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PLX > SEC Filings for PLX > Form 10-K on 13-Mar-2014All Recent SEC Filings




Annual Report

Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis, particularly with respect to our plans and strategy for our business and related financing, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. You should read "Risk Factors" in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a discussion of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis.


We are a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of recombinant therapeutic proteins based on our proprietary ProCellEx protein expression system. Using our ProCellEx system, we are developing a pipeline of proprietary, biobetter and biosimilar versions of recombinant therapeutic proteins, based on our plant cell-based expression technology, that primarily target large, established pharmaceutical markets and that rely upon known biological mechanisms of action. Our initial commercial focus has been on complex therapeutic proteins, including proteins for the treatment of genetic disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Fabry disease. We believe ProCellEx will enable us to develop proprietary recombinant proteins that are therapeutically equivalent or superior to existing recombinant proteins currently marketed for the same indications. Because we are primarily targeting biologically equivalent versions of highly active, well-tolerated and commercially successful therapeutic proteins, we believe our development process is associated with relatively less risk compared to other biopharmaceutical development processes for completely novel therapeutic proteins. We are now also applying the unique properties of our ProCellEx system for the oral delivery of therapeutic proteins, with the first two product candidates being glucocerebrosidase and antiTNF fusion protein.

On May 1, 2012, the FDA approved for sale our first commercial product, taliglucerase alfa for injection, which is being marketed in the United States and Israel under the brand name ELELYSO, as an enzyme replacement therapy, or ERT, for the long-term treatment of adult patients with a confirmed diagnosis of type 1 Gaucher disease. Subsequently, taliglucerase alfa was approved by ANVISA in March 2013, by the Israeli MOH in September 2012, and by the applicable regulatory authorities in Uruguay, Mexico and Chile. Taliglucerase alfa will be marketed under the name UPLYSO in Brazil and certain other Latin American countries. Taliglucerase alfa is our proprietary, recombinant form of glucocerebrosidase, or GCD, that is produced or expressed through ProCellEx. Taliglucerase alfa is the first plant cell-based recombinant therapeutic protein to be approved by the FDA or by the regulatory authorities with jurisdiction over any substantial market. Gaucher disease is a rare and serious lysosomalstorage disorder with severe and debilitating symptoms. Gaucher patients suffer from mutations in or deficiencies of GCD, an enzyme that is naturally found in human cells.

Since May 2012, taliglucerase alfa has been marketed in the United States by Pfizer, our commercialization partner, as provided in the Pfizer Agreement. We granted Pfizer an exclusive, worldwide license to develop and commercialize taliglucerase alfa under the Pfizer Agreement, but we retained those rights in Israel and in Brazil. We have agreed to a specific allocation between Protalix Ltd. and Pfizer of the responsibilities for the continued development efforts for taliglucerase alfa outside of Israel. Since 2013, taliglucerase alfa has been marketed in Israel by Protalix Ltd.

On June 18, 2013, we entered into the Brazil Agreement with Fiocruz for taliglucerase alfa. The agreement became effective in January 2014. The technology transfer is designed to be completed in four stages and is intended to transfer to Fiocruz the capacity and skills required for the Brazilian government to construct its own manufacturing facility, at its sole expense, and to produce a sustainable, high-quality, and cost-effective supply of taliglucerase alfa. The initial term of the technology transfer is seven years. Under the agreement, Fiocruz has committed to purchase at least approximately $40 million worth of taliglucerase alfa during the first two years of the term. In subsequent years, Fiocruz is required to purchase at least approximately $40 million worth of taliglucerase alfa per year. Additionally, we are not required to complete the final stage of the technology transfer until Fiocruz purchases at least approximately $280 million worth of taliglucerase alfa.

We are cooperating with Pfizer to obtain marketing approval for taliglucerase alfa in additional countries and jurisdictions. In addition to those countries in which taliglucerase alfa has been approved, marketing authorization applications have been filed in other countries.

