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LTBR > SEC Filings for LTBR > Form 10-K on 27-Mar-2014All Recent SEC Filings

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Annual Report

Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

The following Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, or MD&A, is intended to help the reader understand Lightbridge Corporation, our operations and our present business environment. MD&A is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with, our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes thereto contained in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" of this report. This overview summarizes the MD&A, which includes the following sections:

Overview of Our Business - a general overview of our two business segments, the material opportunities and challenges of our business;
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates - a discussion of accounting policies that require critical judgments and estimates;
Operations Review - an analysis of our Company's consolidated results of operations for the two years presented in our consolidated financial statements. Except to the extent that differences among our operating segments are material to an understanding of our business as a whole, we present the discussion in the MD&A on a consolidated basis; and
Liquidity, Capital Resources and Financial Position - an analysis of our cash flows; an overview of our financial position.

As discussed in more detail at the beginning of this Annual Report, the following discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties, and assumptions such as statements of our plans, objectives, expectations, and intentions. Our actual results may differ materially from those discussed in these forward-looking statements because of the risks and uncertainties inherent in future events.

Overview of Our Business

We are a leading nuclear fuel technology company, and participate in the nuclear power industry in the U.S. and internationally. Our business operations can be categorized into two segments: (i) we are a developer of next generation nuclear fuel technology that has the potential to significantly uprate the power output of reactors, reducing the per-megawatt-hourly cost of generating nuclear energy, and reducing nuclear waste and proliferation, and (ii) we are a provider of nuclear power consulting and strategic advisory services to commercial and governmental entities worldwide.

Currently our consulting revenue has not provided sufficient cash flow to cover both our research and development expenses and corporate overhead expenses. Currently, we are working on revenue opportunities with the overall goal of achieving profitability and increasing our cash flow. We anticipate entering into consulting and technology agreements with our existing and new potential clients, which could generate additional revenues and cash flows for us in 2014 and beyond. We have written proposals out to these prospects, which as of the date of this filing are pending approval.

We will continue to seek, depending on market conditions, new financing or additional sources of capital over the next 12 months. The primary potential sources of cash available to us are equity investments, strategic investments and new consulting contracts. We have no debt or credit lines and we have financed our operations to date through the sale of our common stock. In October 2013 we raised approximately $4.0 million after payment of certain fees and expenses related to our registered direct offering.

In support of our long-term business plan with respect to our fuel technology business, we endeavor to create strategic alliances with major fuel vendors, fuel fabricators and/or other strategic parties during the next three years, to support the remaining research and development activities required to further enhance and complete the development of our fuel products to a commercial stage.

Our consulting revenue decreased in 2013 primarily due to the decrease in our consulting work under the FANR contract. Our consulting projects are performed pursuant to ongoing requests to work on specific projects on a time and expense basis as needed. The future revenue to be earned and recognized will depend upon agreed upon work plans, which can differ from the revenue amounts initially planned to be earned under these agreements.

The major nuclear accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan increased public opposition to nuclear power in some countries, resulting in a slowdown in, or a complete halt to, new construction of nuclear power plants and an early shut down of existing power plants in select countries. As a result, some countries that were considering launching new domestic nuclear power programs before the Fukushima accident have delayed or cancelled preparatory activities they were planning to undertake as part of such programs. After the Fukushima accident, there has been an increased interest in countries seeking regulatory nuclear consulting, which has created an opportunity for us to expand our regulatory nuclear consulting work to other countries.

Our Nuclear Fuel Technology Business Segment

We are developing innovative, proprietary nuclear fuel designs that can significantly enhance the nuclear power industry's economics and increase power output by: (1) Providing an increase in power output of up to 10% while simultaneously extending the operating cycle length from 18 to 24 months in existing pressurized water reactors (which are currently limited to an 18-month operating cycle); alternatively, the power can be increased up to 17% while retaining an 18-month operating cycle; (2) Enabling increased reactor power output (up to 30% increase) without changing the core size in new build PWRs; and (3) Reducing the volume of used fuel per kilowatt-hour as well as enhancing proliferation resistance of spent fuel. In addition, as a result of the significantly lower temperature during operation, our metallic nuclear fuel rods are expected to have improved safety margins during anticipated off-normal events. Preliminary analytical modeling shows that under a large break loss-of-coolant (LOCA) scenario, unlike conventional uranium dioxide fuel, the cladding of the Lightbridge-designed metallic fuel rods stays at least 200 degrees below 850-900 degrees Celsius which is the temperature at which steam begins to react with zirconium in the cladding generating hydrogen gas.

