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FNF > SEC Filings for FNF > Form 10-K on 28-Feb-2014All Recent SEC Filings

Show all filings for FIDELITY NATIONAL FINANCIAL, INC.

Form 10-K for FIDELITY NATIONAL FINANCIAL, INC.


28-Feb-2014

Annual Report


Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and
Results of Operations

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the Notes thereto and Selected Financial Data included elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
Overview
We are a leading provider of title insurance, technology and transaction services to the real estate and mortgage industries. We are the nation's largest title insurance company through our title insurance underwriters - Fidelity National Title, Chicago Title, Commonwealth Land Title and Alamo Title - that collectively issue more title insurance policies than any other title company in the United States. We also provide industry-leading mortgage technology solutions and transaction services, including MSP®, the leading residential mortgage servicing technology platform in the U.S., through our majority-owned subsidiaries, Black Knight Financial Services, LLC ("BKFS") and ServiceLink Holdings, LLC ("ServiceLink"). In addition, we own majority and minority equity investment stakes in a number of entities, including American Blue Ribbon Holdings, LLC ("ABRH"), J. Alexander's, LLC ("J. Alexander's"), Remy International, Inc. ("Remy"), Ceridian HCM, Inc., Comdata Inc. (collectively "Ceridian") and Digital Insurance, Inc. ("Digital Insurance"). As of December 31, 2013, we had five reporting segments as follows:
FNF Core Operations
• Fidelity National Title Group. This segment consists of the operations of our title insurance underwriters and related businesses. This segment provides core title insurance and escrow and other title related services including collection and trust activities, trustee's sales guarantees, recordings and reconveyances, and home warranty insurance.

• FNF Corporate and Other. The FNF corporate and other segment consists of the operations of the parent holding company, certain other unallocated corporate overhead expenses, and other smaller real estate and insurance related operations.

Portfolio Company Investments
• Remy. This segment consists of the operations of Remy, in which we have a 51% ownership interest. Remy is a leading designer, manufacturer, remanufacturer, marketer and distributor of aftermarket and original equipment components for automobiles, light trucks, heavy-duty trucks and other vehicles.

• Restaurant Group. The Restaurant Group segment consists of the operations of ABRH, in which we have a 55% ownership interest. ABRH is the owner and operator of the O'Charley's, Ninety Nine Restaurants, Max & Erma's, Village Inn and Bakers Square concepts. This segment also includes J. Alexander's, which includes the Stoney River Legendary Steaks ("Stoney River") concept.

• Portfolio Company Corporate and Other. The Portfolio Company Corporate and Other segment primarily consists of our share in the operations of certain equity investments, including Ceridian, Digital Insurance and other smaller operations which are not title related.

Recent Developments
On January 31, 2014 we announced our plans to form a new tracking stock for Fidelity National Financial Ventures ("FNFV"). As a result, we have decided to begin separately reporting the results of our core operations, which includes Fidelity National Title Group, Inc. ("FNT"), BKFS, ServiceLink and the portfolio company investments which include Remy, the Restaurant Group, Digital Insurance and other smaller operations. The portfolio company investments will comprise FNFV in the future.
On January 13, 2014, Remy announced that they acquired substantially all of the assets of United Starters and Alternators Industries, Inc. ("USA Industries") pursuant to the terms and conditions of the Asset Purchase Agreement, effective as of January 13, 2014. USA Industries is a leading worldwide distributor of premium quality re-manufactured and new alternators, starters, constant velocity axles and disc brake calipers for the light-duty aftermarket. Total consideration paid was $41million.
On January 2, 2014, we completed the purchase of Lender Processing Services, Inc. ("LPS"). The purchase consideration paid was $37.14 per share, of which $28.10 per share was paid in cash and the remaining $9.04 was paid in FNF common shares. The purchase consideration represented an exchange ratio of 0.28742 per share of LPS common stock. Total consideration paid for LPS was $3.4 billion, which consisted of $2,535 million in cash and $836 million in FNF common stock. In order to pay the stock component of the consideration, we issued 25,920,078 shares to the former LPS shareholders.
On October 24, 2013, we offered 17,250,000 shares of our common stock at an offering price of $26.75 per share, pursuant to an effective registration statement previously filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. We granted the underwriters a 30-day option to purchase 2,587,500 additional shares at the offering price, which was subsequently exercised in full. A total


