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WIFI > SEC Filings for WIFI > Form 10-K on 17-Mar-2014All Recent SEC Filings

Show all filings for BOINGO WIRELESS INC



Annual Report


The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read together with "Selected Consolidated Financial Data" and our audited consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included elsewhere in this filing. This discussion contains forward-looking statements, based on current expectations and related to our plans, estimates, beliefs and anticipated future financial performance. These statements involve risks and uncertainties and our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of many factors, including those set forth under "Risk Factors," "Forward-Looking Statements" and elsewhere in this filing.


We believe we are the leading global provider of commercial mobile Wi-Fi Internet solutions. Our software applications and solutions enable individuals to access our extensive global Wi-Fi network of over 800,000 hotspots with devices such as smartphones, tablet computers, and laptops. Our offerings provide compelling cost and performance advantages to our customers and partners.

We grew revenue from $102.5 million in 2012 to $106.7 million in 2013, an increase of 4.1%. We grew revenue from $94.6 million in 2011 to $102.5 million in 2012, an increase of 8.4%. We generated a net loss attributable to common stockholders of $3.8 million in 2013 compared to net income attributable to common stockholders of $7.3 million in 2012. Adjusted EBITDA decreased from $30.6 million in 2012 to $23.8 million in 2013, a decrease of 22.3%. For a discussion of Adjusted EBITDA and a reconciliation of net (loss) income attributable to common stockholders to Adjusted EBITDA, see footnote 1 to "Selected Financial Data" in Part II, Item 6.

The proliferation of smartphones, tablet computers, laptops and other Wi-Fi enabled devices-in conjunction with the increased mobile consumption of streaming media, social networking, downloading large email attachments and video calling-has created a demand for high-speed, high-bandwidth Internet access in public places both large and small. These data intensive activities are driving a global surge in mobile Internet data traffic that is expected to increase 11 times between 2013 and 2018, according to Cisco's Visual Networking Index. We believe these trends present us with opportunities to generate significant growth in revenue and profitability.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and rules and regulations of the United States Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, as well as the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities, at the date of the financial statements. Such estimates and assumptions also affect the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Although we believe these estimates are reasonable, actual results could differ from these estimates. On a regular basis, we evaluate our assumptions, judgments and estimates. We also discuss our critical accounting policies and estimates with the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors.

We believe that the assumptions and estimates associated with revenue recognition, business combinations, goodwill, measuring recoverability of long-lived assets, stock-based compensation and income taxes have the greatest potential impact on our consolidated financial statements. Therefore, we believe the accounting policies discussed below are paramount to understanding our historical and future performance, as these policies relate to the more significant areas involving our management's judgments, assumptions and estimates.

Revenue Recognition

We generate revenue from several sources including: (i) platform service arrangements with wholesale customers that provide software licensing, network access, and professional services fees, (ii) wholesale customers that are telecom operators under long-term contracts for access to our DAS at our managed and operated locations, (iii) retail customers under subscription plans for month-to-month network access that automatically renew, and retail single-use access from sales of hourly, daily or other single-use access plans, and
(iv) display advertisements and sponsorships on our walled garden sign-in pages. Software licensed by our wholesale platform services customers can only be used during the term of the service arrangements and has no utility to them upon termination of the service arrangement.

We recognize revenue when an arrangement exists, services have been rendered, fees are fixed or determinable, no significant obligations remain related to the earned fees and collection of the related receivable is reasonably assured.

Services provided to wholesale partners under platform service arrangements generally contain several elements including: (i) a term license to use our software to access our Wi-Fi network, (ii) access fees for network usage, and
(iii) professional services for software integration and customization and to maintain the Wi-Fi service. The term license, monthly minimum network access fees and professional services are billed on a monthly basis based upon predetermined fixed rates. Once the term license for integration and customization are delivered, the fees from the arrangement are recognized ratably over the remaining term of the platform service arrangement. The initial term of platform service license agreements is generally between one to five years and the agreements generally contain renewal clauses. Revenue for network access fees in excess of the monthly minimum amounts is recognized when earned. All elements within existing platform service arrangements are generally delivered and earned concurrently throughout the term of the respective service arrangement.

Revenue generated from access to our DAS networks consists of build-out fees and recurring access fees under certain long-term contracts with telecom operators. Build-out fees paid upfront are generally deferred and recognized ratably over the term of the estimated customer relationship period, once the build-out is complete. Minimum monthly access fees for usage of the DAS networks are non-cancellable and generally escalate on an annual basis. These minimum monthly access fees are recognized ratably over the term of the telecom operator agreement. The initial term of our contracts with telecom operators and wholesale partners generally range from three to fifteen years and the agreements generally contain renewal clauses. Revenue from network access fees in excess of the monthly minimums is recognized when earned.