For uprates up to 10%, only relatively minor reactor system modifications would be required. Accordingly, we believe that nuclear utilities with existing reactor fleets may find it economically attractive to initially start with a 10% power uprate fuel variant and switch to a 17% power uprate fuel variant at the time when steam generators and other expensive plant equipment reach their lifetime limit and have to be replaced. In that case, nuclear utilities would only have to incur the incremental capital cost above and beyond the cost of standard plant equipment being replaced to accommodate a 17% power uprate in their existing PWR plants.

We believe that a major opportunity for us is the possibility that our advanced nuclear fuel designs, which are currently in the research and development stage, will be used in many existing and new light water nuclear reactors. Light water reactors are the dominant reactor type currently used in the world, and fuels for such reactors constitute the majority of the commercial market for nuclear fuel.

In response to specific feedback from Lightbridge's Nuclear Utility Fuel Advisory Board comprised of senior fuel managers from four of the larger U.S. nuclear utilities (Exelon, Duke, Dominion, and Southern Company), we have enhanced our metallic fuel assembly design for existing PWRs, eliminating the outer blanket row of oxide fuel rods and making our entire fuel assembly metallic.

As a result, nuclear utilities using our metallic fuel in existing PWRs can realize improved safety, plant economics, and operating benefits (i.e., power uprate and longer fuel cycle) without the fuel performance constraints imposed by introducing oxide fuel rods into an assembly.

On October 15, 2013, we entered into a memorandum of understanding with Babcock & Wilcox Nuclear Energy, Inc. (B&W NE), a subsidiary of The Babcock & Wilcox Company to explore joint development of a pilot-scale facility to demonstrate fabrication of Lightbridge's innovative metallic nuclear fuel.

In December, the Company received a Notice of Allowance from the US Office of Patents and Trademarks (USPTO) for its key US patent covering our multi-lobed metallic fuel rod design and fuel assemblies. The actual patent issued on February 18, 2014. The patent number is 8,654,917 and is available on the USPTO website at The new patent is the single most important patent in the Company's intellectual property portfolio and secures patent protection in the U.S. - the world's largest market of pressurized water reactors currently in operation.

In the 4th quarter, the Company filed a new US utility patent application relating to the all-metal fuel assembly design incorporating the recent design enhancements that made it possible to eliminate the remaining single row of conventional oxide fuel rods from our all-metal fuel assembly and replace those with our proprietary metallic fuel rods.

Our goal is to enter into a definitive agreement with a fuel vendor/fabricator in 2014.

Consulting Business Segment

We are primarily engaged in the business of assisting commercial and governmental entities with developing and expanding their nuclear industry capabilities and infrastructure. We provide integrated strategic advice across a range of expertise areas including, for example, regulatory development, nuclear reactor site selection, procurement and deployment, reactor and fuel technology, international relations and regulatory affairs. Our consulting services are expert and relationship based, with particular emphasis on key decision makers in senior positions within governments or companies, as well as focus on overall management of nuclear energy programs. To date, substantially all of our revenues are derived from our consulting and strategic advisory services business segment, which primarily provides nuclear consulting services to entities within the United Arab Emirates, our first significant consulting and strategic advisory client. In April 2010 and December 2010, we began to provide consulting services in additional countries, including the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council (the GCC, a political and economic union that comprises the Gulf states of the Kingdom of Bahrain, State of Kuwait, Sultanate of Oman, State of Qatar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates) and Kuwait. We have also provided nuclear safety consulting advice to U.S. nuclear utilities.

On Oct. 7, 2013 we were selected as technical advisor to provide independent re-verification of equipment and material procurement processes related to construction and maintenance of nuclear power plants operated by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP). As a subcontractor to London-based Lloyd's Register Group Limited, we will focus on the environmental and seismic qualification and commercial grade dedication aspects of a two-year Lloyd's Register/KHNP contract. On March 3, 2014 we entered into a subcontractor services agreement with Lloyd's Register to provide services to the KHNP. This agreement is for work starting February 1, 2014 through February 1, 2015 and is for a maximum contract price of $400,000, inclusive of expenses and taxes.

Factors Affecting Our Financial Performance

Economics of Nuclear Power

In certain markets with a diversified energy base, decisions on new build power plants are largely affected by the economics of various energy sources. If prices of non-nuclear energy sources fall, it could limit the deployment of new build nuclear power plants in such markets. This could reduce the size of the potential markets for our fuel technology. If prices or production costs of non-nuclear energy increase, there may be increased demand for the deployment of new build nuclear power plants.

