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EXPE > SEC Filings for EXPE > Form 10-Q on 2-May-2014All Recent SEC Filings

Show all filings for EXPEDIA, INC.

Form 10-Q for EXPEDIA, INC.


Quarterly Report

Part I. Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial

Condition and Results of Operations

Forward-Looking Statements

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements reflect the views of our management regarding current expectations and projections about future events and are based on currently available information. Actual results could differ materially from those contained in these forward-looking statements for a variety of reasons, including, but not limited to, those discussed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2013, Part I, Item 1A, "Risk Factors," as well as those discussed elsewhere in this report. Other unknown or unpredictable factors also could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Accordingly, readers should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. The use of words such as "anticipates," "estimates," "expects," "intends," "plans" and "believes," among others, generally identify forward-looking statements; however, these words are not the exclusive means of identifying such statements. In addition, any statements that refer to expectations, projections or other characterizations of future events or circumstances are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are inherently subject to uncertainties, risks and changes in circumstances that are difficult to predict. We are not under any obligation to, and do not intend to, publicly update or review any of these forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, even if experience or future events make it clear that any expected results expressed or implied by those forward-looking statements will not be realized. Please carefully review and consider the various disclosures made in this report and in our other reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") that attempt to advise interested parties of the risks and factors that may affect our business, prospects and results of operations.

The information included in this management's discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the notes included in this Quarterly Report, and the audited consolidated financial statements and notes and Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2013.


Expedia, Inc. is an online travel company, empowering business and leisure travelers with the tools and information they need to efficiently research, plan, book and experience travel. We have created a global travel marketplace used by a broad range of leisure and corporate travelers, offline retail travel agents and travel service providers. We make available, on a stand-alone and package basis, travel products and services provided by numerous airlines, lodging properties, car rental companies, destination service providers, cruise lines and other travel product and service companies. We also offer travel and non-travel advertisers access to a potential source of incremental traffic and transactions through our various media and advertising offerings.

Our portfolio of brands includes®,®, Hotwire.comTM, Expedia Affiliate Network ("EAN"), Classic Vacations, Expedia Local ExpertTM, Expedia® CruiseShipCenters®, Egencia TM, eLongTM, Venere Net SpA ("Venere") and trivago GmbH ("trivago"), a leading hotel metasearch company based in Germany acquired during the first quarter of 2013. In addition, many of these brands have related international points of sale. For additional information about our portfolio of brands, see "Portfolio of Brands" in Part I, Item 1, "Business," in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2013.

All percentages within this section are calculated on actual, unrounded numbers. We have reclassified certain prior period amounts in our results of operations operating expense tables to conform to our current period presentation. There were no changes to consolidated totals per expense category.


The travel industry, including offline agencies, online agencies and other suppliers of travel products and services, has historically been characterized by intense competition, as well as rapid and significant change. Generally, 2012 and 2013 represented years of gradual improvement for the travel industry. However, natural disasters and severe winter weather, sovereign debt and economic issues in several European countries, the shutdown of the U.S. government, worry over extending the debt ceiling in the United States and uncertainty regarding the timing of a possible pullback in U.S. Federal Reserve's quantitative easing program are all examples of events that contribute to a somewhat uncertain economic environment which could have a negative impact on the travel industry in the future.

