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RVSB > SEC Filings for RVSB > Form 10-K on 13-Jun-2014All Recent SEC Filings

Show all filings for RIVERVIEW BANCORP INC



Annual Report

Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations


Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations is intended to assist in understanding the financial condition and results of operations of the Company. The information contained in this section should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying Notes thereto contained in Item 8 of this Form 10-K and the other sections contained in this Form 10-K. This section contains certain financial information determined by methods other than in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("GAAP"). These measures include net interest income on a fully tax equivalent basis and net interest margin on a fully tax equivalent basis. Management uses these non-GAAP measures in its analysis of the Company's performance. The tax equivalent adjustment to net interest income recognizes the income tax savings when comparing taxable and tax-exempt assets and assumes a 34% tax rate. Management believes that it is a standard practice in the banking industry to present net interest income and net interest margin on a fully tax equivalent basis, and accordingly believes that providing these measures may be useful for peer comparison purposes. These disclosures should not be viewed as substitutes for the results determined to be in accordance with GAAP, nor are they necessarily comparable to non-GAAP performance measures that may be presented by other companies.

Critical Accounting Policies

The Company has established various accounting policies that govern the application of accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America in the preparation of the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements. The Company has identified policies that due to judgments, estimates and assumptions inherent in those policies are critical to an understanding of the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements. These policies relate to the methodology for the determination of the allowance for loan losses, the valuation of investment securities, the valuation of real estate owned ("REO") and foreclosed assets, goodwill valuation and the calculation of income taxes. These policies and the judgments, estimates and assumptions are described in greater detail in subsequent sections of Management's Discussions and Analysis contained herein and in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Item 8 of this Form 10-K. In particular, Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies," describes generally the Company's accounting policies. Management believes that the judgments, estimates and assumptions used in the preparation of the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements are appropriate given the factual circumstances at the time. However, given the sensitivity of the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements to these critical accounting policies, the use of other judgments, estimates and assumptions could result in material differences in the Company's results of operations or financial condition.

Allowance for Loan Losses
The allowance for loan losses is maintained at a level sufficient to provide for probable loan losses based on evaluating known and inherent risks in the loan portfolio. The allowance is provided based upon the Company's ongoing quarterly assessment of the pertinent factors underlying the quality of the loan portfolio. These factors include changes in the size and composition of the loan portfolio, delinquency levels, actual loan loss experience, current economic conditions and detailed analysis of individual loans for which full collectability may not be assured. The detailed analysis includes techniques to estimate the fair value of loan collateral and the existence of potential alternative sources of repayment. The allowance consists of specific, general and unallocated components. The specific component relates to loans that are considered impaired. For loans that are classified as impaired, an allowance is established when the discounted cash flows or collateral value of the impaired loan is lower than the carrying value of that loan. The general component covers non-impaired loans based on the Company's risk rating system and historical loss experience adjusted for qualitative factors. The Company calculates its historical loss rates using the average of the last four quarterly 24-month periods. The Company calculates and applies its historical loss rates by individual loan types in its portfolio. These historical loss rates are adjusted for qualitative and environmental factors. An unallocated component is maintained to cover uncertainties that the Company believes have resulted in incurred losses that have not yet been allocated to specific elements of the general and specific components of the allowance for loan losses. Such factors include uncertainties in economic conditions and in identifying triggering events that directly correlate to subsequent loss rates, changes in appraised value of underlying collateral, risk factors that have not yet manifested themselves in loss allocation factors and historical loss experience data that may not precisely correspond to the current portfolio or economic conditions. The unallocated component of the allowance reflects the margin of imprecision inherent in the underlying assumptions used in the methodologies for estimating specific and general losses in the portfolio. The appropriate allowance level is estimated based upon factors and trends identified by the Company at the time the consolidated financial statements are prepared.

