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PAG > SEC Filings for PAG > Form 10-K on 3-Mar-2014All Recent SEC Filings

Show all filings for PENSKE AUTOMOTIVE GROUP, INC.



Annual Report

Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

This Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those discussed in Item 1A. "Risk Factors" and "Forward-Looking Statements." We have acquired and initiated a number of businesses during the periods presented and addressed in this Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. Our financial statements include the results of operations of those businesses from the date acquired or when they commenced operations. This Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations has been updated to reflect the revision of our financial statements for entities which have been treated as discontinued operations through December 31, 2013.


We are an international transportation services company, operating automotive retail dealerships, commercial vehicle distribution and car rental franchises principally in the United States, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, and employing approximately 18,000 people worldwide.

Automotive Dealership. We are the second largest automotive retailer headquartered in the U.S. as measured by the $14.7 billion in total revenue we generated in 2013. As of December 31, 2013, we operated 324 automotive retail franchises, of which 176 franchises are located in the U.S. and 148 franchises are located outside of the U.S. The franchises outside the U.S. are located primarily in the U.K. In 2013, we retailed and wholesaled more than 442,000 vehicles. We are diversified geographically, with 65% of our total automotive dealership revenues in 2013 generated in the U.S. and Puerto Rico and 35% generated outside the U.S. We offer over 35 vehicle brands, with 69% of our automotive dealership revenue in 2013 generated from premium brands, such as Audi, BMW, Mercedes-Benz and Porsche. Each of our dealerships offers a wide selection of new and used vehicles for sale. In addition to selling new and used vehicles, we generate higher-margin revenue at each of our dealerships through maintenance and repair services and the sale and placement of third-party finance and insurance products, third-party extended service and maintenance contracts and replacement and aftermarket automotive products. Automotive dealerships represented 98.6% of our total revenues and 97.5% of our total gross profit in 2013.

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Commercial Vehicle. On August 30, 2013, we completed the acquisition of Western Star Trucks Australia, the exclusive importer and distributor of Western Star heavy duty trucks (a Daimler brand), MAN heavy and medium duty trucks and buses (a VW Group brand), and Dennis Eagle refuse collection vehicles, together with associated parts across Australia, New Zealand and portions of Southeast Asia. The business also includes three retail commercial vehicle dealerships. From our acquisition on August 30, 2013 through December 31, 2013, this business generated $152.5 million of revenue through the distribution and retail sale of vehicles and parts to a network of more than 70 dealership locations. This business represented 1.0% of our total revenues and 1.1% of our total gross profit in 2013.

Car Rental. We are the Hertz car rental franchisee in the Memphis, Tennessee market and certain Indiana markets. We currently manage more than fifty on- and off-airport Hertz car rental locations. Our Hertz car rental operations represented 0.4% of our total revenues and 1.4% of our total gross profit in 2013 and complement our existing U.S. automotive dealership operations.

Penske Truck Leasing. We also hold a 9.0% ownership interest in Penske Truck Leasing Co., L.P. ("PTL"), a leading provider of transportation services and supply chain management. PTL operates and maintains more approximately 205,000 vehicles and serves customers in North America, South America, Europe and Asia and is one of the largest purchasers of commercial trucks in North America. Product lines include full-service truck leasing, truck rental and contract maintenance, logistics services such as dedicated contract carriage, distribution center management, transportation management and acting as lead logistics provider. PTL is owned 41.1% by Penske Corporation, 9.0% by us and the remaining 49.9% of PTL is owned by direct and indirect subsidiaries of General Electric Capital Corporation ("GECC"). We account for our investment in PTL under the equity method, and we therefore record our share of PTL's earnings each quarter on our statements of operations under the caption "Equity in Earnings of Affiliates," which also includes the results of our other investments.


The level of new automotive unit sales in our markets affects our results. The new vehicle market and the amount of customer traffic visiting our dealerships have improved during the past few years, and there are market expectations for continued improvement in 2014. In 2013, U.S. car and light truck sales increased 7.5% from 2012 to 15.6 million units. We believe the U.S. automotive market will continue to improve based upon industry forecast from companies such as IHS Automotive, Edmunds and Kelley Blue Book, coupled with demand in the marketplace, an aging vehicle population, a strong credit environment for consumers, and the planned introduction of new models by many different vehicle brands.