Consulting and Strategic Advisory Services

Our primary challenge in pursuing our business is that the decision making process for nuclear power programs typically involves careful consideration by many parties and therefore requires significant time. Many of the potential clients that could benefit from our services are in regions of the world where tensions surrounding nuclear energy are high, or in countries where public opinion plays an important role. Domestic and international political pressure may hinder our efforts to provide nuclear energy services, regardless of our focus on non-proliferative nuclear power.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

The SEC issued Financial Reporting Release No. 60, "Cautionary Advice Regarding Disclosure About Critical Accounting Policies" suggesting that companies provide additional disclosure and commentary on their most critical accounting policies. In Financial Reporting Release No. 60, the SEC has defined the most critical accounting policies as the ones that are most important to the portrayal of a company's financial condition and operating results, and require management to make its most difficult and subjective judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates of matters that are inherently uncertain. Based on this definition, we have identified the following significant policies as critical to the understanding of our financial statements.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make a variety of estimates and assumptions that affect (i) the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements and (ii) the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods covered by the financial statements.

Our management expects to make judgments and estimates about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. As the number of variables and assumptions affecting the future resolution of the uncertainties increase, these judgments become even more subjective and complex. Although we believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable, actual results may differ significantly from these estimates. Changes in estimates and assumptions based upon actual results may have a material impact on our results of operation and/or financial condition. We have identified certain accounting policies that we believe are most important to the portrayal of our current financial condition and results of operations.

Accounting for Stock Based Compensation, Stock Options and Stock Granted to Employees and Non-employees

We adopted the requirements for stock-based compensation, where all forms of share-based payments to employees or non-employees, including stock options and stock purchase plans, are treated the same as any other form of compensation by recognizing the related cost in the statement of income.

Under these requirements, stock-based compensation expense for employees is measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the award, and the expense is recognized ratably over the award's vesting period.

The stock-based compensation expense incurred by Lightbridge in connection with its employees is based on the employee model of ASC 718. Under ASC 718 employee is defined as "An individual over whom the grantor of a share-based compensation award exercises or has the right to exercise sufficient control to establish an employer-employee relationship based on common law as illustrated in case law and currently under U.S. tax regulations." Our advisory board members and consultants do not meet the employer-employee relationship as defined by the IRS and therefore are accounted for under ASC 505-50. Under these requirements, stock-based compensation expense for non-employees is based on the fair value of the award on the measurement date which is the earlier of the date at which a commitment for performance by the counterparty to earn the equity instruments is reached (a performance commitment), or the date at which the counterparty's performance is complete. For all grants made, we recognize compensation cost under the straight-line method.

We measure the fair value of stock options on the date of grant using a Black-Scholes option-pricing model which requires the use of several estimates, including:

the volatility of our stock price;
the expected life of the option;
risk free interest rates; and
expected dividend yield.

Prior to the completion of our merger in October 2006, we had limited historical information on the price of our stock as well as employees' stock option exercise behavior for stock options issued prior to the merger. We could not rely on historical experience alone to develop assumptions for stock price volatility and the expected life of options. As such, our stock price volatility was estimated with reference to our historical stock price for the time period before the merger, from the date the announcement of the merger was made. We utilized the closing prices of our publicly-traded stock from the announcement date in January 2006 to determine our volatility and we have continued to use our historical stock price closing prices to determine our volatility.

The expected life of options is based on internal studies of historical experience and projected exercise behavior. We estimate expected forfeitures of stock-based awards at the grant date and recognize compensation cost only for those awards expected to vest. The forfeiture assumption is ultimately adjusted to the actual forfeiture rate. Estimated forfeitures are reassessed in subsequent periods and may change based on new facts and circumstances. We utilize a risk-free interest rate, which is based on the yield of U.S. treasury securities with a maturity equal to the expected life of the options. We have not and do not expect to pay dividends on our common shares.

Income Taxes

We account for income taxes using the liability method in accordance with the accounting pronouncement "Accounting for Income Taxes", which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets or liabilities for the tax-effected temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of our assets and liabilities, and for net operating loss and tax credit carry forwards. The tax expense or benefit for unusual items, prior year tax exposure items, or certain adjustments to valuation allowances are treated as discrete items in the interim period in which the events occur.

On January 1, 2007, we adopted Accounting Interpretation "Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes", which addresses the determination of whether tax benefits claimed or expected to be claimed on a tax return should be recorded in the financial statements. Under this requirement, we may recognize the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. As a result of the implementation of this standard, we did not recognize any current tax liability for unrecognized tax benefits. We do not believe that there are any unrecognized tax positions that would have a material effect on the net operating losses disclosed.

Revenue Recognition from Consulting Contracts

We believe one of our critical accounting policies is revenue recognition from our consulting contracts. We are currently primarily deriving our revenue from fees by offering consulting and strategic advisory services to commercial and government owned entities outside the U.S. planning to create or expand electricity generation capabilities, using nuclear power plants. Our fee type and structure for each client engagement depend on a number of variables, including the size of the client, the complexity, the level of the opportunity for us to improve the client's electricity generation capabilities using nuclear power plants, and other factors.