When available information confirms that specific loans or portions thereof are uncollectible, identified amounts are charged against the allowance for loan losses. The existence of some or all of the following criteria will generally confirm that a loss has been incurred: the loan is significantly delinquent and the borrower has not demonstrated the ability or intent to bring the loan current; the Company has no recourse to the borrower, or if it does, the borrower has insufficient assets to pay the debt; the estimated fair value of the loan collateral is significantly below the current loan balance, and there is little or no near-term prospect for improvement.

Management's evaluation of the allowance for loan losses is based on ongoing, quarterly assessments of the known and inherent risks in the loan portfolio. Loss factors are based on the Company's historical loss experience with additional consideration and adjustments made for changes in economic conditions, changes in the amount and composition of the loan portfolio, delinquency rates, changes in collateral values, a detailed analysis of impaired loans and other factors as deemed appropriate. These factors are evaluated on a quarterly basis. Loss rates used by the Company are affected as changes in these factors increase or decrease from quarter to quarter. The Company also considers bank regulatory examination results and findings of credit examiners in its quarterly evaluation of the allowance for loan losses.

A loan is considered impaired when it is probable that the Company will be unable to collect all amounts (principal and interest) due according to the contractual terms of the original loan agreement. Typically, factors used in determining if a loan is impaired include, but are not limited to, whether the loan is 90 days or more delinquent, internally designated as substandard or worse, on non-accrual status or represents a troubled debt restructuring ("TDR"). The majority of the Company's impaired loans are considered collateral dependent. When a loan is considered collateral dependent, impairment is measured using the estimated value of the underlying collateral, less any prior liens, and when applicable, less estimated selling costs. For impaired loans that are not collateral dependent, impairment is measured using the present value of expected future cash flows, discounted at the loan's original effective interest rate. When the net realizable value of the impaired loan is less than the recorded investment in the loan (including accrued interest, net deferred loan fees or costs, and unamortized premium or discount), an impairment is recognized by adjusting an allocation of the allowance for loan losses. Subsequent to the initial allocation of allowance to the individual loan the Company may conclude that it is appropriate to record a charge-off of the impaired portion of the loan. When a charge-off is recorded the loan balance is reduced and the specific allowance is eliminated.

Generally, when a collateral dependent loan is initially measured for impairment and does not have an appraisal performed in the last three months, the Company obtains an updated market valuation. Subsequently, the Company generally obtains an updated market valuation on an annual basis. The valuation may occur more frequently if the Company determines that there is an indication that the market value may have declined.

Investment Valuation
Investment securities are classified as held to maturity when the Company has the ability and positive intent to hold such securities to maturity. Investment securities held to maturity are carried at amortized cost. Unrealized losses due to fluctuations in fair value are recognized when it is determined that a credit related other than temporary decline in value has occurred. Investment securities bought and held principally for the purpose of sale in the near term are classified as trading securities. Securities that the Company intends to hold for an indefinite period, but not necessarily to maturity are classified as available for sale. Securities available for sale are reported at fair value. Unrealized gains and losses, net of the related deferred tax effect, are reported as a net amount in a separate component of shareholders' equity entitled "accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)." Realized gains and losses on securities available for sale, determined using the specific identification method, are included in earnings. Premiums and discounts are amortized using the interest method over the period to maturity or expected call, if sooner.

Unrealized losses on available for sale and held to maturity securities are evaluated at least quarterly to determine whether the declines in value should be considered other than temporary. An other than temporary impairment ("OTTI") is separated into a credit and noncredit component. Noncredit component losses are recorded in other comprehensive income (loss) when the Company a) does not intend to sell the security or b) is not more likely than not to have to sell the security prior to the security's anticipated recovery. Credit component losses are reported through earnings. To determine the component of OTTI related to credit losses, the Company compares the amortized cost basis of the OTTI security to the present value of the revised expected cash flows, discounted using the current pre-impairment yield. Significant judgment of management is required in this analysis that includes, but is not limited to, assumptions regarding the ultimate collectability of principal and interest on the underlying collateral.