During 2013, U.K. vehicle registrations increased 10.8% from 2012 to 2.3 million registrations. Based on industry forecasts from entities such as the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (, we believe the U.K. market will continue to be resilient as a result of U.K. motorists responding positively to new products and the latest technologically advanced vehicles, particularly in the area of premium brand sales and attractive financing offers.

Our commercial vehicle distribution and retail operations business operates in the Australian and New Zealand heavy and medium duty truck markets, the bus market and the refuse collection vehicle market. In 2013, the Australia heavy duty truck market reported sales of 11,119 units, representing a decrease of 2.3% from 2012. The brands we represent in Australia maintained an 11.7% share of that market in 2013. We expect the Australian/New Zealand commercial vehicle market to be relatively stable over the next twelve months and look for positive results to impact our business as we integrate those operations.

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We expect our car rental operations and PTL to benefit from the improving economic conditions in the United States. As described in Item 1A. "Risk Factors," there are a number of factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from our expectations.

Operating Overview

Automotive dealerships represent the majority of our results of operations. New and used vehicle revenues include sales to retail customers and to leasing companies providing consumer automobile leasing. We generate finance and insurance revenues from sales of third-party extended service contracts, sales of third-party insurance policies, commissions relating to the sale of finance and lease contracts to third parties and the sales of certain other products. Service and parts revenues include fees paid by customers for repair, maintenance and collision services, and the sale of replacement parts and other aftermarket accessories as well as warranty repairs which are reimbursed directly by various OEM's.

Our gross profit tends to vary with the mix of revenues we derive from the sale of new vehicles, used vehicles, finance and insurance products, and service and parts transactions. Our gross profit varies across product lines, with vehicle sales usually resulting in lower gross profit margins and our other revenues resulting in higher gross profit margins. Factors such as inventory and vehicle availability, customer demand, consumer confidence, unemployment, general economic conditions, seasonality, weather, credit availability, fuel prices and manufacturers' advertising and incentives also impact the mix of our revenues, and therefore influence our gross profit margin.

Aggregate gross profit increased $254.1 million, or 12.7%, during 2013 compared to 2012. The increase in gross profit is largely attributable to same-store increases in new and used vehicle, finance and insurance and service and parts gross profit. Our retail gross margin percentage decreased from 16.3% during 2012 to 15.9% during 2013, due primarily to lower gross margin on new and used vehicle retail sales as well as an increase in the percentage of our revenues generated by vehicle sales, which carry a lower gross margin than other parts of our business.

Our selling expenses consist of advertising and compensation for sales personnel, including commissions and related bonuses. General and administrative expenses include compensation for administration, finance, legal and general management personnel, rent, insurance, utilities and other expenses. As the majority of our selling expenses are variable, and we believe a significant portion of our general and administrative expenses are subject to our control, we believe our expenses can be adjusted over time to reflect economic trends.

The results of our commercial distribution and retail business are principally driven by the number and types of vehicles ordered by our customers. The results of our car rental operations are principally driven by the volume and pricing of vehicle rentals in our markets.

Floor plan interest expense relates to financing incurred in connection with the acquisition of new and used vehicle inventories that is secured by those vehicles. Other interest expense consists of interest charges on all of our interest-bearing debt, other than interest relating to floor plan financing and includes interest relating to our commercial vehicle and car rental vehicle acquisitions. The cost of our variable rate indebtedness is based on the prime rate, defined London Interbank Offered Rate ("LIBOR"), the Bank of England Base Rate, the Finance House Base Rate, or the Euro Interbank Offered Rate or the Australian or New Zealand Bank Bill Swap Rate (BBSW). Our floor plan interest expense has increased during 2013 as a result of an increase in the amounts outstanding under floor plan arrangements. Our other interest expense has increased during 2013 due to an increased level of borrowing in 2013 relating to the issuance of our $550.0 million 5.75% senior subordinated notes in August 2012 and borrowings to acquire the commercial vehicle business. We used the proceeds of the 5.75% notes to repurchase our $375.0 million 7.75% senior subordinated notes in the third quarter of

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2012. The overall increase in other interest expense was offset in part by the 200 basis point reduction in the interest rate.