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Online Travel

Increased usage and familiarity with the internet have driven rapid growth in online penetration of travel expenditures. According to PhoCusWright, an independent travel, tourism and hospitality research firm, in 2013, approximately 61% of U.S. leisure, unmanaged and corporate travel expenditures occur online, compared with approximately 50% of European travel. Online penetration in the emerging markets, such as Asia Pacific and Latin American regions are lagging behind that of Europe, and are estimated to be approximately 27% and 21%, respectively. These penetration rates have increased over the past few years, and are expected to continue growing. This significant growth attracted many competitors to online travel. This competition intensified in recent years, and the industry is expected to remain highly competitive for the foreseeable future. In addition to the growth of online travel agencies, airlines and lodging companies have aggressively pursued direct online distribution of their products and services. Competitive entrants such as "metasearch" companies, including (which acquired in May 2013), (in which Expedia acquired a majority ownership interest in March 2013) as well as TripAdvisor (completed its conversion to a metasearch site in June 2013), introduced differentiated features, pricing and content compared with the legacy online travel agency companies. In addition, many metasearch companies adopted or intend to adopt various forms of direct or assisted-booking tools the impact of which is currently uncertain. Online travel agencies, including Expedia, may participate in these new tools. Finally, we have seen increased interest in the online travel industry from search engine companies as evidenced by recent innovations, licensing deals and proposed and actual acquisitions by companies such as Google and Microsoft.

The online travel industry has also seen the development of alternative business models and variations in the timing of payment by travelers and to suppliers, which in some cases place pressure on historical business models. In particular, the agency hotel model saw rapid adoption in Europe. Expedia has both a merchant (Expedia Collect) and an agency hotel (Hotel Collect) offer for our hotel supply partners and we expect our use of these models to continue to evolve. During 2012, Expedia introduced the ETP program to hotel suppliers in the United States and Europe and is now in the process of rolling the program out globally. ETP offers travelers the choice of whether to pay Expedia at the time of booking or pay the hotel at the time of stay.

Intense competition also historically led to aggressive online marketing spend by the travel suppliers and intermediaries, and a meaningful reduction in our overall marketing efficiencies and operating margins. During 2013,, trivago and TripAdvisor launched offline advertising campaigns in the United States for the first time thus increasing the number of participants in the travel advertising space, increasing competition for share of voice. This activity has generally continued and in certain cases has expanded beyond the United States. We manage our selling and marketing spending on a brand basis at the local or regional level, making decisions in each market that we think are appropriate based on the relative growth opportunity, the expected returns and the competitive environment. In certain cases, particularly in emerging markets, we are pursuing and expect to continue to pursue long-term growth opportunities for which our marketing efficiency is lower than that for our consolidated business but for which we still believe the opportunity to be attractive. The crowded online travel environment is now driving secondary and tertiary online travel companies to establish marketing agreements with global players in order to leverage distribution and technology capabilities while focusing resources on capturing consumer mind share.


We generate the majority of our revenue through the marketing and distribution of hotel rooms (stand-alone and package bookings). Although, our relationships with our hotel supply partners have remained broadly stable in the past few years, as part of the global rollout of ETP, we reduced negotiated economics in certain instances to compensate for hotel supply partners absorbing expenses such as credit card fees and customer service costs, which has begun to negatively impact the margin of revenue we earn per booking. In addition, as we continue to expand the breadth and depth of our global hotel offering, in some cases we have reduced and expect to continue to reduce our economics in various geographies based on local market conditions. Lastly, we have seen a higher mix of our room night growth coming from markets, such as China, where our hotel margins are lower and we have implemented new customer loyalty and discount programs. Based on these dynamics, our average revenue per room night has declined each quarter in 2012, 2013 and for the first quarter of 2014 and we expect it to remain under pressure in the future. All of these impacts are due to specific initiatives intended to drive greater global size and scale through faster overall room night growth.

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Since our hotel supplier agreements are generally negotiated on a percentage basis, any increase or decrease of ADRs has an impact on the revenue we earn per room night. Over the course of the last several years, occupancies and ADRs in the lodging industry have generally increased in a gradually improving overall travel environment. Currently occupancy rates are near 2007 peaks and there is very little new, net hotel supply being added in the U.S. lodging market with large chains focusing their development opportunities in international markets. This may help hoteliers with their objective of continuing to grow ADRs and tends to lead to pressure in our negotiations and terms with hoteliers. In international markets, hotel supply is being added at a much faster rate as hotel owners and operators try to take advantage of opportunities in faster growing regions such as China and India, among others. We have had success adding supply to our marketplace with more than 290,000 bookable properties on our global websites, including eLong, as of March 31, 2014. In addition, our room night growth has been healthy, with room nights growing 27% in 2012, 23% in 2013, and 24% for the first quarter of 2014. ADRs for rooms booked on Expedia sites grew declined 2% in 2012, and were essentially flat both in 2013 and for the first quarter of 2014.