Although the determination of whether an impairment is other-than-temporary involves significant judgment, the underlying principle used is based on positive evidence indicating that an investment's carrying value is recoverable within a reasonable period of time outweighs negative evidence to the contrary. Evidence that is objectively determinable and verifiable is given

greater weight than evidence that is subjective and or not verifiable. Evidence based on future events will generally be less objective as it is based on future expectations and therefore is generally less verifiable or not verifiable at all. Factors considered in evaluating whether a decline in value is other-than-temporary include, (a) the length of time and the extent to which the fair value has been less than amortized cost, (b) the financial condition and near-term prospects of the issuer and (c) the Company's intent and ability to retain the investment for a period of time. Other factors that may be considered include the ratings by recognized rating agencies; capital strength and other near-term prospects of the issuer and recommendation of investment advisors or market analysts. In situations in which the security's fair value is below amortized cost but it continues to be probable that all contractual terms of the security will be satisfied, the decline is solely attributable to noncredit factors, and the Company asserts that it has positive intent and ability to hold that security to maturity, no OTTI is recognized.

Valuation of REO and Foreclosed Assets
Real estate properties acquired through foreclosure or by deed-in-lieu of foreclosure are recorded at fair value less estimated costs to sell. Fair value is generally determined by management based on a number of factors, including third-party appraisals of fair value in an orderly sale. Accordingly, the valuation of REO is subject to significant external and internal judgment. Any differences between management's assessment of fair value, less estimated costs to sell, and the carrying value of the loan at the date a particular property is transferred into REO are charged to the allowance for loan losses. Management periodically reviews REO values to determine whether the property continues to be carried at the lower of its recorded book value or fair value, net of estimated costs to sell. Any further decreases in the value of REO are considered valuation adjustments and trigger a corresponding charge to non-interest expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Expenses from the maintenance and operations of REO are included in other non-interest expense.

Goodwill Valuation
Goodwill is initially recorded when the purchase price paid for an acquisition exceeds the estimated fair value of the net identified tangible and intangible assets acquired. Goodwill is presumed to have an indefinite useful life and is tested, at least annually, for impairment at the reporting unit level. The Company has one reporting unit, the Bank, for purposes of computing goodwill. All of the Company's goodwill has been allocated to this single reporting unit. The Company performs an annual review in the third quarter of each year, or more frequently if indications of potential impairment exist, to determine if the recorded goodwill is impaired. If the fair value exceeds the carrying value, goodwill at the reporting unit level is not considered impaired and no additional analysis is necessary. If the carrying value of the reporting unit is higher than its fair value, there is an indication that impairment may exist and additional analysis must be performed to measure the amount of impairment loss, if any. The amount of impairment is determined by comparing the implied fair value of the reporting unit's goodwill to the carrying value of the goodwill in the same manner as if the reporting unit was being acquired in a business combination. Specifically, the Company would allocate the fair value to all of the assets and liabilities of the reporting unit, including unrecognized intangible assets, in a hypothetical analysis that would calculate the implied fair value of goodwill. If the implied fair value of goodwill is less than the recorded goodwill, the Company would record an impairment charge for the difference.

A significant amount of judgment is involved in determining if an indicator of impairment has occurred. Such indicators may include, among others; a significant decline in our expected future cash flows; a sustained, significant decline in our stock price and market capitalization; a significant adverse change in legal factors or in the business climate; adverse action or assessment by a regulator; and unanticipated competition. Any adverse change in these factors could have a significant impact on the recoverability of these assets and could have a material impact on the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements.

Income taxes
The Company estimates tax expense based on the amount it expects to owe various tax authorities. Accrued taxes represent the net estimated amount due or to be received from taxing authorities. In estimating accrued taxes, management assesses the relative merits and risks of the appropriate tax treatment of transactions taking into account statutory, judicial and regulatory guidance in the context of our tax position.