Equity in earnings of affiliates represents our share of the earnings from our investments in joint ventures and other non-consolidated investments, including PTL. Because PTL is engaged in different businesses than we are, its operating performance may vary significantly from ours.

The future success of our business is dependent upon, among other things, general economic and industry conditions, our ability to consummate and integrate acquisitions, the level of vehicle sales in the markets where we operate, our ability to increase sales of higher margin products, especially service and parts services, our ability to realize returns on our significant capital investment in new and upgraded dealership facilities, our ability to integrate acquisitions, the success of our distribution of commercial vehicles and the return realized from our investments in various joint ventures and other non-consolidated investments. See Item 1A. "Risk Factors" and "Forward-Looking Statements" below.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires the application of accounting policies that often involve making estimates and employing judgments. Such judgments influence the assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses recognized in our financial statements. Management, on an ongoing basis, reviews these estimates and assumptions. Management may determine that modifications in assumptions and estimates are required, which may result in a material change in our results of operations or financial position.

The following are the accounting policies applied in the preparation of our financial statements that management believes are most dependent upon the use of estimates and assumptions.

Revenue Recognition

Automotive Dealership Vehicle, Parts and Service Sales. We record revenue when vehicles are delivered and title has passed to the customer, when vehicle service or repair work is completed and when parts are delivered to our customers. Sales promotions that we offer to customers are accounted for as a reduction of revenues at the time of sale. Rebates and other incentives offered directly to us by manufacturers are recognized as a reduction of cost of sales. Reimbursements of qualified advertising expenses are treated as a reduction of selling, general and administrative expenses. The amounts received under certain manufacturer rebate and incentive programs are based on the attainment of program objectives, and such earnings are recognized either upon the sale of the vehicle for which the award was received, or upon attainment of the particular program goals if not associated with individual vehicles. Taxes collected from customers and remitted to governmental authorities are recorded on a net basis (excluded from revenue). During 2013, 2012, and 2011, we earned $513.4 million, $474.9 million, and $374.1 million, respectively, of rebates, incentives and reimbursements from manufacturers, of which $500.3 million, $462.8 million, and $363.6 million, respectively, was recorded as a reduction of cost of sales. The remaining $13.1 million, $12.1 million, and $10.5 million was recorded as a reduction of selling, general and administrative expenses during 2013, 2013, and 2011, respectively.

Automotive Dealership Finance and Insurance Sales. Subsequent to the sale of a vehicle to a customer, we sell installment sale contracts to various financial institutions on a non-recourse basis (with specified exceptions) to mitigate the risk of default. We receive a commission from the lender equal to either the difference between the interest rate charged to the customer and the interest rate set by the financing institution or a flat fee. We also receive commissions for facilitating the sale of various products to customers, including guaranteed auto protection insurance, vehicle theft protection and extended service contracts. These commissions are recorded as revenue at the time the customer

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enters into the contract. In the case of finance contracts, a customer may prepay or fail to pay their contract, thereby terminating the contract. Customers may also terminate extended service contracts and other insurance products, which are fully paid at purchase, and become eligible for refunds of unused premiums. In these circumstances, a portion of the commissions we received may be charged back based on the terms of the contracts. The revenue we record relating to these transactions is net of an estimate of the amount of chargebacks we will be required to pay. Our estimate is based upon our historical experience with similar contracts, including the impact of refinance and default rates on retail finance contracts and cancellation rates on extended service contracts and other insurance products. Aggregate reserves relating to chargeback activity were $23.3 million and $23.4 million as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.

Commercial Vehicle Revenue. Revenue from the distribution of vehicles and parts is recognized at the time of delivery of goods to the retailer.