The airline sector in particular has historically experienced significant turmoil. In recent years, there has been increased air carrier consolidation, generally resulting in lower overall capacity and higher fares. In addition, air carriers have made significant efforts to keep seat capacity relatively low in order to ensure that demand for seats remains high and that flights are as full as possible. Reduced seating capacities are generally negative for Expedia as there is less air supply available on our websites, and in turn less opportunity to facilitate hotel rooms, car rental and other services on behalf of air travelers. Ticket prices on Expedia sites increased 1% both for the three months ended March 31, 2014 and 2013 and grew 4% in 2012. We encountered pressure on air remuneration as air carriers combined and as certain supply agreements renewed, and as air carriers and GDS intermediaries re-negotiated their long-term agreements. In addition, some U.S. air carriers introduced various incentives for customers to book directly with the carrier versus via online travel agencies. Examples of these incentives include lower fees, advance seat assignments and greater earning potential for frequent flier miles.

Air ticket volumes grew by 30% for the first quarter of 2014 primarily due to volume driven by Brand Expedia's agreement with Travelocity along with ongoing improvements for the Brand Expedia sites themselves. Air volumes improved 9% in 2013 and 7% in 2012 largely due to strong growth in corporate ticket volumes at Egencia. From a product perspective for the first quarter of 2014, 66% of our revenue comes from transactions involving the booking of hotel reservations, with 11% of our revenue derived from the sale of airline tickets. We believe that the hotel product is the most profitable of the products we distribute and represents our best overall growth opportunity.

Advertising & Media

Our advertising and media business is principally driven by revenue generated by trivago, as a leading hotel metasearch site, in addition to Expedia Media Solutions, which is responsible for generating advertising revenue on our global online travel brands. In the first quarter of 2014, we generated a total of $99 million of advertising and media revenue representing 8% of total revenue for the quarter, up substantially from $46 million in the first quarter of 2013.

Growth Strategy

Product Innovation. Each of our leading brands was a pioneer in online travel and has been responsible for driving key innovations in the space over the past two decades. They each operate a dedicated technology team, which drives innovations that make researching and shopping for travel increasingly easier and helps customers find and book the best possible travel options. In the past several years, we made key investments in technology, including significant development of our technical platforms that makes it possible for us to deliver innovations at a faster pace. For example, we launched new global platforms for and Brand Expedia, enabling us to significantly increase the innovation cycle, thereby improving conversion and driving faster growth rates, for those brands. In 2013, Expedia signed an agreement to power the technology, supply, and customer service platforms for Travelocity-branded sites in the United States and Canada, enabling Expedia to leverage its investments in each of these key areas. We intend to continue leveraging these investments when launching additional points of sale in new countries, introducing new website features, adding supplier products and services including new business model offerings, as well as proprietary and user-generated content for travelers.

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Global Expansion. Our Expedia,, Egencia, EAN, and Hotwire brands operate both domestically and through international points of sale, including in Europe, Asia Pacific, Canada and Latin America. We own a majority share of eLong, which is the second largest online travel company in China. We also own Venere, a European brand, which focuses on marketing hotel rooms in Southern Europe. Egencia, our corporate travel business, operates in more than 60 countries around the world and continues to expand, including its 2012 acquisition of VIA Travel. We also partner in a 50/50 joint venture with AirAsia
- a low cost carrier serving the Asia-Pacific region - to jointly grow an online travel agency business. Although the results for the joint venture are not consolidated in our financial statements, we consider this business to be a key part of our Asia Pacific strategy. In the first quarter of 2014, approximately 41% of our worldwide gross bookings and 47% of worldwide revenue were international points of sale compared to just 22% for both worldwide gross bookings and revenue in 2005. We have a stated goal of driving more than half of our revenue through international points of sale.