We determine our deferred income taxes using the balance sheet method, under which the net deferred tax asset or liability is based on the tax effects of the differences between the book and tax bases of assets and liabilities, and changes in tax rates and laws are recognized in the period in which they occur. Deferred income tax expense or benefit is recorded based on changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities between periods. The Company records net deferred tax assets to the extent these assets will more likely than not be realized. In making the determination whether a deferred tax asset is more likely than not to be realized, management seeks to evaluate all available positive and negative evidence including the possibility

of future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, projected future taxable income, tax planning strategies and recent financial results.

The Company reversed its deferred tax asset valuation allowance as of March 31, 2014 due to management's determination that it was "more likely than not" that the Company's deferred tax assets would be realized. "More likely than not" is defined as greater than 50% probability of occurrence. A determination as to the ultimate realization of the deferred tax assets is dependent upon management's judgment and evaluation of both positive and negative evidence, forecasts of future taxable income, applicable tax planning strategies, and an assessment of current and future economic and business conditions. The determination resulted from consideration of both the positive and negative evidence available that can be objectively verified. Considering the guidance in paragraphs 21-23 of Accounting Standards Codification 740-10-30, forming a conclusion that a valuation allowance is not needed is difficult when there is negative evidence such as cumulative losses in recent years. At March 31, 2014, the Company was in a cumulative loss position over a three year period which is considered a significant piece of negative evidence that is difficult to overcome. Accordingly, in its determination of the deferred tax asset, the Company analyzed and evaluated the nature and timing of relevant facts and circumstances with respect to its cumulative loss.

Management considered the fact that the Company was in a cumulative profit position over a two year period, with seven consecutive profitable quarters as part of its evaluation of the Company's three year cumulative loss. Management also evaluated the unique and non-recurring the loss evidence as an important consideration in its determination. While this loss occurred, the nature and timing of the components of loss can be assessed as to whether these losses represent a continuing condition. Management determined that the steps taken to strengthen its credit risk management process have addressed the conditions that existed when the loans were created and the losses were incurred. The outcome of this evaluation is an important factor in management's determination that positive evidence overcomes the existence of the cumulative loss in the recent past.

Positive considerations also evaluated by management include the reduction of the inherent risk in the loan portfolio as indicated by the reduction of classified loans and associated credit costs, significant reductions in REO properties which contributes to lower REO holding costs, the Company's profitable operating performance during the past two years, termination of regulatory agreement and orders, utilization of excess low yielding cash balances to purchase higher yielding investment securities and increase loans receivable balances, as well as the sustained improvement in the economic conditions at the national and local level.

As management determined that positive evidence outweighed the negative, financial forecasts and projections were also developed to assess the Company's capacity to realize the deferred tax assets. As a result of this analysis management concluded it was more likely than not that forecasted earnings performance would allow for the realization of the deferred tax assets in a timely manner. For additional information see Notes 1 and 12 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements and New Accounting Pronouncements

See Note 1 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for a description of recently adopted and new accounting pronouncements, including the respective dates of adoption and expected effects on the Company's financial position and results of operations.

Operating Strategy

Fiscal year 2014 marked the 91st anniversary since the Bank began operations in 1923. The historical emphasis had been on residential real estate lending. Since 1998, however, the Company has been diversifying its loan portfolio through the expansion of its commercial and construction loan portfolios. At March 31, 2014, commercial and construction loans represented 78.0% of total loans. Commercial lending, including commercial real estate loans, typically has higher credit risk, greater interest margins and shorter terms than residential lending which can increase the loan portfolio's profitability. The primary business strategy of the Company is to provide comprehensive banking and related financial services within its primary market area.