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of 19,837,500 shares were issued on October 30, 2013, for net proceeds of approximately $511 million. The net proceeds from this offering were used to pay a portion of the cash consideration for the LPS Acquisition on January 2, 2014. Subsequent to our announcement of the LPS acquisition, we formed a wholly-owned subsidiary, Black Knight Financial Services, Inc. (now known as Black Knight Holdings, Inc., "Black Knight"). Black Knight is the mortgage and finance industries' leading provider of integrated technology, data and analytics solutions, and transaction services. Black Knight has two operating segments, ServiceLink and BKFS. We retained a 65% ownership interest in each of the subsidiaries and issued the remaining 35% ownership interest to funds affiliated with Thomas H. Lee Partners, and certain related entities on January 3, 2014. Black Knight, through ServiceLink and BKFS, now owns and operates the former LPS businesses and our ServiceLink business. Fidelity National Title Group, BKFS and ServiceLink will be our core operating subsidiaries in the future.
On February 25, 2013, we formed J. Alexander's, a restaurant company which is focused on the upscale-casual dining segment. J. Alexander's consists of thirty J. Alexander's locations and ten Stoney River locations. ABRH contributed the ten Stoney River locations to J. Alexander's for an approximate 28% ownership interest in the new company, giving us an overall 87% ownership interest in J. Alexander's. The operations of J. Alexander's are consolidated in our existing Restaurant Group segment. Previously, in September 2012 we purchased all of the outstanding common stock of J. Alexander's Corporation for total consideration of $72 million in cash, net of cash acquired of $7 million. Related Party Transactions
Our financial statements reflect transactions with Fidelity National Information Services ("FIS"), which is a related party. See Note A of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Business Trends and Conditions
FNF Core Operations
Title insurance revenue is closely related to the level of real estate activity which includes sales, mortgage financing and mortgage refinancing. The levels of real estate activity are primarily affected by the average price of real estate sales, the availability of funds to finance purchases and mortgage interest rates. Declines in the level of real estate activity or the average price of real estate sales will adversely affect our title insurance revenues. We have found that residential real estate activity is generally dependent on the following:
• mortgage interest rates;

• the mortgage funding supply; and

• the strength of the United States economy, including employment levels.

In 2007, as interest rates on adjustable rate mortgages reset to higher rates, foreclosures on subprime mortgage loans increased to record levels. This resulted in a significant decrease in levels of available mortgage funding as investors became wary of the risks associated with investing in subprime mortgage loans. In addition, tighter lending standards and a bearish outlook on the real estate environment caused potential home buyers to become reluctant to purchase homes. In 2008, the increase in foreclosure activity, which had previously been limited to the subprime mortgage market, became more widespread as borrowers encountered difficulties in attempting to refinance their adjustable rate mortgages. In the last three years, the elevated mortgage delinquency and default rates caused negative operating results at a number of banks and financial institutions and, as a result, significantly reduced the level of lending activity. Multiple banks have failed from 2009-2012, further reducing the capacity of the mortgage industry to make loans.
Since December 2008, the Federal Reserve has held the federal funds rate at 0.0%-0.25%, and has indicated that rates will stay at this level at least until unemployment rates improve. Mortgage interest rates remained at historically low levels throughout 2013, however, in September 2013 interest rates rose to their highest level since 2011.
As of January 14, 2014, the Mortgage Banker's Association ("MBA") estimated the size of the U.S. mortgage originations market as shown in the following table for 2013 - 2015 in their "Mortgage Finance Forecast" (in trillions):

                                    2015        2014     2013     2012
Purchase transactions              $ 0.8  1.1  $ 0.7    $ 0.7    $ 0.6
Refinance transactions               0.4         0.4      1.1      1.4
Total U.S. mortgage originations   $ 1.2       $ 1.1    $ 1.8    $ 2.0

As shown above, the originations in 2013 and 2012 were driven primarily by refinance transactions, which coincides with the historically low interest rates experienced during those years. In 2014, the MBA predicts a 38.9% decrease in the total market, primarily due to a 63.6% decrease in refinance transactions in 2014, with the originations in 2015 remaining relatively consistent with those in 2014.