During March 2013, we completed our majority acquisition of trivago, a leading hotel metasearch company. Officially launched in 2005, trivago is already one of the best known travel brands in Europe. trivago continues to operate independently, and plans to rapidly grow revenue through global expansion, including aggressive expansion into the United States and Canada.

In expanding our global reach, we leverage significant investments in technology, operations, brand building, supplier relationships and other initiatives that we have made since the launch of in 1996. Our scale of operations enhances the value of technology innovations we introduce on behalf of our travelers and suppliers. We believe that our size and scale affords the company the ability to negotiate competitive rates with our supply partners, provide breadth of choice and travel deals to our traveling customers through an increasingly larger supply portfolio and creates opportunities for new value added offers for our customers such as our loyalty programs. The size of Expedia's worldwide traveler base makes our sites an increasingly appealing channel for travel suppliers to reach customers. In addition, the sheer size of our user base and search query volume allows us to test new technology very quickly in order to determine which innovations are most likely to improve the travel research and booking process, and then roll those features out to our worldwide audience in order to drive improvements to conversion.

New Channel Penetration. Today, the vast majority of online travel bookings are generated through typical desktop and laptop computers. However, technological innovations and developments are creating new opportunities including travel bookings made through mobile devices. In the past few years, each of our brands made significant progress creating new mobile websites and mobile/tablet applications that are receiving strong reviews and solid download trends. We believe mobile bookings via smartphones present an opportunity for incremental growth as they are typically completed within one or two days of the travel or stay which is a much shorter booking window than we have historically experienced via more traditional online booking methods. During the last year, customers' behaviors and preferences on tablet devices began to show differences from trends seen on smartphones. For example, the booking window on a smartphone typically is much shorter than the emerging trend on the tablet device and historical average on a desktop or laptop. We also believe in the future mobile is likely to represent an efficient marketing channel given the opportunity for direct traffic acquisition, increase in share of wallet and in repeat customers, particularly through mobile applications. We have a stated goal of booking 20% of our transactions through mobile devices before the end of 2014.


We generally experience seasonal fluctuations in the demand for our travel products and services. For example, traditional leisure travel bookings are generally the highest in the first three quarters as travelers plan and book their spring, summer and holiday travel. The number of bookings typically decreases in the fourth quarter. Because revenue for most of our travel products, including merchant and agency hotel, is recognized when the travel takes place rather than when it is booked, revenue typically lags bookings by several weeks or longer. The seasonal revenue impact is exacerbated with respect to income by the nature of our variable cost of revenue and direct sales and marketing costs, which we typically realize in closer alignment to booking volumes, and the more stable nature of our fixed costs. Furthermore, operating profits for our primary advertising business, trivago, are experienced in the second half of the year as selling and marketing costs offset revenue in the first half of the year as we aggressively market during the busy booking period for summer travel. As a result, revenue and income are typically the lowest in the first quarter and highest in the third quarter. The continued growth of our international operations or a change in our product mix may influence the typical trend of the seasonality in the future.

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Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Critical accounting policies and estimates are those that we believe are important in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements because they require that we use judgment and estimates in applying those policies. We prepare our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States ("GAAP"). Preparation of the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes requires that we make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the consolidated financial statements as well as revenue and expenses during the periods reported. We base our estimates on historical experience, where applicable, and on other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from our estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

There are certain critical estimates that we believe require significant judgment in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. We consider an accounting estimate to be critical if:

• It requires us to make an assumption because information was not available at the time or it included matters that were highly uncertain at the time we were making the estimate; and

• Changes in the estimate or different estimates that we could have selected may have had a material impact on our financial condition or results of operations.

For additional information about our critical accounting policies and estimates, see the disclosure included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2013.