In December 2012, we entered into a Clinical Development Agreement with Pfizer under which we will continue to manage, administer and sponsor current, ongoing clinical trials relating to ELELYSO. We are currently sponsoring extension studies of ELELYSO in adult and pediatric patients. New clinical trials for ELELYSO, if it is elected that any such clinical trial be performed, will be conducted and sponsored by Pfizer. Under the terms of the agreement, we were eligible to receive a payment of $8.3 million upon the achievement of certain near-term clinical development goals. The goals were achieved prior to the end of fiscal year 2012 and the $8.3 million payment has been paid in full. This agreement helps to maintain the continuity of the ongoing clinical trials for Gaucher patients and physicians and reinforces the companies' mutual commitment to the Gaucher community.

We performed a number of studies on taliglucerase alfa to supplement the pivotal phase III clinical trial, which we completed in September 2009. We initiated a double-blind, follow-on extension study in 2008 which consisted of eligible patients who had completed nine months of treatment in the pivotal phase III clinical trial. The patients were offered the opportunity to continue to receive taliglucerase alfa at the same dose they received in the pivotal trial for an additional 15 months in a blinded manner. We also conducted a nine-month, worldwide, multi-center, open-label, switch-over clinical study evaluating the safety and efficacy of switching Gaucher patients currently treated with Cerezyme, which is produced by Genzyme, with taliglucerase alfa, which was successfully completed in 2011. We also conducted a 12-month clinical trial of nave and switchover pediatric patients, which was successfully completed in 2012. Based on the data from this study, an application for a supplement to the NDA for ELEYSO, allowing a pediatric use indication to be added to the product label, has recently been submitted by Pfizer to the FDA.Patients in the extension trials are still being treated with taliglucerase alfa.

Currently, patients are being treated with taliglucerase alfa on a commercial basis in the United States, Brazil, Israel and Chile. Globally, patients are being treated through our extension trials and related studies, compassionate use programs, special access agreements, named patient provisions and other programs designed to ensure that treatments are available to Gaucher patients in light of recent shortages of approved treatments. In France, Gaucher patients are being treated with taliglucerase alfa through an Autorisation Temporaire d'Utilisation (ATU), or Temporary Authorization for Use, a regulatory mechanism used by the French Health Products and Safety Agency to make non-approved drugs available to patients in France when a genuine public health need exists. In addition to the United States and France, taliglucerase alfa is currently being provided to Gaucher patients under special access agreements or named patient provisions in Brazil and in other countries. Hundreds of patients, in the aggregate, have been treated with taliglucerase alfa.

In addition to taliglucerase alfa, we are developing an innovative product pipeline using our ProCellEx protein expression system. Our product pipeline currently includes, among other candidates: PRX-102, a therapeutic protein candidate for the treatment of Fabry disease; PRX-112, an orally administered glucocerebrosidase enzyme for the treatment of Gaucher patients utilizing oral delivery of the recombinant GCD enzyme produced and encapsulated within carrot cells; PRX-106, an oral antiTNF, a plant cell expressed recombinant fusion protein combined of the binding domain of the human TNF receptor (TNFR) and an antibody portion, which is being developed for the treatment of certain immune and inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, colitis, Crohn's disease, psoriasis and other autoimmune and inflammatory disorders; PRX-110, a proprietary plant cell recombinant human Deoxyribonuclease 1 under development for the treatment of cystic fibrosis, to be administered by inhalation; PRX-107, a proprietary plant cell recombinant AAT; and others.

Except for the rights to commercialize taliglucerase alfa worldwide (other than Brazil and Israel), which we licensed to Pfizer, we hold the worldwide commercialization rights to all of our proprietary development candidates. We have built an internal marketing team designed to serve the Israeli market for taliglucerase alfa and we intend to establish internal commercialization and marketing teams for our other product candidates in North America, the European Union and in other significant markets, including Israel, subject to required marketing approvals, as the need arises. In addition, we continuously evaluate potential strategic marketing partnerships as well as collaboration programs with biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies and academic research institutes.

Critical Accounting Policies

Our significant accounting policies are more fully described in Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements appearing at the end of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We believe that the accounting policies below are critical for one to fully understand and evaluate our financial condition and results of operations.

