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EXR > SEC Filings for EXR > Form 10-K on 3-Mar-2014All Recent SEC Filings

Show all filings for EXTRA SPACE STORAGE INC.



Annual Report

Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and notes thereto appearing elsewhere in this report. We make statements in this section that are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws. For a complete discussion of forward-looking statements, see the section in this Form 10-K entitled "Statements Regarding Forward-Looking Information." Certain risk factors may cause actual results, performance or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by the following discussion. For a discussion of such risk factors, see the section in this Form 10-K entitled "Risk Factors." Amounts in thousands, except share and per share data.


We are a fully integrated, self-administered and self-managed real estate investment trust, or REIT, formed to continue the business commenced in 1977 by Extra Space Storage LLC and its subsidiaries to own, operate, manage, acquire, develop and redevelop professionally managed self-storage facilities.

At December 31, 2013, we owned, had ownership interests in, or managed 1,029 operating properties in 35 states, Washington, D.C. and Puerto Rico. Of these 1,029 operating properties, we owned 506, we held joint venture interests in 273 properties, and our taxable REIT subsidiary, Extra Space Management, Inc., operated an additional 250 properties that are owned by third parties. These operating properties contain approximately 75.7 million square feet of rentable space in approximately 680,000 units and currently serve a customer base of approximately 600,000 tenants.

Our properties are generally situated in convenient, highly visible locations clustered around large population centers such as Atlanta, Baltimore/Washington, D.C., Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Miami, New York City, Orlando, Philadelphia, Phoenix, St. Petersburg/Tampa and San Francisco/Oakland. These areas all enjoy above average population growth and income levels. The clustering of our assets around these population centers enables us to reduce our operating costs through economies of scale. We consider a property to be in the lease-up stage after it has been issued a certificate of occupancy, but before it has achieved stabilization. A property is considered to be stabilized once it has achieved an 80% occupancy rate for a full year measured as of January 1, or has been open for three years.

To maximize the performance of our properties, we employ industry-leading revenue management systems. Developed by our management team, these systems enable us to analyze, set and adjust rental rates in real time across our portfolio in order to respond to changing market conditions. We believe our systems and processes allow us to more proactively manage revenues.

We derive substantially all of our revenues from rents received from tenants under leases at each of our wholly-owned self-storage properties, from management fees on the properties we manage for joint-venture partners and unaffiliated third parties, and from our tenant reinsurance program. Our management fee is generally equal to approximately 6% of cash collected from total revenues generated by the managed properties. We also receive an asset management fee of 0.5% of the total asset value from one of our joint ventures.

We operate in competitive markets, often where consumers have multiple self-storage properties from which to choose. Competition has impacted, and will continue to impact, our property results. We experience seasonal fluctuations in occupancy levels, with occupancy levels generally higher in the summer months due to increased moving activity. Our operating results depend materially on our ability to lease available self-storage units, to actively manage unit rental rates, and on the ability of our tenants to make required rental payments. We believe that we are able to respond quickly and effectively to changes in local, regional and national economic conditions by adjusting rental rates through the combination of our revenue management team and our industry-leading technology systems.

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We continue to evaluate a range of new initiatives and opportunities in order to enable us to maximize stockholder value. Our strategies to maximize stockholder value include the following:

Maximize the performance of properties through strategic, efficient and proactive management. We pursue revenue-generating and expense-minimizing opportunities in our operations. Our revenue management team seeks to maximize revenue by responding to changing market conditions through our technology system's ability to provide real-time, interactive rental rate and discount management. Our size allows us greater ability than the majority of our competitors to implement more effective online marketing programs, which we believe will attract more customers to our stores at a lower net cost.

Acquire self-storage properties. Our acquisitions team continues to pursue the acquisition of multi-property portfolios and single properties that we believe can provide stockholder value. We have established a reputation as a reliable, ethical buyer, which we believe enhances our ability to negotiate and close acquisitions. In addition, we believe our status as an UPREIT enables flexibility when structuring deals. We continue to see available acquisitions on which to bid and are seeing increasing prices. However, we remain a disciplined buyer and look for acquisitions that will strengthen our portfolio and increase stockholder value.

Expand our management business. Our management business enables us to generate increased revenues through management fees and expand our geographic footprint. We believe this expanded footprint enables us to reduce our operating costs through economies of scale. In addition, we see our management business as a future acquisition pipeline. We pursue strategic relationships with owners whose properties would enhance our portfolio in the event an opportunity arises to acquire such properties.


Our financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates and assumptions, including those that impact our most critical accounting policies. We base our estimates and assumptions on historical experience and on various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from these estimates. We believe the following are our most critical accounting policies:

CONSOLIDATION: Arrangements that are not controlled through voting or similar rights are accounted for as variable interest entities ("VIEs"). An enterprise is required to consolidate a VIE if it is the primary beneficiary of the VIE.