Occupancy Taxes

Occupancy Tax. We are currently involved in thirty-four lawsuits brought by or against states, cities and counties over issues involving the payment of hotel occupancy taxes. We continue to defend these lawsuits vigorously. With respect to the principal claims in these matters, we believe that the ordinances at issue do not apply to the services we provide, namely the facilitation of hotel reservations, and, therefore, that we do not owe the taxes that are claimed to be owed. We believe that the ordinances at issue generally impose occupancy and other taxes on entities that own, operate or control hotels (or similar businesses) or furnish or provide hotel rooms or similar accommodations.

Recent developments include:

• City of San Diego Litigation. The California Court of Appeals ruled in favor of the online travel companies and held that no taxes are due on the online travel companies' services.

• State of Montana Litigation. The court granted the online travel companies' motion for summary judgment and denied the state of Montana's motion for summary judgment, and held that taxes are not owed on the online travel companies' services.

• District of Columbia Litigation. The court entered judgment in the case. The parties moved for expedited consideration of the appeal, and on April 8, 2014, the D.C. Court of Appeals set a schedule for consideration of the appeal.

• City of Breckenridge Litigation. The court denied the plaintiff's motion for class certification.

• City of Bedford Park Litigation. The court granted the defendant online travel companies' motion to dismiss the plaintiffs' common law claims.

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• State of Wyoming Litigation. The Wyoming Supreme Court affirmed the Wyoming Board of Equalization's ruling that online travel companies are liable for hotel occupancy taxes.

For additional information on these and other legal proceedings, see Part II, Item 1, Legal Proceedings.

We have established a reserve for the potential settlement of issues related to hotel occupancy tax litigation, consistent with applicable accounting principles and in light of all current facts and circumstances, in the amount of $50 million as of March 31, 2014, which includes amounts expected to be paid in connection with the developments described above, and $46 million as of December 31, 2013.

Certain jurisdictions, including the states of New York, North Carolina, Minnesota and Oregon, the city of New York, and the District of Columbia, have enacted legislation seeking to tax online travel company services as part of sales taxes for hotel occupancy. We are currently remitting taxes to the city of New York, the state of New York, the state and local jurisdictions of South Carolina, the State of Minnesota, the District of Columbia, the state and local jurisdictions of Georgia, Anne Arundel, Maryland, and the State of North Carolina and Durham County, North Carolina.

Hawaii Tax Court Litigation (General Excise Tax). On January 31, 2011, the online travel companies received final notices from the Hawaii Department of Taxation of assessment for general excise taxes for the tax years 2000 to 2011 on their services relating to non-commissioned hotel room reservations. The companies appealed these assessments. On January 11, 2013, the Hawaii tax court ruled that the online travel companies are obligated to remit past Hawaii general excise taxes with interest on both the amount paid to the online travel companies for their services and the amount paid to the hotel for the room; thus subjecting the hotel's charge for the room to double taxation because general excise taxes on the hotel room had already been paid for all of the years at issue. The online travel companies have appealed the tax court ruling. The Hawaii Supreme Court has accepted review. The Department of Taxation also has issued assessments on hotel room reservations for 2012 and for travel agency services relating to car rental. Tax proceedings relating to these assessments have been stayed pending review by the Hawaii Supreme Court.

Pay-to-Play. Certain jurisdictions may require us to pay tax assessments prior to contesting any such assessments. This requirement is commonly referred to as "pay-to-play." Payment of these amounts is not an admission that we believe we are subject to such taxes and, even when such payments are made, we continue to defend our position vigorously.

During 2009, we expensed $48 million related to monies paid in advance of litigation in occupancy tax proceedings with the city of San Francisco. The city of San Francisco subsequently issued additional assessments of tax, penalties and interest for the time period from the fourth quarter of 2007 through the fourth quarter of 2011 against the online travel companies, including $24 million against Expedia, and Hotwire. The additional assessments, including the prepayment of such assessments, have been contested by the online travel companies. The city previously agreed, subject to documentation, that the . . .

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