The two consulting agreements that we entered into in August 2008 with the Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation (ENEC) and the Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation (FANR) were fixed-fee service contracts, but were subsequently changed to time and expense contracts. We recognize revenue associated with these contracts in accordance with the time and expense billed to our customer, which is subject to their review and approval. When a loss is anticipated on a contract, the full amount of the anticipated loss is recognized immediately. Our management uses its judgment concerning the chargeable number of hours to bill under each contract considering a number of factors, including the experience of the personnel that are performing the services, the value of the services provided and the overall complexity of the project. Should changes in management's estimates be required, due to business conditions that cause the actual financial results to differ significantly from management's present estimates, revenue recognized in future periods could be adversely affected.

We recognize revenue in accordance with SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin or SAB, No. 104, "Revenue Recognition". We recognize revenue when all of the following conditions are met:

(1) There is persuasive evidence of an arrangement;
(2) The service has been provided to the customer;
(3) The collection of the fees is reasonably assured; and
(4) The amount of fees to be paid by the customer is fixed or determinable.

In situations where contracts include client acceptance provisions, we do not recognize revenue until such time as the client has confirmed its acceptance.


As presented on the accompanying balance sheet, we had patents with a net book value of approximately $0.7 million as of December 31, 2013. There are many assumptions and estimates that may directly impact the results of impairment testing, including an estimate of future expected revenues, earnings and cash flows, and discount rates applied to such expected cash flows in order to estimate fair value. We have the ability to influence the outcome and ultimate results based on the assumptions and estimates we choose for testing. To mitigate undue influence, we set criteria that are reviewed and approved by various levels of management. The determination of whether or not intangible assets have become impaired involves a significant level of judgment in the assumptions. Changes in our strategy or market conditions could significantly impact these judgments and require adjustments to recorded amounts of intangible assets.


Management assesses the probability of loss for certain contingencies and accrues a liability and/or discloses the relevant circumstances, as appropriate. Management discloses any liability which, taken as a whole, may have a material adverse effect on the financial condition of the Company. Refer to Note 9 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Recent Accounting Standards and Pronouncements

Refer to Note 1 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for a discussion of recent accounting standards and pronouncements.

Operations Review

Business Segments and Periods Presented

We have provided a discussion of our results of operations on a consolidated basis and have also provided certain detailed segment information for each of our business segments below for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, in order to provide a meaningful discussion of our business segments. We have organized our operations into two principal segments: Consulting and Nuclear Fuel Technology. We present our segment information along the same lines that our chief executives review our operating results in assessing performance and allocating resources.


                                                                                   Corporate and
                      Consulting                     Technology                     Eliminations                       Total
                 2013           2012            2013            2012            2013            2012            2013            2012
Revenue      $ 1,901,354    $ 3,677,596    $          -    $          -    $          -    $          -    $  1,901,354    $  3,677,596
Profit - Pre
Tax          $   286,299    $   719,158    $ (2,030,194 )  $ (2,064,568 )  $ (3,121,066 )  $ (2,711,665 )  $ (4,864,961 )  $ (4,057,075 )
Total Assets $   425,916    $   601,803    $    699,168    $    600,596    $  4,532,555    $  4,941,257    $  5,657,639    $  6,143,656
Additions    $         -    $         -    $          -    $          -    $          -    $        936    $          -    $        936
Expense      $         -    $         -    $          -    $          -    $          -    $          -    $          -    $          -
Expense      $         -    $         -    $          -    $      1,577    $     17,221    $     26,780    $     17,221    $     28,357

Technology Business

Over the next 12 to 15 months, we expect to incur approximately $3-4 million in research and development expenses related to the development of our proprietary nuclear fuel designs. We spent approximately $2.0 million and $2.1 million for research and development during the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.

Over the next 2-3 years, we expect that our research and development activities will increase and will be primarily focused on testing and demonstration of our metallic fuel technology for Western-type pressurized water reactors. The main objective of this research and development phase is to prepare for full-scale demonstration of our fuel technology in an operating commercial PWR.

Consulting Services Business

At the present time, all of our revenue for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012 is from our consulting services business segment and is derived by offering services to governments outside of the U.S. planning to create or expand electricity generation capabilities using nuclear power plants. The fee type and structure that we offer for each client engagement is dependent on a number of variables, including the complexity of the services, the level of the opportunity for us to improve the client's electricity generation capabilities using nuclear power plants, and other factors.

Consolidated Results of Operations

The following table presents our historical operating results as a percentage of revenues for the years indicated:

                                                                                                 Year Ended
                                                                                                December 31,
                                                                                               2013        2012
Consolidated Statements of Income Data:
Revenues                                                                                        100   %     100    %
Costs and expenses:
Cost of revenues                                                                                 58          62
Gross Profit                                                                                     42          38
. . .
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