In instances where the minimum monthly network access fees escalate over the term of the wholesale service arrangement, an unbilled receivable is recognized when performance is within our control and when we have reasonable assurance that the unbilled receivable balance will be collected.

For multiple-deliverable arrangements entered into prior to January 1, 2011 that are accounted for under Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 605-25, Revenue Recognition-Multiple- Deliverable Revenue Arrangements, we defer recognition of revenue for the full arrangement and recognize all revenue ratably over the wholesale service period for platform service arrangements and the term of the estimated customer relationship period for DAS arrangements, as we did not have evidence of fair value for the undelivered elements in the arrangement. For multiple-deliverable arrangements entered into or materially modified after January 1, 2011 that are accounted for under ASC 605-25, we evaluate whether or not separate units of accounting exist and then allocate the arrangement consideration to all units of accounting based on the relative selling price method using estimated selling prices if vendor specific objective evidence and third-party evidence is not available. We recognize the revenue associated with the separate units of accounting upon completion of such services or ratably over the wholesale service period for platform

service arrangements and the term of the estimated customer relationship period for DAS arrangements.

Subscription fees from retail customers are paid monthly in advance and revenue is deferred for the portions of monthly recurring subscription fees collected in advance. We do not have a stated or published refund policy for our Wi-Fi service, although our customer service representatives will provide a refund on a case-by-case basis. These amounts are not significant and are recorded as contra-revenue in the period the refunds are made. Subscription fee revenue is recognized ratably over the subscription period. Revenue generated from retail single-use access is recognized when earned.

Advertising revenue is generated from advertisements on our managed and operated or partner networks. In determining whether an arrangement exists, we ensure that a binding arrangement is in place, such as a standard insertion order or a fully executed customer-specific agreement. Obligations pursuant to our advertising revenue arrangements typically include a minimum number of units or the satisfaction of certain performance criteria. Advertising and other revenue is recognized when the services are performed.

Business Combinations

We allocate the total purchase price of a business combination to the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values at the acquisition date, with the excess purchase price recorded as goodwill. An income, market or cost valuation method may be utilized to estimate the fair value of the assets acquired or liabilities assumed in a business combination. The income valuation method represents the present value of future cash flows over the life of the asset using (i) discrete financial forecasts, which rely on management's estimates of revenue and operating expenses, (ii) long-term growth rates, (iii) an appropriate discount rate and (iv) an appropriate royalty rate, where applicable. The market valuation method uses prices paid for a reasonably similar asset by other purchasers in the market, with adjustments relating to any differences between the assets. The cost valuation method is based on the replacement cost of a comparable asset at prices at the time of the acquisition reduced for depreciation of the asset.


Goodwill represents the excess of purchase price over fair value of net assets acquired. Goodwill is not amortized but instead is tested annually for impairment, or more frequently when events or changes in circumstances indicate that fair value of the reporting unit has been reduced to less than its carrying value. We perform our impairment test annually as of December 31st. Entities have the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount as a basis for determining whether it is necessary to perform the two-step goodwill impairment test described in ASC 350, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other. If, after assessing qualitative factors, an entity determines it is not more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then performing the two-step impairment test is unnecessary. If deemed necessary, a two-step test is used to identify the potential impairment and to measure the amount of goodwill impairment, if any. The first step is to compare the fair value of the reporting unit with its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, goodwill is considered not impaired; otherwise, there is an indication that goodwill may be impaired and the amount of the loss, if any, is measured by performing step two. Under step two, the impairment loss, if any, is measured by comparing the implied fair value of the reporting unit goodwill with the carrying amount of goodwill.

At December 31, 2013 and 2012, we tested our goodwill for impairment using a market based approach and no impairment was identified as the fair value of our sole reporting unit was substantially in excess of its carrying amount. To date, we have not recorded any goodwill impairment charges.

Measuring Recoverability of Long-Lived Assets

We perform an impairment review of long-lived assets held and used whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Factors we consider important that could trigger an impairment review include, but are not limited to, significant under-performance relative to projected future operating results, significant changes in the manner of our use of the acquired assets or our overall business and/or product strategies and significant industry or economic trends. When we determine that the carrying value of a long-lived asset may not be recoverable based upon the existence of one or more of these indicators, we determine the recoverability by comparing the carrying amount of the asset to net future undiscounted cash flows that the asset is expected to generate or other indices of fair value. We would then recognize an impairment charge equal to the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair market value of the asset.