Car Rental Revenue. Rental and rental related revenues are recognized over the period the vehicles and accessories are rented based on the terms of the rental contract. Taxes collected from customers and remitted to the governmental authorities are recorded on a net basis (excluded from revenue).

Impairment Testing

Franchise value impairment is assessed during the fourth quarter every year and upon the occurrence of an indicator of impairment through a comparison of its carrying amount and estimated fair value. An indicator of impairment exists if the carrying value of a franchise exceeds its estimated fair value and an impairment loss may be recognized up to that excess. The fair value of franchise value is determined using a discounted cash flow approach, which includes assumptions about revenue and profitability growth, franchise profit margins, and the cost of capital. We also evaluate our franchise agreements in connection with the annual impairment testing to determine whether events and circumstances continue to support our assessment that the franchise agreements have an indefinite life.

Goodwill impairment is assessed at the reporting unit level during the fourth quarter every year and upon the occurrence of an indicator of impairment. Our operations are organized by management into operating segments by line of business and geography. We have determined that we have two reportable segments as defined in generally accepted accounting principles for segment reporting:
(i) Retail, consisting of our automotive retail operations, and (ii) Other, consisting of our commercial vehicle operating segment, our car rental business operating segment, and our investments in non-automotive retail operations. We have determined that the dealerships in each of our operating segments within the Retail reportable segment are components that are aggregated into four geographical reporting units for the purpose of goodwill impairment testing, as they (A) have similar economic characteristics (all are automotive dealerships having similar margins), (B) offer similar products and services (all sell new and used vehicles, service, parts and third-party finance and insurance products), (C) have similar target markets and customers (generally individuals) and (D) have similar distribution and marketing practices (all distribute products and services through dealership facilities that market to customers in similar fashions). The geographic reporting units are Eastern, Central, and Western United States and International. The goodwill included in our Other reportable segment relates to our car rental business operating segment and our commercial vehicle operating segment. The car rental business operating segment has been identified as its own reporting unit. Our commercial vehicle operating segment has two geographic reporting units.

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For our retail operations reporting units, we prepare a qualitative assessment of the carrying value of goodwill using the criteria in ASC 350-20-35-3 to determine whether it is more likely than not that a reporting unit's fair value is less than its carrying value. If it were determined through the qualitative assessment that a reporting unit's fair value is more likely than not greater than its carrying value, additional analysis would be unnecessary. During 2013, we concluded that it was not more likely than not that any of the retail operations reporting units' fair value were less than their carrying amount. If the additional impairment testing was necessary, we would have estimated the fair value of our reporting units using an "income" valuation approach. The "income" valuation approach estimates our enterprise value using a net present value model, which discounts projected free cash flows of our business using the weighted average cost of capital as the discount rate. In connection with this process, we also reconcile the estimated aggregate fair values of our reporting units to our market capitalization. We believe that this reconciliation process is consistent with a market participant perspective. This consideration would also include a control premium that represents the estimated amount an investor would pay for our equity securities to obtain a controlling interest and other significant assumptions including revenue and profitability growth, franchise profit margins, residual values and the cost of capital.

For our car rental business reporting unit, we performed our initial impairment test by comparing the estimated fair value of the reporting unit with its carrying value. We estimated the fair value of our reporting unit using an "income" valuation approach. We concluded that the fair value of the reporting unit exceeded its carrying value.


We account for each of our investments under the equity method, pursuant to which we record our proportionate share of the investee's income each period. The net book value of our investments was $346.9 million and $303.2 million as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively, including $268.8 million relating to PTL as of December 31, 2013. Investments for which there is not a liquid, actively traded market are reviewed periodically by management for indicators of impairment. If an indicator of impairment is identified, management estimates the fair value of the investment using a discounted cash flow approach, which includes assumptions relating to revenue and profitability growth, profit margins and the cost of capital. Declines in investment values that are deemed to be other than temporary may result in an impairment charge reducing the investments' carrying value to fair value.