A VIE is created when (i) the equity investment at risk is not sufficient to permit the entity to finance its activities without additional subordinated financial support from other parties, or (ii) the entity's equity holders as a group either: (a) lack the power, through voting or similar rights, to direct the activities of the entity that most significantly impact the entity's economic performance, (b) are not obligated to absorb expected losses of the entity if they occur, or (c) do not have the right to receive expected residual returns of the entity if they occur. If an entity is deemed to be a VIE, the enterprise that is deemed to have a variable interest, or combination of variable interests, that provides the enterprise with a controlling financial interest in the VIE is considered the primary beneficiary and must consolidate the VIE.

We have concluded that under certain circumstances when we (1) enter into option agreements for the purchase of land or facilities from an entity and pay a non-refundable deposit, or (2) enter into arrangements for the formation of joint ventures, a VIE may be created under condition (i), (ii) (b) or

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(c) of the previous paragraph. For each VIE created, we have performed a qualitative analysis, including considering which party, if any, has the power to direct the activities most significant to the economic performance of each VIE and whether that party has the obligation to absorb losses of the VIE or the right to receive benefits from the VIE that could be significant to the VIE. If we are determined to be the primary beneficiary of the VIE, the assets, liabilities and operations of the VIE are consolidated with our financial statements. As of December 31, 2013, we had no consolidated VIEs. Additionally, our Operating Partnership has notes payable to three trusts that are VIEs under condition (ii)(a) above. Since the Operating Partnership is not the primary beneficiary of the trusts, these VIEs are not consolidated.

REAL ESTATE ASSETS: Real estate assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Direct and allowable internal costs associated with the development, construction, renovation, and improvement of real estate assets are capitalized. Interest, property taxes, and other costs associated with development incurred during the construction period are capitalized.

Expenditures for maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred. Major replacements and betterments that improve or extend the life of the asset are capitalized and depreciated over their estimated useful lives. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the buildings and improvements, which are generally between 5 and 39 years.

In connection with our acquisition of properties, the purchase price is allocated to the tangible and intangible assets and liabilities acquired based on their fair values, which are estimated using significant unobservable inputs. The value of the tangible assets, consisting of land and buildings, is determined as if vacant. Intangible assets, which represent the value of existing tenant relationships, are recorded at their fair values based on the avoided cost to replace the current leases. We measure the value of tenant relationships based on the rent lost due to the amount of time required to replace existing customers, which is based on our historical experience with turnover in our facilities. Debt assumed as part of an acquisition is recorded at fair value based on current interest rates compared to contractual rates. Acquisition-related transaction costs are expensed as incurred.

Intangible lease rights include: (1) purchase price amounts allocated to leases on three properties that cannot be classified as ground or building leases; these rights are amortized to expense over the term of the leases; and
(2) intangibles related to ground leases on five properties where the ground leases were assumed by the Company at rates that were different than the current market rates for similar leases. The value associated with these assumed leases were recorded as intangibles, which will be amortized over the lease terms.

EVALUATION OF ASSET IMPAIRMENT: Long lived assets held for use are evaluated for impairment when events or circumstances indicate that there may be impairment. We review each storage facility at least annually to determine if any such events or circumstances have occurred or exist. We focus on facilities where occupancy and/or rental income have decreased by a significant amount. For these facilities, we determine whether the decrease is temporary or permanent and whether the facility will likely recover the lost occupancy and/or revenue in the short term. In addition, we review facilities in the lease-up stage and compare actual operating results to original projections.

When we determine that an event that may indicate impairment has occurred, we compare the carrying value of the related long-lived assets to the undiscounted future net operating cash flows attributable to the assets. An impairment loss is recorded if the net carrying value of the assets exceeds the undiscounted future net operating cash flows attributable to the assets. The impairment loss recognized equals the excess of net carrying value over the related fair value of the assets.

When real estate assets are identified as held for sale, we discontinue depreciating the assets and estimate the fair value of the assets, net of selling costs. If the estimated fair values, net of selling costs, of the assets that have been identified for sale are less than the net carrying value of the assets, then a

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valuation allowance is established. The operations of assets held for sale or sold during the period are generally presented as discontinued operations for all periods presented.

INVESTMENTS IN REAL ESTATE VENTURES: Our investments in real estate joint ventures where we have significant influence but not control, and joint ventures which are VIEs in which we are not the primary beneficiary, are recorded under the equity method of accounting on the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

Under the equity method, our investment in real estate ventures is stated at cost and adjusted for our share of net earnings or losses and reduced by distributions. Equity in earnings of real estate ventures is generally recognized based on our ownership interest in the earnings of each of the unconsolidated real estate ventures. For the purposes of presentation in the statement of cash flows, we follow the "look through" approach for classification of distributions from joint ventures. Under this approach, distributions are reported under operating cash flow unless the facts and circumstances of a specific distribution clearly indicate that it is a return of capital (e.g., a liquidating dividend or distribution of the proceeds from the joint venture's sale of assets) in which case it is reported as an investing activity.