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Several pieces of legislation were enacted to address the struggling mortgage market and the current economic and financial environment. On October 24, 2011, the Federal Housing Finance Agency ("FHFA") announced a series of changes to the Home Affordable Refinance Program ("HARP") that would make it easier for certain borrowers who owe more than their home is worth and who are current on their mortgage payments to refinance their mortgages at lower interest rates. The program reduces or eliminates the risk-based fees Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac charge on many loans, raises the loan-to-home value ratio requirement for refinancing, and streamlines the underwriting process. According to the Federal Housing Authority ("FHA"), lenders began taking refinancing applications on December 1, 2011 under the modified HARP. On April 11, 2013, the FHFA announced that the modified HARP program had been extended through December 2015. We believe the modified HARP program had a positive effect on our results during 2013 and 2012, but are uncertain to what degree the program may impact our results in the future.
During 2010, a number of lenders imposed freezes on foreclosures in some or all states as they reviewed their foreclosure practices. In response to these freezes, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency ("OCC") reviewed the foreclosure practices in the residential mortgage loan servicing industry. On April 13, 2011, the OCC and other federal regulators (collectively the "banking agencies") announced formal consent orders against several national bank mortgage servicers and third-party servicer providers for inappropriate practices related to residential mortgage loan servicing and foreclosure processing. The consent orders require the servicers to promptly correct deficiencies and make improvements in practices for residential mortgage loan servicing and foreclosure processing, including improvements to future communications with borrowers and a comprehensive "look back" to assess whether foreclosures complied with federal and state laws and whether any deficiencies in the process or related documentation resulted in financial injury to borrowers. Our title insurance underwriters were not involved in these enforcement actions and we do not believe that our title insurance underwriters are exposed to significant losses resulting from faulty foreclosure practices. Our title insurance underwriters issue title policies on real estate owned properties to new purchasers and lenders to those purchasers. We believe that these policies will not result in significant additional claims exposure to us because even if a court sets aside a foreclosure due to a defect in documentation, the foreclosing lender would be required to return to our insureds all funds obtained from them, resulting in reduced exposure under the title insurance policy. Further, we believe that under current law and the rights we have under our title insurance policies, we would have the right to seek recovery from the foreclosing lender in the event of a failure to comply with state laws or local practices in connection with a foreclosure. The former LPS and certain of its subsidiaries entered into a consent order with the banking agencies in relation to its default operations, now part of ServiceLink. As part of the consent order, LPS agreed to further study the issues identified in the review and enhance its compliance, internal audit, risk management and board oversight plans with respect to the related businesses, among additional agreed undertakings. In January 2013, ten large mortgage servicers concluded the reviews required by the 2011 consent orders and agreed to monetary settlements, and LPS also entered into settlement agreements, in January 2013 with 49 States and the District of Columbia relating to certain practices within its default operations and in February 2014, Black Knight (formerly LPS) also settled with the State of Nevada and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. In April 2013, these mortgage servicers began making restitution under these settlements. We cannot predict whether these settlements may result in more normalized foreclosure timelines in the future. Moreover, we cannot predict whether any additional legislative or regulatory changes will be implemented as a result of the findings of the banking agencies or whether the U.S. federal government may take additional action to address the current housing market and economic uncertainty. Some states have enacted or are considering adopting legislation, such as the California Homeowner Bill of Rights, that places additional responsibilities and restrictions on servicers with respect to the foreclosure process. Any such actions could further extend foreclosure timelines. Moreover, as the processing of foreclosures in accordance with applicable law becomes more onerous, many lenders are addressing loans in default through other means, such as short sales, in order to avoid the risks and liability now associated with the foreclosure process. If foreclosure timelines continue to be extended and servicers address delinquent loans through other processes, the results of our default operations within ServiceLink may be adversely affected. On February 9, 2012, federal officials, state attorneys general and representatives of Bank of America, JP Morgan Chase, Wells Fargo, Citigroup and Ally Financial agreed to a $25 billion settlement of federal and state investigations into the foreclosure practices of banks and other mortgage servicers from September 2008 to December 2011. Under the settlement, approximately 1,000,000 underwater borrowers will have their mortgages reduced by lenders and 300,000 homeowners will be able to refinance their homes at lower interest rates. We are uncertain to what degree these initiatives have affected our results or may affect our results in the future.
In addition to state-level regulation, segments of our core businesses are subject to regulation by federal agencies, including the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB"). The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 established the CFPB, and in January 2012, President Obama appointed its first director. The CFPB has been given broad authority to regulate, among other areas, the mortgage and real estate markets in matters pertaining to consumers. This authority includes the enforcement of the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act formerly placed with the Department of Housing and Urban Development. On July 9, 2012, the CFPB introduced a number of proposed rules related to the enforcement of the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act and the Truth in Lending Act, including, among others, measures designed to (i) simplify financing documentation and (ii) require lenders to deliver to consumers a statement of final financing charges (and the related annual