The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our financial statements, which we prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate such estimates and judgments, including those described in greater detail below. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

Functional Currency

The currency of the primary economic environment in which our operations are conducted is the U.S. dollar. Most of our revenues are derived in dollars. In addition, most of our expenses and capital expenditures are incurred in dollars, and the major source of our financing has been provided in dollars.


Currently, our source of revenues comes from sales of taliglucerase alfa pursuant to our license agreement with Pfizer, our sales of taliglucerase alfa in Israel and Brazil and from milestone payments under the Pfizer Agreement. We recognize revenue when the earnings process is complete, which is when revenue is realized or realizable and earned, there is persuasive evidence a revenue arrangement exists, delivery of goods or services has occurred, the sales price is fixed or determinable and collectability is reasonably assured.

We recognize revenue from milestone payments received pursuant to the Pfizer Agreement in accordance with guidance regarding revenue recognition and accounting for revenue arrangements with multiple deliverables. Pursuant to this guidance, we determine whether our arrangement with Pfizer involves multiple revenue-generating deliverables that should be accounted for as a combined unit of accounting or separate units of accounting for revenue recognition purposes. If we determine that there are multiple units of accounting, the consideration from the arrangement is allocated among the separate units based on a relative fair value allocation. If the arrangement represents a single unit of accounting, the revenue is recognized over the performance obligation period. As the arrangement with Pfizer requires our continued involvement with respect to the proposed commercialization of taliglucerase alfa, the non-refundable, up-front license payments we received from Pfizer are deferred and recognized over the related performance period. We estimated the performance period of 14 years based on the date that the last relevant patent relating to taliglucerase alfa expires. The $25.0 million milestone payment received in connection with the FDA's approval of taliglucerase alfa in the United States was considered to be a substantive milestone for purposes of revenue recognition, and, accordingly, was recorded as revenue during the period in which the milestone was achieved.

Under the terms and conditions of the Pfizer Agreement, we are entitled to 40% of the net profits or loss from sales of taliglucerase alfa by Pfizer and reimbursement of our certain related expenses we incur in connection with Pfizer's sales (other than those related to sales in Israel). We hold all rights to taliglucerase alfa in Israel and Brazil. We recognize our share of net profit or loss under the Pfizer Agreement based on reports we receive from Pfizer summarizing the results of the collaborative activities under the agreement for the applicable period. Under the terms of the Pfizer Agreement, for its subsidiaries operating outside the United States, financial information is included based on the fiscal year ending November 30, while financial information for the U.S. entity is included based on the fiscal year ending December 31.

We recognize revenues received from the sale of a product when the sales price is fixed or determinable and collectability is reasonably assured. The revenues represent our cost with respect to the product sold.

We recognize net product revenue from our sales of ELELYSO in Israel when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, the product has been delivered to the customer, title and risk of loss have passed to the customer, the price to the buyer is fixed or determinable and collection from the customer is reasonably assured. Product sale transactions are evidenced by customer purchase orders, customer contracts, invoices and/or the related shipping documents. Amounts collected from customers and remitted to governmental authorities, which represents value-added taxes related to ELELYSO sales in Israel, are presented on a net basis in our Consolidated Statements of Operations, in that taxes billed to customers are not included as a component of net product revenues.

Research and Development Expense

We expect our research and development expense to remain our primary expense in the near future as we continue to develop our product candidates. Research and development expense consists of:

internal costs associated with research and development activities;

payments made to third party contract research organizations, investigative/clinical sites and consultants;

manufacturing development costs;

personnel-related expenses, including salaries, benefits, travel, and related costs for the personnel involved in research and development;

activities relating to the advancement of product candidates through preclinical studies and clinical trials; and

facilities and other allocated expenses, which include direct and allocated expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities, as well as laboratory and other supplies.

