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GLYC > SEC Filings for GLYC > Form 10-K on 31-Mar-2014All Recent SEC Filings

Show all filings for GLYCOMIMETICS INC



Annual Report


You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and other financial information included elsewhere in this Annual Report. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this Annual Report, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. You should review Item 1A. "Risk Factors" and "Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements" in this Annual Report for a discussion of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis.


We are a clinical stage biotechnology company focused on the discovery and development of novel glycomimetic drugs to address unmet medical needs resulting from diseases in which carbohydrate biology plays a key role. Glycomimetics are molecules that mimic the structure of carbohydrates involved in important biological processes. Using our expertise in carbohydrate chemistry and knowledge of carbohydrate biology, we are developing a pipeline of proprietary glycomimetics that inhibit disease-related functions of carbohydrates, such as the roles they play in inflammation, cancer and infection. We believe this represents an innovative approach to drug discovery to treat a wide range of diseases.

We are focusing our initial efforts on drug candidates for rare diseases that we believe will qualify for orphan drug designation. We are developing our lead drug candidate, GMI-1070, for the treatment of VOC. In October 2011, we entered into a license agreement with Pfizer under which we were responsible for the clinical development of GMI-1070 through the completion of a Phase 2 clinical trial. Following our completion of the Phase 2 clinical trial in April 2013, Pfizer is now responsible for all further clinical development, regulatory approval and potential commercialization of GMI-1070 for all indications and Pfizer has commercial rights to GMI-1070 worldwide.

Building on our experience with GMI-1070, we are developing a pipeline of other glycomimetic drug candidates. Our second most advanced drug candidate, GMI-1271, is a specific E-selectin inhibitor, which we are developing to be used in combination with chemotherapy to treat patients with acute myeloid leukemia, or AML, and potentially other hematologic cancers. We are also developing a pipeline of other preclinical drug candidates based on our expertise in carbohydrate chemistry. We have retained the worldwide development and commercialization rights to all of our drug candidates other than GMI-1070.

We commenced operations in 2003, and our operations to date have been limited to organizing and staffing our company, business planning, raising capital, developing our glycomimetics platform, identifying potential drug candidates, undertaking preclinical studies and, beginning in 2008, conducting clinical trials of GMI-1070. To date, we have financed our operations primarily through private placements of our securities, an upfront payment that we received in 2011 under our collaboration with Pfizer and the net proceeds from our recently completed initial public offering in January 2014. We have no products currently available for sale, and substantially all of our revenue to date has been revenue from the upfront payment from Pfizer, although we have received nominal amounts of revenue under research grants. Since our inception and through December 31, 2013, we have raised an aggregate of $86.6 million to fund our operations, of which $22.5 million was an upfront payment under our collaboration with Pfizer and $64.1 million was from the sale of our convertible promissory notes and convertible preferred stock.

Since inception, we have incurred significant operating losses. Although we generated net income of $3.7 million in 2012 as a result of recognizing $15.0 million of the $22.5 million upfront payment Pfizer made to us when we entered into our agreement with them as revenue during the year, our net loss was $10.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2013, and we expect to continue to incur significant expenses and operating losses over at least the next several years. As of December 31, 2013, we had an accumulated deficit of $63.3 million. Our net


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losses may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year, depending on the timing of our clinical trials, the receipt of milestone payments, if any, under our collaboration with Pfizer, and our expenditures on other research and development activities. We anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially as we:

prepare and initiate our planned Phase 1 and Phase 1/2 clinical trials of GMI-1271, beginning in 2014;

continue the research and development of our other drug candidates;

seek to discover and develop additional drug candidates;

seek regulatory approvals for any drug candidates other than GMI-1070 that successfully complete clinical trials;

ultimately establish a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure and scale up external manufacturing capabilities to commercialize any drug candidates other than GMI-1070 for which we may obtain regulatory approval;

maintain, expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio;

hire additional clinical, quality control and scientific personnel; and

add operational, financial and management information systems and personnel, including personnel to support our drug development and potential future commercialization efforts.

To fund further operations, we will need to raise capital in addition to the net proceeds we received from our IPO. We may obtain additional financing in the future through the issuance of our common stock, through other equity or debt financings or through collaborations or partnerships with other companies. We may not be able to raise additional capital on terms acceptable to us, or at all, and any failure to raise capital as and when needed could compromise our ability to execute on our business plan. Although it is difficult to predict future liquidity requirements, we believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents, together with interest thereon, will be sufficient to fund our operations for at least the next 12 months. However, our ability to successfully transition to profitability will be dependent upon achieving a level of revenues adequate to support our cost structure. We cannot assure you that we will ever be profitable or generate positive cash flow from operating activities.