Stock-based Compensation

Stock-based compensation consists of stock options and restricted stock units ("RSUs"), which are granted to employees and non-employees. We recognize compensation expense equal to the grant date fair value on a straight-line basis, net of estimated and actual forfeitures, over the employee requisite service period. The grant date fair value of our stock option awards is determined using the Black-Scholes option pricing model.

Prior to our IPO, in 2011 and 2010, we granted options to purchase shares of our common stock. Because there was no public market for our common stock prior to our IPO, determining the fair value of our common stock required making complex and subjective judgments and there was inherent uncertainty in our estimate of fair value. Prior to our IPO, our general policy was to grant employee options at exercise prices equal to the fair value of the underlying common stock at the time of grant, as determined by us and our Board of Directors. To determine the fair value of our common stock, we considered many factors, including:

our current and historical financial performance;

our expected future financial performance;

our financial condition at the grant date;

the liquidation rights and other preferences of our preferred stock;

input from management;

the lack of marketability of our common stock;

the anticipation or likelihood of a potential liquidity event such as a sale of the business or IPO;

the condition of and outlook for our industry;

the business risks inherent in our business;

the market performance of comparable publicly-traded companies; and

the United States and global capital market conditions.

To determine the estimated fair value of our common stock at each grant date, we conducted a periodic in-depth valuation analysis of our common stock prepared with the assistance of an independent valuation firm and also considered the factors noted above. Our valuation analysis followed the guidance set forth by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, or AICPA, Technical Practice Aid, "Valuation of Privately-Held-Company Equity Securities Issued as Compensation," referred to herein as the AICPA Practice Aid. Based on the guidance of the AICPA Practice Aid, we utilized a combination of valuation methods including an income approach using an

analysis of expected future discounted cash flows and a market approach for similar companies with publicly-traded ownership interests (market comparable method). We then weighted these two valuations to calculate an expected business enterprise value which was applied to our capital structure to determine a value per common share.

The expected future discounted cash flows analysis identifies a level of annual cash flows for a finite number of years and a residual value at the end of the projection period. A discount rate which reflects estimates of investor- required rates of return for similar investments is used to calculate the present value. The market comparable method uses valuation multiples of comparable companies which are applied to our operating statistics to arrive at a value. These two business enterprise values are then equally weighted to determine the total valuation.

To estimate the value of common shares, we used a dynamic option model to value the various components of our capital structure. These components included common shares, liquidation rights and preferences of our preferred stock, warrants and options on common shares. The total value of these securities was divided by the number of fully converted shares to provide an estimated value of common shares on a marketable, controlling interest. A discount for lack of control and lack of marketability was then applied to yield the value per common share.

For stock-based awards granted subsequent to our IPO, our board of directors determined the fair market value based on the closing price of our common stock as reported on the NASDAQ Global Market on the date of grant.

Income Taxes

Income taxes are provided based on the liability method, which results in income tax assets and liabilities arising from temporary differences. Temporary differences are differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts in the financial statements that will result in taxable or deductible amounts in future years. The liability method requires the effect of tax rate changes on current and accumulated deferred income taxes to be reflected in the period in which the rate change was enacted. The liability method also requires that deferred tax assets be reduced by a valuation allowance unless it is more likely than not that the assets will be realized.

We may recognize the tax benefit from uncertain tax positions only if it is at least more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position should be measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon settlement with the taxing authorities.

We establish valuation allowances when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amounts expected to be realized. We evaluate the need for, and the adequacy of, valuation allowances based on the expected realization of our deferred tax assets. The factors used to assess the likelihood of realization include historical earnings, our latest forecast of taxable income and available tax planning strategies that could be implemented to realize the net deferred tax assets.

Our effective tax rates are primarily affected by changes in our valuation allowances, the amount of our taxable income or losses in the various taxing jurisdictions in which we operate, the amount of federal and state net operating losses and tax credits, the extent to which we can utilize these net operating loss carryforwards and tax credits and certain benefits related to stock option activity.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

Information regarding recent accounting pronouncements is contained in Note 2 "Significant Accounting Policies" to the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8, which is incorporated herein by this reference.

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     Key Business Metrics

    In addition to monitoring traditional financial measures, we also monitor
our operating performance using the following key performance indicators:

                                        Year Ended December 31,
                                       2013       2012       2011
                                         (in thousands, except
                                              churn data)
                     Subscribers          310        284        257
                     Monthly churn       10.1 %      9.7 %      9.2 %
                     Connects          50,830     24,490     12,314
                     DAS nodes            6.3        5.6        4.6

Subscribers. This metric represents the number of paying retail customers who are on a month-to-month subscription plan at a given period end.