We retain risk relating to certain of our general liability insurance, workers' compensation insurance, auto physical damage insurance, property insurance, employment practices liability insurance, directors and officers insurance and employee medical benefits in the U.S. As a result, we are likely to be responsible for a significant portion of the claims and losses incurred under these programs. The amount of risk we retain varies by program, and, for certain exposures, we have pre-determined maximum loss limits for certain individual claims and/or insurance periods. Losses, if any, above the pre-determined loss limits are paid by third-party insurance carriers. Certain insurers have limited available property coverage in response to the natural catastrophes experienced in recent years. Our estimate of future losses is prepared by management using our historical loss experience and industry-based development factors. Aggregate reserves relating to retained risk were $21.1 million and $20.1 million as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. Changes in the reserve estimate during 2013 relate primarily to our general liability and workers compensation programs.

Income Taxes

Tax regulations may require items to be included in our tax returns at different times than the items are reflected in our financial statements. Some of these differences are permanent, such as

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expenses that are not deductible on our tax return, and some are temporary differences, such as the timing of depreciation expense. Temporary differences create deferred tax assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets generally represent items that will be used as a tax deduction or credit in our tax returns in future years which we have already recorded in our financial statements. Deferred tax liabilities generally represent deductions taken on our tax returns that have not yet been recognized as expense in our financial statements. We establish valuation allowances for our deferred tax assets if the amount of expected future taxable income is not likely to allow for the use of the deduction or credit.

We do not provide for U.S. taxes relating to undistributed earnings or losses of our foreign subsidiaries. Income from continuing operations before income taxes of foreign subsidiaries (which subsidiaries are predominately in the U.K.) was $134.7 million, $117.0 million, and $98.4 million during 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively. We believe these earnings will be indefinitely reinvested in the companies that produced them. At December 31, 2013, we have not provided U.S. federal income taxes on a temporary difference of $664.3 million related to the excess of financial reporting basis over tax basis in the foreign subsidiaries.

Classification in Continuing and Discontinued Operations

We classify the results of our operations in our consolidated financial statements based on generally accepted accounting principles relating to discontinued operations, which requires judgments, including whether a business will be divested, whether the cash flows will be replaced, the period required to complete the divestiture, and the likelihood of changes to the divestiture plans. If we determine that a business should be either reclassified from continuing operations to discontinued operations or from discontinued operations to continuing operations, our consolidated financial statements for prior periods are revised to reflect such reclassification.

New Accounting Pronouncements

In February 2013, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued ASU No. 2013-02, "Comprehensive Income (Topic 220)-Reporting of Amounts Reclassified Out of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income." ASU No. 2013-02 requires disclosure of amounts reclassified out of accumulated other comprehensive income by component. In addition, we are required to present either on the face of the statement of income or in the notes, significant amounts reclassified out of accumulated other comprehensive income by the respective line items of net income but only if the amount reclassified is required to be reclassified to net income in its entirety in the same reporting period. For amounts not reclassified in their entirety to net income, an entity is required to cross-reference to other disclosures that provide additional detail about those amounts. We complied with the disclosure requirements of this ASU as shown in Note 15 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

In March 2013, the FASB issued ASU No. 2013-05, "Foreign Currency Matters (Topic 830)-Parent's Accounting for the Cumulative Translation Adjustment upon Derecognition of Certain Subsidiaries or Groups of Assets within a Foreign Entity or of an Investment in a Foreign Entity." ASU No. 2013-05 resolves the diversity in practice about whether Subtopic 810-10, Consolidation-Overall, or Subtopic 830-30, Foreign Currency Matters-Translation of Financial Statements, applies to the release of the cumulative translation adjustment into net income when a parent either sells a part or all of its investment in a foreign entity or no longer holds a controlling financial interest in a subsidiary or group of assets that is a business within a foreign entity. This ASU is effective prospectively for the first annual period beginning after December 15, 2013. We do not expect adoption of ASU No. 2013-05 to affect our consolidated financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

In July 2013, the FASB issued ASU No. 2013-10, "Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815)-Inclusion of the Fed Funds Effective Swap Rate (or Overnight Index . . .

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