The following table identifies our current major research and development projects:

Project                               Status                Expected Near Term Milestones
PRX 102 - alpha-GAL-A       Phase I/II clinical trial,          Report interim results

Oral Glucocerebrosidase       Phase I clinical trial      Initiate next phase clinical trial

Oral antiTNF                         Research              Initiate phase I clinical trial

DNase I                             Preclinical                       File IND

We anticipate incurring increasing costs in connection with our PRX-102 and oral glucocerebrosidase projects which will be partially off set by the decrease in costs incurred due to the continued winding down of our taliglucerase alfa clinical trials during 2014. Our other projects are in the early clinical, preclinical or research phases with relatively immaterial costs. To date, most of our research and development costs were incurred in connection with our phase III clinical trial of taliglucerase alfa. Our internal resources, employees and infrastructure are not tied to any individual research project and are typically deployed across all of our projects. We currently do not record and maintain research and development costs per project.

The costs and expenses of our projects are partially funded by grants we have received from the OCS. Each grant is deducted from the related research and development expenses as the costs are incurred. For additional information regarding the grant process, see "Business-Israeli Government Programs-Encouragement of Industrial Research and Development Law, 1984" in Item 1 of this Annual Report. There can be no assurance that we will continue to receive grants from the OCS in amounts sufficient for our operations, if at all.

At this time, due to the inherently unpredictable nature of preclinical and clinical development processes and given the early stage of our preclinical product development programs, we are unable to estimate with any certainty the costs we will incur in the continued development of the product candidates in our pipeline for potential commercialization. Clinical development timelines, the probability of success and development costs can differ materially from expectations. While we are currently focused on advancing each of our product development programs, our future research and development expenses will depend on the clinical success of each product candidate, as well as ongoing assessments of each product candidate's commercial potential. In addition, we cannot forecast with any degree of certainty which product candidates may be subject to future collaborations, when such arrangements will be secured, if at all, and to what degree such arrangements would affect our development plans and capital requirements. See "Risk Factors-If we are unable to develop and commercialize our product candidates, our business will be adversely affected" and "-We may not obtain the necessary U.S., EMA or other worldwide regulatory approvals to commercialize our drug candidates in a timely manner, if at all, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations."

We expect our research and development expenses to continue to be our primary expense in the future as we continue the advancement of our clinical trials and preclinical product development programs for our product candidates other than taliglucerase alfa. The lengthy process of completing clinical trials and seeking regulatory approval for our product candidates requires expenditure of substantial resources. Any failure or delay in completing clinical trials, or in obtaining regulatory approvals, could cause a delay in generating product revenue and cause our research and development expense to increase and, in turn, have a material adverse effect on our operations. Due to the factors set forth above, we are not able to estimate with any certainty when we would recognize any net cash inflows from our projects. See "Risk Factors-Clinical trials are very expensive, time-consuming and difficult to design and implement and may result in unforeseen costs which may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition."

Share-Based Compensation

The discussion below regarding share-based compensation relates to share-based compensation paid by Protalix Ltd., our wholly-owned subsidiary.

In accordance with the guidance, we record the benefit of any grant to a non-employee and remeasure the benefit in any future vesting period for the unvested portion of the grants, as applicable. In addition, we use the straight-line accounting method for recording the benefit of the entire grant, unlike the graded method we use to record grants made to employees.

We measure share-based compensation cost for all share-based awards at the fair value on the grant date and recognition of share-based compensation over the service period for awards that we expect will vest. The fair value of stock options is determined based on the number of shares granted and the price of our ordinary shares, and calculated based on the Black-Scholes valuation model. We recognize such value as expense over the service period, net of estimated forfeitures, using the accelerated method.

For purposes of determining the fair value of the restricted shares of common stock granted to employees during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013, our management used the fair value of our common stock which was the closing sale price of our common stock on the NYSE MKT on the date of grant.

The guidance requires companies to estimate the expected term of the option rather than simply using the contractual term of an option. Because of lack of data on past option exercises by employees, the expected term of the options could not be based on historic exercise patterns. Accordingly, we adopted the simplified method, according to which companies may calculate the expected term as the average between the vesting date and the expiration date, assuming the option was granted as a "plain vanilla" option.

In performing the valuation, we assumed an expected 0% dividend yield in the previous years and in the next years. We do not have a dividend policy and given the lack of profitability, dividends are not expected in the foreseeable future, if at all. The guidance stipulates a number of factors that should be considered when estimating the expected volatility, including the implied volatility of traded options, historical volatility and the period that the shares of the company are being publicly traded.