Our Collaboration with Pfizer

In October 2011, we entered into the license agreement with Pfizer under which we granted Pfizer an exclusive worldwide license to develop and commercialize products containing GMI-1070 for all fields and uses. The license also covers specified back-up compounds along with modifications of and improvements to GMI-1070 that meet defined chemical properties. Pfizer is required to use commercially reasonable efforts, at its expense, to develop, obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize GMI-1070 for sickle cell disease in the United States. Under the terms of the agreement, we received a $22.5 million upfront payment. We are also eligible to earn potential milestone payments of up to $115.0 million upon the achievement of specified development milestones, including the dosing of the first patients in Phase 3 clinical trials for up to two indications and the first commercial sale of a licensed product in the United States and selected European countries for up to two indications, up to $70.0 million upon the achievement of specified regulatory milestones, including the acceptance of our filings for regulatory approval by regulatory authorities in the United States and Europe for up to two indications, and up to $135.0 million upon the achievement of specified levels of annual net sales of licensed products. We are also eligible to receive tiered royalties for each licensed product, with percentages ranging from the low double digits to the low teens, based on net sales worldwide, subject to reductions in specified circumstances.

The first potential milestone payment that we might be entitled to receive under the Pfizer agreement is $35.0 million upon the initiation of dosing of the first patient in a Phase 3 trial of GMI-1070 by Pfizer. In some specified circumstances, if Pfizer has not initiated dosing by April 2014, Pfizer is obligated to make an advance payment to us of $15.0 million against the first milestone payment.

Pfizer has advised us through the joint steering committee established under the agreement that they intend to begin enrolling patients for a Phase 3 trial of GMI-1070 in the second half of 2014, pending approval through


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Pfizer's governance process. Pfizer has also informed us through the joint steering committee that activities necessary to support the initiation of a Phase 3 trial in the second half of 2014 are currently underway pending approval through Pfizer's governance process. The steps that Pfizer has taken and is taking to prepare for a Phase 3 trial include manufacturing of the drug substance to be used in the Phase 3 trial, completion of toxicology studies that would support a Phase 3 trial and an NDA, engagement with regulatory authorities in the United States and overseas to discuss plans for the conduct of a Phase 3 trial, planning and preparation for a so-called TQTc clinical trial to evaluate cardiac safety that would support a Phase 3 trial, contracting with a CRO to provide services in the conduct of a Phase 3 trial and convening clinical investigators in the United States and overseas to discuss plans for a Phase 3 trial.

Although Pfizer has taken and is taking a number of steps to prepare for Phase 3 initiation in the second half of 2014, there can be no assurance that Pfizer will proceed on that schedule, or at all. There also can be no assurance that, if Pfizer does not initiate dosing by April 2014, the conditions to its obligation to make the $35.0 million milestone payment or the $15.0 million advance will be satisfied.

We have a research services agreement with the University of Basel, or the University, under which University personnel have performed research services for us on an as-requested basis since 2004. The agreement includes one-year research terms, and we have no affirmative obligation to purchase any minimum amount of services in any year beyond what we commit to at the beginning of each term, if any. For each of the research terms ended in February 2013 and 2014, we paid the University approximately $150,000. As part of the original consideration for entering into this agreement, we granted to the University the right to receive payments from us under specified circumstances. If we receive any future milestone payments or royalties from Pfizer with respect to GMI-1070, we have agreed to pay 10% of those amounts to the University.

Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates

Our management's discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, or GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the dates of the balance sheets and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting periods. In accordance with GAAP, we base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances at the time such estimates are made. Actual results may differ materially from our estimates and judgments under different assumptions or conditions. We periodically review our estimates in light of changes in circumstances, facts and experience. The effects of material revisions in estimates are reflected in our financial statements prospectively from the date of the change in estimate.

We define our critical accounting policies as those accounting principles generally accepted in the United States that require us to make subjective estimates and judgments about matters that are uncertain and are likely to have a material impact on our financial condition and results of operations, as well as the specific manner in which we apply those principles. While our significant accounting policies are more fully described in Note 2 to our financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report, we believe the following are the critical accounting policies used in the preparation of our financial statements that require significant estimates and judgments.

Revenue Recognition

Research Grant Contracts

From time to time, we are awarded reimbursement contracts for services and development grant contracts with government and non-government entities and philanthropic organizations. Under these contracts, we are typically reimbursed for our costs in connection with specific research or development activities. We recognize revenue as and to the extent we incur costs in connection with performance under these arrangements.


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License and Collaboration Agreements

We have entered into a license agreement with Pfizer. Under the agreement, Pfizer made a nonrefundable $22.5 million upfront payment to us in 2011 and may become obligated to make potential milestone payments to us upon the achievement of significant clinical development milestones, regulatory approvals and sales-based events.