Monthly churn. This metric shows the number of subscribers who canceled their subscriptions in a given month, expressed as a percentage of the average subscribers in that month. The churn in a given period is the average monthly churn in that period. This measure is one indicator of the longevity of our subscribers. Some of our customers who cancel subscriptions maintain accounts for single-use access.

Connects. This metric shows how often individuals connect to our global Wi-Fi network in a given period. The connects include retail and wholesale customers in both customer pay locations and customer free locations where we are a paid service provider or receive sponsorship or promotion fees. We count each connect as a single connect regardless of how many times that individual accesses the network at a given venue during their 24 hour period. This measure is an indicator of paid activity throughout our network.

DAS nodes. This metric represents the number of active DAS nodes as of the end of the period. A DAS node is a single communications endpoint, typically an antenna, which transmits or receives radio frequency signals wirelessly. This measure is an indicator of the reach of our DAS network.

Key Components of our Results of Operations


Our revenue consists of wholesale revenue, retail revenue, and advertising and other revenue.

Wholesale. We generate revenue from wholesale partners that license our software and pay usage-based monthly network access fees to allow their customers to access our global Wi-Fi network, and telecom operator partners that pay us build-out fees and access fees for our DAS networks. Usage-based network access fees may be measured in minutes, connects, megabytes or gigabytes, and in most cases are subject to minimum volume commitments. Other wholesale partners pay us monthly fees to provide a Wi-Fi infrastructure that we install, manage and operate at their venues for their customers under a service provider arrangement.

Retail subscription. We generate revenue from sales to individuals of month-to-month network access subscriptions that automatically renew, primarily through charge card transactions.

Retail single-use. We generate revenue from sales of hourly, daily or other single-use access to individuals primarily through charge card transactions.

Advertising and other. We generate revenue from advertisers that seek to reach visitors to our landing pages at our managed and operated network locations with online advertising, promotional and

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sponsored programs and at locations where we solely provide authorized access to a partner's Wi-Fi network through sponsored access and promotional programs. In addition, we receive revenue from partners in certain venues where we manage and operate the Wi-Fi network.

For the year ended December 31, 2013, two groups of entities affiliated with Verizon Communications, Inc. and AT&T Inc. each accounted for 14% of total revenue. For the year ended December 31, 2012, those same two groups of affiliated entities accounted for 17% and 15% of total revenue, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2011, one group of entities affiliated with Verizon Communications, Inc. accounted for 18% of total revenue. The loss of these groups and the customers could have a material adverse impact on our consolidated statements of operations.

Costs and Operating Expenses

We classify our costs and operating expenses as network access, network operations, development and technology, selling and marketing, general and administrative, and amortization of intangible assets. Network access costs consist primarily of payments to venues and network partners in our network. Other costs and operating expenses primarily consist of personnel costs, costs for contracted labor and development, marketing, legal, accounting and consulting services, and other professional service fees. Personnel costs include salaries, bonuses, stock-based compensation and employee benefits. Facilities costs and depreciation expenses are generally allocated based on headcount. Depreciation and amortization expenses associated with specifically identifiable property and equipment are allocated to the appropriate expense categories.

Network access. Network access costs consist of revenue share payments to venue owners where our managed and operated hotspots are located, usage-based fees to our roaming network partners for access to their networks, depreciation of equipment related to network build-out projects in our managed and operated locations, sale of equipment, and bandwidth and other Internet connectivity expenses in our managed and operated locations.

Network operations. Network operations expenses consist of costs for our customer service department and for our operations staff that designs, builds, monitors and maintains the network. Also included are expenses for our customer service provider that handles customer care inquiries and expenses for network operations contractors, equipment depreciation and software and hardware maintenance fees.

Development and technology. Development and technology expenses consist of costs for our product development and engineering departments, developers and our information systems services staff, depreciation of our equipment and internal-use software, and software and hardware maintenance fees.

Selling and marketing. Selling and marketing expenses consist of costs for our business development and marketing employees and executives, travel and entertainment and marketing programs.

General and administrative. General and administrative expenses consist of costs for our executive, finance and accounting, legal and human resources personnel, as well as legal, accounting, tax and other professional service fees. Also included are other corporate expenses such as charge card processing fees and bad debt expense.

Amortization of intangible assets. Amortization of intangible assets consists primarily of acquired venue contracts, technology and non-compete agreements.

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Interest and Other Income (Expense), Net

Interest and other income (expense), net, primarily consist of interest income and expense.

Income Tax Expense

In 2013, income tax expense includes $2.3 million of tax expense related to . . .

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