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AEGR > SEC Filings for AEGR > Form 10-K on 3-Mar-2014All Recent SEC Filings




Annual Report

Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation.

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our financial statements and related notes. In addition to historical information, some of the information in this discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements reflecting our current expectations and involves risk and uncertainties. For example, statements regarding our plans and strategy for our business, our expectations with respect to future financial performance, expense categories and levels, cash needs and liquidity sources are forward-looking statements. Our actual results and the timing of events could differ materially from those discussed in our forward-looking statements as a result of many factors, including those set forth under the "Risk Factors" in Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K.


We are a biopharmaceutical company dedicated to the development and commercialization of innovative therapies for patients with debilitating rare diseases.

Our first product, lomitapide, received marketing approval, under the brand name JUXTAPID™ (lomitapide) capsules ("JUXTAPID"), from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") in late December 2012, as an adjunct to a low-fat diet and other lipid-lowering treatments, including low-density lipoprotein ("LDL") apheresis where available, to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ("LDL-C"), total cholesterol ("TC"), apolipoprotein B ("apo B") and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ("non-HDL-C") in adult patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia ("HoFH"). We launched JUXTAPID in the U.S. in late January 2013. In July, 2013, we received marketing authorization for lomitapide in the European Union ("EU"), under the brand name LOJUXTA® (lomitapide) hard capsules ("LOJUXTA"), as a treatment for HoFH in adults. Lomitapide is also approved for the treatment of HoFH in Norway and Iceland, and was recently approved in Mexico and Canada. We sell lomitapide, on a named patient basis, in Brazil and in a limited number of other countries outside the U.S. and the EU where such a mechanism exists based on the U.S. or the EU approval.

We expect that our near-term efforts will be focused on:

• continuing to commercialize JUXTAPID as a treatment for HoFH in the U.S.;

• continuing to support named patient sales of lomitapide as a treatment for HoFH in Brazil and in other key countries outside the U.S., the EU, Mexico and Canada;

• gaining pricing and reimbursement approvals for lomitapide in key EU markets, Mexico, Canada and other countries where we may obtain regulatory approval, and launching lomitapide in those markets where, based on such approvals it makes commercial sense to do so;

• gaining regulatory approval to market lomitapide as a treatment for HoFH in other international markets, and commencing commercialization efforts in those markets where it makes commercial sense to do so;

• minimizing the number of patients who discontinue lomitapide treatment due to tolerability issues, including through patient support programs, to the extent permitted in a particular country;

• clinical development activities to support a potential marketing authorization application for lomitapide in HoFH in Japan; and

• clinical development activities in support of our planned clinical study of lomitapide in pediatric HoFH patients.

We also plan to build our business in the future by acquiring rights to one or more product candidates targeted at life-threatening or substantially debilitating rare diseases that leverage our infrastructure and expertise.

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In the near-term, we expect that the large majority of our revenues will be derived from sales of JUXTAPID in the U.S. We also expect to generate revenues from sales of JUXTAPID in a limited number of other countries where lomitapide is available on a named patient sale basis as a result of the U.S. and EU approvals, and from sales of lomitapide in those countries outside the U.S. in which we have or receive marketing approval and are able to obtain pricing and reimbursement approval at acceptable levels. We expect that prescriptions for named patient sales in Brazil in the near term will continue to be our second largest source of revenues, on a country-by-country basis, outside the U.S. In some countries, including Brazil, orders for named-patient sales are for multiple months of therapy. We expect net product sales from named patients sales to fluctuate quarter-over-quarter, including as a result of economic pressures, government actions and political unrest. We have submitted documentation seeking pricing and reimbursement approvals from governmental authorities in key markets of the EU, and plan to seek such approvals from governmental authorities, social funds and private payers in Mexico and Canada. We anticipate reimbursement decisions in some of those countries beginning in 2014. In other countries, we do not expect pricing and reimbursement decisions until 2015. We have launched LOJUXTA in the United Kingdom and Germany; however, we expect limited sales of LOJUXTA in those countries until governmental authorities have made reimbursement decisions.

During the year ended December 31, 2013, we generated approximately $48.5 million of revenues from net product sales. As of December 31, 2013, we had approximately $126.2 million in cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities on hand.

Financial Overview

Net Product Sales

We began recognizing revenues from net product sales of lomitapide in the first quarter of 2013 and have recognized $48.5 million of revenues from net product sales in the year ended December 31, 2013, of which $42.3 million was derived from prescriptions for lomitapide written in the U.S., and $6.2 million was derived from prescriptions for lomitapide written outside the U.S., primarily in Brazil. We did not have net product sales in the year ended December 31, 2012.