The agreement also contemplates royalty payments to us on any future net sales of GMI-1070 worldwide.

Collaborative research and development agreements can provide for one or more of upfront license fees, research payments and milestone payments. Agreements with multiple components, such as deliverables or similar items, are referred to as multi-element revenue arrangements and are evaluated according to the provisions of Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, Topic 605-25, Revenue Recognition-Multiple-Element Arrangements, which we adopted effective as of January 1, 2011, to determine whether the deliverables can be separated into more than one unit of accounting. An item can generally be considered to be a separate unit of accounting if both of the following criteria are met:

the delivered item(s) has value to our customer on a standalone basis; and

the arrangement includes a general right of return relative to the delivered item(s), and delivery or performance of the undelivered item(s) is considered probable and substantially in our control.

Items that cannot be divided into separate units are combined with other units of accounting, as appropriate. Consideration received is then allocated among the separate units based on a selling price hierarchy. The selling price hierarchy for each deliverable is based on vendor-specific objective evidence, or VSOE, if it is available; third-party evidence of selling price, or TPE, if VSOE is not available; or an estimated selling price, if neither VSOE nor TPE is available.

Our license agreement with Pfizer represents a multiple-element revenue arrangement. To account for this transaction, we determined the elements, or deliverables, included in the arrangement and allocated arrangement consideration to the various elements based on each element's relative selling price. The identification of individual elements in a multiple-element arrangement and the estimation of the selling price of each element involve significant judgment, including consideration as to whether each delivered element has standalone value to our collaborator.

The primary deliverable under our license arrangement with Pfizer is an exclusive worldwide license to GMI-1070, which is currently being developed to treat people experiencing VOC. The arrangement also includes deliverables related to research and preclinical development activities to be performed by us on Pfizer's behalf and our participation on a joint steering committee. We concluded that these deliverables should be accounted for as a single unit of accounting, and we therefore determined to recognize the upfront payment of $22.5 million as revenue over the expected development period of 1.5 years, which was the period over which we expected to provide our research and development services and participate on the joint steering committee under the arrangement. Our determination of the appropriate length of the period over which to recognize revenue was consistent with the research plan agreed to with Pfizer.

In reaching this conclusion, we evaluated whether the license to GMI-1070 has standalone value to Pfizer. Factors we considered in determining whether the license has standalone value included whether or not Pfizer can use the license for its intended purpose without the receipt of the remaining deliverables, the value of the license without the undelivered items, Pfizer's or other vendors' ability to provide the undelivered items, the proprietary nature of the license and know-how, and the availability of our glycomimetics expertise in the general marketplace. Based on all relevant facts and circumstances and, most significantly, on the proprietary nature of our platform and the related proprietary nature of our research services, we concluded that standalone value does not exist for the license and, therefore, the license is not a separate unit of accounting under the collaboration and should be combined with the research and development services we are obligated to provide, including our participation on the joint steering committee.


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We also evaluated whether our participation on the joint steering committee is a substantive obligation and therefore a separate unit of accounting. The joint steering committee is responsible for overseeing the general working relationships, determining the protocols to be followed in the research and development performed and evaluating the results from the continued development of the drug candidate. The factors we considered in determining if our participation on the joint steering committee is a substantive obligation included:

which party negotiated or requested the steering committee;

how frequently the steering committee meets;

whether or not there are any penalties or other recourse if we do not attend the steering committee meetings;

which party has decision-making authority on the steering committee; and

whether or not Pfizer has the requisite experience and expertise associated with the research and development of GMI-1070.

We considered that we may terminate our participation on the joint steering committee at any point during the agreement. Further, the estimated selling price of our obligation was not material to the overall license agreement. Based on all relevant facts and circumstances, we concluded that our participation on the joint steering committee is not a substantive obligation and, therefore, is not a separate unit of accounting under the collaboration.

We were not able to establish VSOE or TPE for the separate unit deliverables under the arrangement with Pfizer, as we do not have a history of entering into such arrangements or selling the individual deliverables within such arrangements separately. Accordingly, we determined that the selling price for the deliverables under the Pfizer license agreement should be determined using the best estimate of selling price. The process of determining the best estimate of selling price involved significant judgment on our part and included consideration of multiple factors, including market conditions and company-specific factors, such as those factors contemplated in negotiating the agreement and internally developed models that included assumptions related to market opportunity, discounted cash flows, estimated development costs, probability of success and the time needed to commercialize a drug candidate pursuant to the license. In validating the best estimate of selling price, we considered whether changes in key assumptions used to determine the best estimate of selling price would have a significant effect on the allocation of the arrangement consideration between the multiple deliverables.