Our management assesses annually whether there are any indicators that the value of our investments in unconsolidated real estate ventures may be impaired and when events or circumstances indicate that there may be impairment. An investment is impaired if management's estimate of the fair value of the investment, using significant unobservable inputs, is less than its carrying value. To the extent impairment has occurred and is considered to be other than temporary, the loss is measured as the excess of the carrying amount of the investment over the fair value of the investment.

DERIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS AND HEDGING ACTIVITIES: The accounting for changes in the fair value of derivatives depends on the intended use of the derivative and the resulting designation. Derivatives used to hedge the exposure to changes in the fair value of an asset, liability or firm commitment attributable to a particular risk, are considered fair value hedges. Derivatives used to hedge the exposure to variability in expected future cash flows, or other types of forecasted transactions, are considered cash flow hedges.

For derivatives designated as fair value hedges, changes in the fair value of the derivative and the hedged item related to the hedged risk are recognized in earnings. For derivatives designated as cash flow hedges, the effective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative is initially reported in other comprehensive income, outside of earnings and subsequently reclassified to earnings when the hedged transaction affects earnings.

REVENUE AND EXPENSE RECOGNITION: Rental revenues are recognized as earned based upon amounts that are currently due from tenants. Leases are generally on month-to-month terms. Prepaid rents are recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the leases. Promotional discounts are recognized as a reduction to rental income over the promotional period. Late charges, administrative fees, merchandise sales and truck rentals are recognized in income when earned. Management fee revenues are recognized monthly as services are performed and in accordance with the terms of the related management agreements. Equity in earnings of real estate entities is recognized based on our ownership interest in the earnings of each of the unconsolidated real estate entities. Interest income is recognized as earned.

Tenant reinsurance premiums are recognized as revenue over the period of insurance coverage. We record an unpaid claims liability at the end of each period based on existing unpaid claims and historical claims payment history. The unpaid claims liability represents an estimate of the ultimate cost to settle all unpaid claims as of each period end, including both reported but unpaid claims and claims that may have been incurred but have not been reported. We use a third party claims administrator to adjust all tenant reinsurance claims received. The administrator evaluates each claim to determine the

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ultimate claim loss and includes an estimate for claims that may have been incurred but not reported. Annually, a third party actuary evaluates the adequacy of the unpaid claims liability. Prior year claim reserves are adjusted as experience develops or new information becomes known. The impact of such adjustments is included in the current period operations. The unpaid claims liability is not discounted to its present value. Each tenant chooses the amount of insurance coverage they want through the tenant reinsurance program. Tenants can purchase policies in amounts of two thousand dollars to ten thousand dollars of insurance coverage in exchange for a monthly fee. Our exposure per claim is limited by the maximum amount of coverage chosen by each tenant. We purchase reinsurance for losses exceeding a set amount on any one event. We do not currently have any amounts recoverable under the reinsurance arrangements.

Property expenses, including utilities, property taxes, repairs and maintenance and other costs to manage the facilities are recognized as incurred. We accrue for property tax expense based upon invoice amounts, estimates and historical trends. If these estimates are incorrect, the timing of expense recognition could be affected.

INCOME TAXES: We have elected to be treated as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Internal Revenue Code. In order to maintain our qualification as a REIT, among other things, we are required to distribute at least 90% of our REIT taxable income to our stockholders and meet certain tests regarding the nature of our income and assets. As a REIT, we are not subject to federal income tax with respect to that portion of our income which meets certain criteria and is distributed annually to our stockholders. We plan to continue to operate so that we meet the requirements for taxation as a REIT. Many of these requirements, however, are highly technical and complex. If we were to fail to meet these requirements, we would be subject to federal income tax. We are subject to certain state and local taxes. Provision for such taxes has been included in income tax expense in our consolidated statements of operations.

We have elected to treat one of our corporate subsidiaries, Extra Space Management, Inc., as a taxable REIT subsidiary ("TRS"). In general, our TRS may perform additional services for tenants and generally may engage in any real estate or non-real estate related business. A TRS is subject to corporate federal income tax. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities. Interest and penalties relating to uncertain tax positions will be recognized in income tax expense when incurred.


In February 2013, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2013-02 "Comprehensive Income-Reporting of Amounts Reclassified Out of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income," which supersedes and replaces the presentation requirements for reclassifications out of accumulated other comprehensive income in ASUs 2011-05 and 2011-12. The amendment requires an entity to report the effect of significant reclassifications out of accumulated other comprehensive income on the respective line items in net income if the amount being reclassified is required under GAAP. For other amounts that are not required under GAAP to be reclassified in their entirety to net income in the same reporting period, an entity is required to cross-reference other disclosures required under GAAP that provide additional detail about those amounts. ASU 2013-02 was effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning on or after December 15, 2012. We adopted the amended standard beginning January 1, 2013 and presents accumulated other comprehensive income in accordance with the requirements of the standard.