Cost of Product Sales

We began recognizing cost of product sales in the first quarter of 2013. Cost of product sales includes the cost of inventory sold, manufacturing and supply chain costs, product shipping and handling costs, as well as royalties payable to The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania ("UPenn") related to the sale of lomitapide. Prior to the approval of lomitapide by the FDA in December 2012, we recorded manufacturing costs relating to lomitapide as research and development expense. Subsequent to approval, we began capitalizing these costs as inventory is manufactured. As a result, there will be no cost of product sales attributable to the sale of lomitapide inventory that was on hand at the time of FDA approval. The impact to cost of product sales as a result of inventory not capitalized prior to FDA approval is immaterial.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses

Selling, general and administrative expenses consist primarily of compensation for employees in executive and operational functions, including sales and marketing, finance, human resources, information technology and legal. Other significant costs include stock-based compensation related to options granted to personnel in executive and operational functions and professional fees for accounting, marketing and legal services, including expenses associated with obtaining and maintaining patents.

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Research and Development Expenses

Since our inception, our research and development activities have primarily focused on the clinical development of lomitapide and regulatory activities directed at gaining approval of lomitapide in HoFH. We recognize both internal and external research and development expenses as they are incurred. Our research and development expenses consist primarily of:

• salaries and related expenses for personnel;

• fees paid to contract research organizations ("CROs"), in conjunction with conducting and independent monitoring of our clinical trials, acquisition and evaluation of data in conjunction with our clinical trials, including all related fees, such as for investigator grants, patient screening, laboratory work and statistical compilation and analysis;

• costs related to production of clinical materials, technology transfer and process validation in connection with a potential second source of lomitapide drug substance, and process validation and development efforts related to additional dosage forms of lomitapide;

• costs related to medical affairs activities;

• costs related to initiation of the observational cohort study, the vascular imaging study and other post marketing studies;

• costs related to compliance with regulatory requirements in the U.S., EU, Brazil, Mexico, Canada and other countries;

• consulting fees paid to third parties; and

• costs related to stock-based compensation granted to personnel in research and development functions.

We expense research and development costs as incurred. Nonrefundable advance payments for goods and services that will be used in future research and development activities are expensed when the activity has been performed or when the goods have been received rather than when the payment is made. Our research and development expenditures are subject to numerous uncertainties in timing and cost to completion. Our planned research and development activities, including those related to completing the conduct of clinical studies directed towards a potential filing for regulatory approval of lomitapide in Japan and towards the possible expansion of the indication for lomitapide to include the treatment of pediatric patients, may take several years or more to complete. The length of time and cost of such clinical studies generally varies according to the type, complexity, novelty and intended use of such studies.

We have received marketing approval for lomitapide in the U.S., the EU, Mexico, Canada and certain other countries. We are seeking approval of lomitapide in several additional countries. Obtaining marketing approval in such countries may be an extensive, lengthy, expensive and uncertain process, and any foreign regulatory authority may delay, limit or deny approval of lomitapide for many reasons.

Our expenses related to development activities, including process development and conducting clinical trials, are based on estimates of the services received and efforts expended pursuant to contracts with contract manufacturing organizations and with multiple research institutions and CROs that conduct and manage clinical trials on our behalf. The financial terms of these agreements are subject to negotiation, and vary from contract to contract, and may result in uneven payment flows. Generally, these agreements set forth the scope of work to be performed at a fixed fee or unit price. Payments under these agreements depend on factors such as the successful enrollment of patients or the completion of clinical trial milestones. We generally accrue expenses related to clinical trials based on contracted amounts applied to the level of patient enrollment or activity according to the protocol. If timelines or contracts are modified based upon changes in the clinical trial protocol or scope of work to be performed, we modify our estimates of accrued expenses accordingly on a prospective basis.

As a result of the uncertainties discussed above, we are unable to determine with certainty the duration and completion costs of our development projects.

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Interest Income and Interest Expense

Interest income consists of interest earned on our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities. Interest expense consists primarily of cash and non-cash interest costs related to our outstanding debt. Non-cash interest expense consists of the amortization of capitalized costs incurred in connection with the issuance of debt. We amortize these costs using the effective interest rate method over the life of our debt agreements as interest expense in our statements of operations.

Net Operating Losses and Tax Carryforwards

As of December 31, 2013, we had federal and state net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $184.9 million and $88.1 million, respectively. We also had federal and state research and development tax credit carryforwards of approximately $28.6 million and $1.8 million available to offset future taxable income. The federal net operating loss and federal tax credit carryforwards will begin to expire at various dates beginning in 2025, if not utilized. The state net operating loss and state tax credit carryforwards will begin to expire at various dates beginning in 2014, if not utilized. The Tax Reform Act of 1986 provides for a limitation on the annual use of net operating loss and research and development tax credit carryforwards following certain ownership changes that could limit our ability to utilize these carryforwards. We are currently performing a study to assess whether an ownership change has occurred, or whether there have been multiple ownership changes since our inception. We expect there may be limitations to utilize the aforementioned carryforwards. Additionally, U.S. tax laws limit the time during which these carryforwards may be utilized against future taxes. As a result, we may not be able to take full advantage of these carryforwards for federal and state tax purposes.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Our management's discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based on our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate these estimates and judgments, including those described below. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. These estimates and assumptions form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results and experiences may differ materially from these estimates.