Our license agreement with Pfizer also includes contingent milestone payments related to specified development, regulatory and commercial milestones. We adopted ASC Topic 605-28, Revenue Recognition-Milestone Method, effective as of January 1, 2011. Under this guidance, we may recognize revenue contingent upon the achievement of a substantive milestone in its entirety in the period the milestone is achieved. Milestones are considered substantive if all of the following conditions are met:

the milestone is nonrefundable;

achievement of the milestone was not reasonably assured at the inception of the arrangement;

substantive effort is involved to achieve the milestone;

the amount of the milestone appears reasonable in relation to the effort expended or the risk associated with achievement of the milestone; and

a reasonable amount of time passes between the upfront license payment and the first milestone payment, as well as between each subsequent milestone payment.

Our determination as to whether a payment meets these five conditions involves management's judgment. If any of these conditions are not met, the resulting payment would not be considered a substantive milestone and would instead be considered part of the consideration for the single unit of accounting. In addition, if we determine that one milestone is not substantive, it could prevent us from concluding that subsequent milestones


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are substantive and, as a result, any additional milestone payments could also be considered part of the consideration for the single unit of accounting and would be recognized as revenue as those performance obligations are performed under either the proportional performance method or the straight-line method.

We have evaluated whether each milestone under the Pfizer arrangement is substantive and at risk to both parties on the basis of the contingent nature of that milestone. This evaluation included an assessment of whether:

the consideration is commensurate with either our performance to achieve the milestone or the enhancement of the value of the delivered item(s) as a result of a specific outcome resulting from our performance to achieve the milestone;

the consideration relates solely to past performance; and

the consideration is reasonable relative to all of the deliverables and payment terms within the arrangement.

Based on this evaluation, we concluded that the milestones under the Pfizer collaboration are substantive, due to the uncertainty of future clinical development success and the additional effort and time that is expected before the milestones could be achieved. Accordingly, each milestone will be recognized as revenue upon its achievement, assuming all other revenue recognition criteria are met.

Stock-Based Compensation

We issue stock-based compensation awards to our employees and non-employee directors, including stock options. We measure stock-based compensation expense related to these awards based on the fair value of the award on the date of grant and recognize stock-based compensation expense, less estimated forfeitures, on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the awards, which generally equals the vesting period. We grant stock options with exercise prices equal to the estimated fair value of our common stock on the date of grant. We have selected the Black-Scholes option pricing model to determine the fair value of stock option awards, which requires the input of various assumptions that require management to apply judgment and make assumptions and estimates, including:

the expected life of the stock option award;

the expected volatility of the underlying common stock; and

the fair value of our common stock determined on the date of grant.

The following table summarizes the assumptions we used for estimating the fair value of stock options granted to employees for the periods indicated:

                                                               YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31,
                                                  2013                   2012                   2011
Risk-free interest rate                               0.56 %                 0.60 %                 1.31 %
Expected life of option term                    6.25 years             6.25 years             6.25 years
Volatility                                           78.07 %                94.77 %               102.41 %
Estimated dividend yield                                 0 %                    0 %                    0 %
Weighted average grant date fair value        $       2.51           $       1.51           $       0.89

We have assumed no dividend yield because we do not expect to pay dividends in the future, which is consistent with our history of not paying dividends. The risk-free interest rate assumption is based on observed interest rates for constant maturity U.S. Treasury securities consistent with the expected life of our employee stock options. The expected life represents the period of time the stock options are expected to be outstanding and is based on the simplified method. Under the simplified method, the expected life of an option is presumed to be the midpoint between the vesting date and the end of the contractual term. We used the simplified method due to the lack of sufficient historical exercise data to provide a reasonable basis upon which to otherwise estimate the expected life of the stock options. Expected volatility is based on the historical volatilities of a peer group of comparable publicly traded companies with drug candidates in similar stages of development.


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The amount of stock-based compensation expense recognized during a period is based on the value of the portion of the awards that are ultimately expected to vest. Our estimate of pre-vesting forfeitures, or forfeiture rate, is based on our analysis of historical behavior by stock option holders. The estimated forfeiture rate is applied to the total estimated fair value of the awards, as derived from the Black-Scholes model, to compute the stock-based compensation expense, net of pre-vesting forfeitures, to be recognized in our statements of operations. We estimate forfeitures for employee grants at the time of grant and revise the estimates, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates.

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development costs are charged to expense as incurred and include employee-related expenses, including salaries, benefits and travel, expenses incurred under agreements with CROs and investigative sites that conduct preclinical studies and clinical trials, as well as the cost of acquiring, developing and manufacturing clinical trial materials, facilities, depreciation . . .

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