The Company's goal is to deliver returns to shareholders by managing problem assets, increasing higher-yielding assets (in particular commercial real estate and commercial business loans), increasing core deposit balances, reducing expenses, hiring experienced employees with a commercial lending focus and exploring expansion opportunities. The Company seeks to achieve these results by focusing on the following objectives:

Focusing on Asset Quality. The Company is focused on monitoring existing performing loans, resolving nonperforming loans and selling foreclosed assets. The Company has aggressively sought to reduce its level of nonperforming assets through write-downs, collections, modifications and sales of nonperforming loans and real estate owned. The Company has taken proactive steps to resolve its nonperforming loans, including negotiating repayment plans, forbearances, loan modifications and loan extensions with borrowers when appropriate, and accepting short payoffs on delinquent loans, particularly when such payoffs result in a smaller loss than foreclosure. In connection with the downturn in real estate markets, the Company applied more conservative and stringent underwriting practices to new loans, including, among other things, increasing the amount of required collateral or equity requirements, reducing loan-to-value ratios and increasing debt service coverage ratios. The Company has continued to reduce its exposure to land development and speculative construction loans. The total land development and speculative construction loan portfolios declined to $19.9 million at March 31, 2014 as compared to $26.9 million at March 31, 2013. Nonperforming assets decreased $15.0 million to $21.8 million at March 31, 2014 compared to $36.8 million at March 31, 2013. However, there can be no assurance that the ongoing economic conditions affecting our borrowers will not result in future increases in nonperforming and classified loans.

Improving Earnings by Expanding Product Offerings. The Company intends to prudently increase the percentage of its assets consisting of higher-yielding commercial real estate and commercial loans, which offer higher risk-adjusted returns, shorter maturities and more sensitivity to interest rate fluctuations, while maintaining compliance with its heightened regulatory capital requirements. The Company also intends to selectively add additional products to further diversify revenue sources and to capture more of each customer's banking relationship by cross selling loan and deposit products and additional services to Bank customers, including services provided through RAMCorp to increase its fee income. Assets under management by RAMCorp totaled $359.7 million and $337.5 million at March 31, 2014 and March 31, 2013, respectively.

The Company continuously reviews new products and services to provide its customers more financial options. All new technology and services are generally reviewed for business development and cost saving purposes. The Bank has implemented remote check capture at all of its branches and for selected customers of the Bank. The Company continues to experience growth in customer use of its online banking services, which allows customers to conduct a full range of services on a real-time basis, including balance inquiries, transfers and electronic bill paying. The Company also upgraded its online banking product for consumer customers, providing consumer customers greater flexibility and convenience in conducting their online banking. The Company's online service has also enhanced the delivery of cash management services to business customers. The Company introduced its mobile banking application during the second fiscal quarter of 2013 to further allow flexibility and convenience to its customers related to their banking needs. During June 2013, the Company also implemented a new core banking platform that will enable the Company to better serve its customer base. The Company also participates in an internet deposit listing service which allows the Company to post time deposit rates on an internet site where institutional investors have the ability to deposit funds with the Company. The Company plans to discontinue the utilization of internet based deposits during fiscal year 2015, however, the Company will continue to have accessibility to these funds in the future. Furthermore, the Company may utilize the internet deposit listing service to purchase certificates of deposit at other financial institutions. The Company also offers Insured Cash Sweep (ICS™), a reciprocal money market product, to its customers along with the Certificate of Deposit Account Registry Service (CDARS™) program which allows customers access to FDIC insurance on deposits exceeding the $250,000 FDIC insurance limit.

Attracting Core Deposits and Other Deposit Products. The Company's strategic focus is to emphasize total relationship banking with its customers to internally fund its loan growth. The Company has reduced its reliance on other wholesale funding sources, including FHLB and FRB advances, by focusing on the continued growth of core customer deposits. The Company believes that a continued focus on customer relationships will help to increase the level of core deposits and locally-based retail certificates of deposit. In addition to its retail branches, the Company maintains technology-based products, such as personal financial management, business cash management, and business remote deposit products, that enable it to compete effectively with banks of all sizes. Core branch deposits (comprised of all demand, savings, interest checking accounts and all time deposits but excludes wholesale-brokered deposits, trust account deposits, Interest on Lawyer Trust Accounts ("IOLTA"), public funds and Internet based deposits) increased $33.4 million at March 31, 2014 compared to March 31, 2013.

Continued Expense Control. Management has undertaken several initiatives to reduce non-interest expense and continues to make it a priority to identify cost savings opportunities throughout all aspects of the Company's operations. The . . .

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