While our significant accounting policies are more fully described in Note 2 to our financial statements appearing in Item 8 of this Form 10-K, we believe that the following accounting policies are the most critical to aid you in fully understanding and evaluating our reported financial results, and affect the more significant judgments and estimates that we use in the preparation of our financial statements.

Revenue Recognition

To date, our net product sales have consisted solely of sales of lomitapide for the treatment of HoFH. We recognize revenue from product sales when there is persuasive evidence that an arrangement exists, title to product and associated risk of loss has passed to the customer, the price is fixed or determinable, collectability is reasonably assured and we have no further performance obligations.

In the U.S., JUXTAPID is only available for distribution through a specialty pharmacy, and is shipped directly to the patient. JUXTAPID is not available in retail pharmacies. Prior authorization and confirmation of coverage level by the patient's private insurance plan or government payer is currently a prerequisite to the shipment of product to a patient in the U.S. Revenue from sales in the U.S. is generally recognized once the product has been received by the patient. For uninsured amounts billed directly to the patient, we recognize revenue at the time of cash receipt as collectability is not reasonably assured at the time the product is received. To the extent amounts are billed in advance of delivery to the patient, we will defer revenue until delivery occurs.

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In addition, we recorded revenue on sales in Brazil and other countries where lomitapide is available on a named patient basis and typically paid for by a government authority or institution. In many cases, these sales are facilitated through a third-party distributor that takes title to the product upon acceptance. Because of factors such as the pricing of JUXTAPID, the limited number of patients, the short period from product sale to delivery to the end-customer and the limited contractual return rights, these distributors only hold inventory to supply specific orders for the product. We generally recognize revenue for these named-patient programs once the product is accepted by the distributor or by the payer. In the event the payer's credit worthiness has not been established, we will recognize revenue on the cash basis.

We record revenue net of estimated discounts and rebates, including those paid to Medicare, Medicaid and other governmental programs in the U.S. Allowances are recorded as a reduction of revenue at the time product sales are recognized. Allowances for government rebates and discounts are established based on the actual payer information, which is known at the time of delivery, and the government-mandated discounts applicable to government-funded programs. These allowances are adjusted to reflect known changes in the factors that may impact such allowances in the quarter those changes are known. To date, such adjustments have not been significant.

The following table summarizes activity in each of the product revenue allowance and reserve categories during the year ended December 31, 2013 (in thousands):

                                              Government       Contractual
                                               Rebates          Discounts        Total
 Balance at December 31, 2012                $         -      $          -      $     -
 Provision related to current period sales          2,349               732        3,081
 Credits/payments made                               (698 )            (732 )     (1,430 )

 Balance at December 31, 2013                $      1,651     $          -      $  1,651

Inventories and Cost of Product Sales

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market price with cost determined on a first-in, first-out basis. Inventories are reviewed periodically to identify slow-moving or obsolete inventory based on sales activity, both projected and historical, as well as product shelf-life, which is currently two years for lomitapide capsules. In evaluating the recoverability of inventories produced in preparation for product launches, we consider the probability that revenue will be obtained from the future sale of the related inventory and will write down inventory quantities in excess of expected requirements. Expired inventory is disposed of and the related costs are recognized as cost of product sales in the statement of operations.

Prior to the approval of lomitapide by the FDA in December 2012, we recorded manufacturing costs relating to lomitapide as research and development expense. Subsequent to approval, we began capitalizing these costs as inventory is manufactured. As a result, there will be no cost of product sales attributable to the sale of lomitapide inventory that was on hand at the time of FDA approval. The impact to cost of product sales as a result of inventory not capitalized prior to FDA approval is immaterial.

We analyze our inventory levels to identify inventory that may expire prior to sale, inventory that has a cost basis in excess of its estimated realizable value, or inventory in excess of expected sales requirements. Although the manufacturing of lomitapide is subject to strict quality controls, certain batches or units of product may no longer meet quality specifications or may expire, which would require adjustments to our inventory values.

In the future, reduced demand, quality issues or excess supply beyond those anticipated by management may result in an adjustment to inventory levels, which would be recorded as an increase to cost of product sales. The determination of whether or not inventory costs will be realizable requires estimates by our management. A critical input in this determination is future expected inventory requirements based on our internal sales forecasts

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we then compare to the expiry dates of inventory on hand. To the extent that inventory is expected to expire prior to being sold, we will write down the value of inventory. If actual results differ from those estimates, additional inventory write-offs may be required.