The risk-free interest rate described above has been based on the implied yield of U.S. federal reserve zero-coupon government bonds. The remaining term of the bonds used for each valuation was equal to the expected term of the grant. This methodology has been applied to all grants valued by us. The guidance requires the use of a risk-free interest rate based on the implied yield currently available on zero-coupon government issues of the country in whose currency the exercise price is expressed, with a remaining term equal to the expected life of the option being valued. This requirement has been applied for all grants valued as part of this report.

Year Ended December 31, 2013 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2012


We recorded revenue of $10.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2013, an increase of approximately $609,000, or 6%, compared to revenue of $9.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2012, excluding the one time $25.0 million payment we received from Pfizer under the Pfizer Agreement in connection with the FDA's approval of taliglucerase alfa on May 1, 2012. The revenues represent our sales of taliglucerase alfa in Israel, the cost of products we deliver to Pfizer under the Pfizer Agreement and a pro rata amortization equal to $1.1 million in each quarterly period resulting from the $65.0 million upfront and milestone payments we received from Pfizer in 2009. The revenues for the year ended December 31, 2013 include $5.0 million from products we sold in Israel.

Our share in the Collaboration Agreement

We recorded revenue of $1.0 million as our share of net income in the collaboration under the Pfizer Agreement during the year ended December 31, 2013, compared to the $446,000 of loss recorded for the year ended December 31, 2012. Our share in the collaboration recorded for the year ended December 31, 2013 represents our 40% share of the net income generated during the period, which was primarily the result of revenues generated by Pfizer in the United States which exceeded the expenses during such period. Under the terms and conditions of the Pfizer Agreement, we record income or loss equal to 40% of the profit or loss realized from sales of taliglucerase alfa and related expenses incurred based on reports we receive from Pfizer summarizing the results of the collaborative activities under the Pfizer Agreement for the applicable period. Under the terms and conditions of the Pfizer Agreement, financial information of Pfizer's subsidiaries that operate outside the United States is included based on the fiscal year ending November 30, while financial information for the U.S. entity is included based on the fiscal year ending December 31.

Cost of Revenues

Cost of revenues was $5.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2013, a decrease of $2.7 million, or 33%, compared to the cost of revenues of $8.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2012. Cost of revenues for the year ended December 31, 2013 consists primarily of certain fixed costs relating to our manufacturing facility, including rent, depreciation, salary and maintenance expenses amounting to approximately $4.9 million, and to a much lesser extent, the direct cost of products we sold in Israel and products we delivered to Pfizer for which revenues were recognized during the period. Cost of revenues for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2013 include an aggregate of $2.2 million and $472,000, respectively, in royalties payable to the OCS and to a certain academic institution in connection with gross sales of taliglucerase alfa during the period. Prior to the FDA's approval of taliglucerase alfa, manufacturing costs related to taliglucerase alfa were classified as research and development expenses. Effective as of the FDA approval of taliglucerase alfa, we capitalize all manufacturing costs associated with taliglucerase alfa and expense such costs as cost of revenues, as applicable.

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expenses were $33.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2013, a decrease of $3.4 million, or 9.1% from $36.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2012. The decrease resulted primarily from a decrease of $2.1 million in payroll and related expenses primarily due to a decrease in share-based compensation and a decrease of $1.2 million resulting from the winding down of certain clinical trials for taliglucerase alfa.

We expect research and development expenses to continue to be our primary expense as we enter into a more advanced stage of preclinical and clinical trials for certain of our product candidates.

General and Administrative Expenses

General and administrative expenses were $8.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2013, a decrease of $1.4 million, or 14%, from $9.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2012. The decrease resulted primarily from a decrease of $1.5 million in payroll and related expenses primarily due to a decrease in share-based compensation.

Financial Expenses and Income

Financial expense was $674,000 for the year ended December 31, 2013, compared to financial income of $554,000 for the year ended December 31, 2012. Financial expense resulted primarily from interest expense of $1.0 million for the 4.5% . . .

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