our portfolio. If this were to occur, our net interest margin and the value of our portfolio might suffer as a result. The following table shows 30-day LIBOR as compared to the Effective Federal Funds rate at each period end:

                                       30-Day   Effective Federal
                    Quarter ended      LIBOR       Funds Rate
                  September 30, 2011     0.24 %              0.06 %
                  June 30, 2011          0.19                0.07
                  March 31, 2011         0.24                0.10
                  December 31, 2010      0.26                0.13
                  September 30, 2010     0.26                0.15
                  June 30, 2010          0.35                0.09
                  March 31, 2010         0.25                0.09
                  December 31, 2009      0.23                0.05

Principal Repayment Rate

Our net income is primarily a function of the difference between the yield on our assets and the financing cost of owning those assets. Since we tend to purchase assets at a premium to par, the main item that can affect the yield on our assets after they are purchased is the rate at which the mortgage borrowers repay the loan. While the scheduled repayments, which are the principal portion of the homeowners' regular monthly payments, are fairly predictable, the unscheduled repayments, which are generally refinancing of the mortgage but can also result from repurchases of delinquent, defaulted, or modified loans, are less so. Being able to accurately estimate and manage these repayment rates is a critical portion of the management of our portfolio, not only for estimating current yield but also for considering the rate of reinvestment of those proceeds into new securities, the yields which those new securities may add to our portfolio and our hedging strategy. We expect that prepayment rates will be elevated due to repurchases of loans that reach 120 day or more delinquency by Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae on a continuing basis.

The following table shows the average principal repayment rate for those securities which have settled for each quarter since our commencement of operations (as our operations commenced in November 2009, there is only one month of prepayment data for 2009 for our portfolio of settled Agency Securities):

                                         Quarterly Principal
                      Quarter ended        Repayment Rate
                    September 30, 2011                  12.4 %
                    June 30, 2011                        9.3
                    March 31, 2011                      11.7
                    December 31, 2010                   10.8
                    September 30, 2010                  11.1
                    June 30, 2010                       15.4
                    March 31, 2010                      14.5
                    December 31, 2009                    8.6

. . .

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