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Comparison of the Year Ended December 31, 2013 to the Year Ended December 31, 2012


Results for the year ended December 31, 2013, included the operations of 779 properties (525 of which were consolidated and 254 of which were in joint ventures accounted for using the equity method) compared to the results for the year ended December 31, 2012, which included the operations of 729 properties (449 of which were consolidated and 280 of which were in joint ventures accounted for using the equity method).


    The following table presents information on revenues earned for the years

                                  For the Year Ended
                                     December 31,
                                   2013        2012      $ Change     % Change
           Property rental       $ 446,682   $ 346,874   $  99,808         28.8 %
           Tenant reinsurance       47,317      36,816      10,501         28.5 %
           Management fees          26,614      25,706         908          3.5 %

           Total revenues        $ 520,613   $ 409,396   $ 111,217         27.2 %

Property Rental-The change in property rental revenues consists primarily of an increase of $75,401 associated with acquisitions completed in 2013 and 2012. We acquired 78 properties during 2013 and 91 properties during 2012. In addition, revenues increased by $21,551 as a result of increases in occupancy and rental rates to existing customers at our stabilized properties. We have seen no significant increase in overall customer renewal rates; our average length of stay is approximately 12 months. For existing customers we seek to increase rental rates approximately 7% to 10% at least annually. Occupancy at our stabilized properties increased to 88.0% at December 31, 2013, as compared to 86.3% at December 31, 2012. Rental rates to new tenants increased by approximately 2.7% over the same period in the prior year.

Tenant Reinsurance-The increase in tenant reinsurance revenues was partially due to the increase in overall customer participation to approximately 68.7% at December 31, 2013, compared to approximately 67.0% at December 31, 2012. In addition, we operated 1,029 properties at December 31, 2013, compared to 910 properties at December 31, 2012.

Management Fees-Our taxable REIT subsidiary, Extra Space Management, Inc., manages properties owned by our joint ventures and third parties. Management fees generally represent 6% of cash collected from properties owned by third parties and unconsolidated joint ventures. The Company also earns an asset management fee from the Storage Portfolio I ("SPI") joint venture, equal to 0.50% multiplied by the total asset value, provided certain conditions are met.

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    The following table presents information on expenses for the years

                                        For the Year Ended
                                           December 31,
                                         2013        2012      $ Change     % Change
      Property operations              $ 140,012   $ 114,028    $ 25,984         22.8 %
      Tenant reinsurance                   9,022       7,869       1,153         14.7 %
      Acquisition related costs            8,618       5,351       3,267         61.1 %
      General and administrative          54,246      50,454       3,792          7.5 %
      Depreciation and amortization       95,232      74,453      20,779         27.9 %

      Total expenses                   $ 307,130   $ 252,155    $ 54,975         21.8 %

Property Operations-The increase in property operations expense consists primarily of an increase of $24,335 related to acquisitions completed in 2013 and 2012. We acquired 78 properties during the year ended December 31, 2013 and 91 properties during the year ended December 31, 2012.

Tenant Reinsurance-Tenant reinsurance expense represents the costs that are incurred to provide tenant reinsurance. The change is due primarily to the increase in the number of properties we owned and/or managed. At December 31, 2013, we owned and/or managed 1,029 properties compared to 910 properties at December 31, 2012. In addition, there was an increase in overall customer participation to approximately 68.7% at December 31, 2013 from approximately 67.0% at December 31, 2012.

Acquisition Related Costs-These costs relate to acquisition activities during the periods indicated. The increase for the year ended December 31, 2013 when compared to the prior year was related primarily to the expense of $2,441 of defeasance reimbursement costs paid to the seller in a property acquisition in December 2013.

General and Administrative-General and administrative expenses primarily include all expenses not related to our properties, including corporate payroll, travel and professional fees. The expenses are recognized as incurred. General and administrative expense increased over the prior year primarily as a result of the costs related to the management of additional properties. During the year ended December 31, 2013, we acquired 78 properties, 47 of which we did not previously manage. We did not observe any material trends specific to payroll, travel or other expense that contributed significantly to the increase in general and administrative expenses apart from the increase due to the management of additional properties.

Depreciation and Amortization-Depreciation and amortization expense increased as a result of the acquisition of new properties. We acquired 78 properties during the year ended December 31, 2013, and 91 properties during the year ended December 31, 2012.

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Other Income and Expenses

    The following table presents information on other revenues and expenses for
the years indicated:

                                             For the Year Ended
                                                December 31,
                                              2013        2012      $ Change     % Change
Other income and expenses:
. . .
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