Accrued Expenses

As part of the process of preparing our financial statements, we are required to estimate accrued expenses. This process involves reviewing open contracts and purchase orders, communicating with our applicable personnel as well as applicable vendor personnel to identify services that have been performed on our behalf and estimating the level of service performed and the associated cost incurred for the service when we have not yet been invoiced or otherwise notified of actual cost. The majority of our service providers invoice us monthly in arrears for services performed. We make estimates of our accrued expenses as of each balance sheet date in our financial statements based on facts and circumstances known to us at that time. We periodically confirm the accuracy of our estimates with the service providers, and make adjustments if necessary. Examples of estimated accrued expenses include fees paid to CROs and investigative sites in connection with clinical studies and professional service fees. If our previous estimates are 5% too high or too low, this may result in an adjustment to our accrued expenses in future periods of approximately $0.9 million.

Stock-Based Compensation

We measure the fair value of stock options and other stock-based awards issued to employees and directors on the date of grant. The fair value of equity instruments issued to non-employees is remeasured as the award vests. For service type awards, compensation expense is recognized using the straight line method over the requisite service period, which is typically the vesting period. For awards that vest or begin vesting upon achievement of a performance condition, we begin recognizing compensation expense when achievement of the performance condition is deemed probable using an accelerated attribution model over the implicit service period.

For awards that vest upon the achievement of a market condition, we recognize compensation expense over the derived service period. For equity awards that have been modified, any incremental increase in the fair value over the original award has been recorded as compensation expense on the date of the modification for vested awards or over the remaining service (vesting) period for unvested awards. The incremental compensation cost is the excess of the fair value of the modified award on the date of modification over the fair value of the original award immediately before the modification.

For service type awards and awards that begin vesting upon achievement of a performance condition, we calculate the estimated fair value of stock-based compensation awards using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. We have 1,019,447 outstanding unvested stock options that contain performance criteria, which require significant judgment to assess whether the criteria is deemed probable to be achieved and for certain of the awards the number of options that will ultimately vest upon meeting the criteria. For awards that vest upon achievement of a market condition, we calculate the estimated fair value of the stock-based awards using a Monte Carlo simulation. The Black-Scholes option-pricing model requires the input of subjective assumptions, including stock price volatility and the expected life of stock options. A Monte Carlo simulation requires the input of assumptions, including our stock price, volatility of our stock price, and was developed to reflect the impact of the market condition on the value of the award. As a recent public company, we do not have sufficient history to estimate the volatility of our common stock price or the expected life of our options. We calculate expected volatility based on reported data for selected reasonably similar publicly traded companies, or guideline peer group, for which the historical information is available. We will continue to use the guideline peer group volatility information until the historical volatility of our common stock is relevant to measure expected volatility for future option grants.

The assumed dividend yield is based on our expectation of not paying dividends in the foreseeable future. We determine the average expected life of stock options according to the "simplified method" as described in Staff Accounting Bulletin 110, which is the mid-point between the vesting date and the end of the contractual

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term. We determine the risk-free interest rate by reference to implied yields available from five-year and seven-year U.S. Treasury securities with a remaining term equal to the expected life assumed at the date of grant. We estimate forfeitures based on our historical analysis of actual stock option forfeitures. The weighted-average assumptions used in the Black-Scholes option-pricing model are as follows:

                                                          Years Ended December 31,
                                                       2013          2012        2011
  Risk-free interest rate                                  1.24 %      1.09 %      1.80 %
  Dividend yield                                             -           -           -
  Weighted-average expected life of options (years)        6.14        6.13        6.51
  Volatility                                              82.81 %     85.03 %     83.88 %

Accounting for Income Taxes

Our provision for income taxes is comprised of a current and a deferred portion. The current income tax provision is calculated as the estimated taxes payable or refundable on tax returns for the current year. We provide for deferred income taxes resulting from temporary differences between financial and taxable income. Such differences arise primarily from tax net operating loss and credit carryforwards, depreciation, stock-based compensation expense, accruals and reserves.

We assess the recoverability of any tax assets recorded on the balance sheet and provide any necessary valuation allowances as required. In evaluating our ability to recover our deferred tax assets, we consider all available positive and negative evidence including our past operating results, the existence of cumulative income in the most recent fiscal years, changes in the business in which we operate and our forecast of future taxable income. In determining future taxable income, we are responsible for assumptions utilized, including the amount of state, federal and international pre-tax operating income, the reversal of temporary differences and the implementation of feasible and prudent tax planning strategies. These assumptions require significant judgment about the forecasts of future taxable income and are consistent with the plans and estimates we are using to manage the underlying business. Such assessment is completed on a jurisdiction by jurisdiction basis. In future periods, we may . . .

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