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percentage rate) at least three business days prior to the closing. These rules became effective on January 10, 2014 . We cannot be certain what impact, if any, these new rules, or the CFPB generally, will have on our core businesses. Historically, real estate transactions have produced seasonal revenue levels for the real estate industry including title insurers. The first calendar quarter is typically the weakest quarter in terms of revenue due to the generally low volume of home sales during January and February. The third calendar quarter has been typically the strongest in terms of revenue primarily due to a higher volume of home sales in the summer months and the fourth quarter is usually also strong due to commercial entities desiring to complete transactions by year-end. We have noted short term fluctuations through recent years in resale and refinance transactions as a result of changes in interest rates and the implementation and subsequent expiration of government programs designed to stimulate the real estate market. In 2013, we have seen seasonality trends return to historical patterns. During 2012 and 2013, we experienced an increase in existing home sales to the highest volume levels since 2007. We have also seen a decline in total housing inventory to the lowest levels since 2005. Because commercial real estate transactions tend to be driven more by supply and demand for commercial space and occupancy rates in a particular area rather than by macroeconomic events, we believe that our commercial real estate title insurance business is less dependent on the industry cycles discussed above than our residential real estate title business. From 2010 to 2013, we have experienced an increase in fee per file of commercial transactions from the previous years, indicating improvement in the commercial markets. Portfolio Company Investments
Remy
Remy manufactures and sells auto parts, principally starter motors and alternators, as well as hybrid electric motors and multi-line products, including steering gear, constant velocity (CV) axles, and brake calipers, for sale to original equipment manufacturers (OEM) and aftermarket customers. Remy manufactures products for automobiles as well as light and heavy duty commercial vehicles. The OEM market for auto parts is dependent on levels of new vehicle production, which in turn, is affected by the overall economy, consumer confidence, discounts and incentives offered by automakers and the availability of funds to finance purchases.
In its aftermarket operations, Remy's results are affected by the strength of the economy and by gas prices, but do not follow the same cycles as original equipment market sales. In a weaker economy, drivers tend to keep their vehicles and repair them rather than buying new vehicles. Lower gas prices have historically tended to result in more miles driven, which increases the frequency with which auto repairs are needed. Nevertheless, a weak economy also may reduce miles driven. Over the long term, improvements in the durability of original equipment and aftermarket parts has reduced, and is expected to further reduce, the number of units sold in the aftermarket. Aftermarket revenues are also affected by other factors, including severe weather (which tends to lead to increased sales) and competitive pressures. Many parts retailers and warehouse distributors purchase starters and alternators from only one or two suppliers, under contracts that run for five years or less. Pressure from customers to reduce prices is characteristic of the automotive supply industry. Remy is currently negotiating several customer agreements which are anticipated to be finalized during the first quarter of 2014. Due to the competitive nature of the business, the revised terms with customers are expected to impact Remy's ongoing profitability. Remy has taken and expects to continue to take steps to improve operating efficiencies and minimize or resist price reductions. Restaurant Group
The restaurant industry is highly competitive and is often affected by changes in consumer tastes and discretionary spending patterns; changes in general economic conditions; public safety conditions or concerns; demographic trends; weather conditions; the cost of food products, labor, energy and other operating costs; and governmental regulations. The restaurant industry is also characterized by high capital investments for new restaurants and relatively high fixed or semi-variable restaurant operating expenses. Because of the high fixed and semi-variable expenses, changes in sales in existing restaurants are generally expected to significantly affect restaurant profitability because many restaurant costs and expenses are not expected to change at the same rate as sales. Restaurant profitability can also be negatively affected by inflationary and regulatory increases in operating costs and other factors. The most significant commodities that may affect our cost of food and beverage are beef, seafood, poultry, and dairy, which accounted for almost 44 percent of our overall cost of food and beverage in the past. Generally, temporary increases in these costs are not passed on to guests; however, in the past, we have adjusted menu prices to compensate for increased costs of a more permanent nature. Average weekly sales per restaurant are typically higher in the first and fourth quarters than in other quarters, and we typically generate a disproportionate share of our earnings from operations in the first and fourth quarters. Holidays, severe weather and other disruptive conditions may impact sales volumes seasonally in some operating regions.
In 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act ("Affordable Care Act") was passed and becomes effective for businesses in 2014. In July 2013, compliance with the employer mandate and certain reporting requirements under the Affordable Care Act were delayed until January 1, 2015. We are continuing to assess the impact of the Affordable Care Act on our health care benefit costs. The imposition of any requirement that we provide health insurance benefits to employees that are more extensive


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than the health insurance benefits we currently provide, or the imposition of additional employer paid employment taxes on income earned by our employees, will have an adverse effect on our results of operations in the future, however, we do not expect the impact to materially affect our financial condition. The Affordable Care Act is likely to similarly affect the restaurant industry in general. Additionally, our Restaurant Group and suppliers may also be affected by higher minimum wage and benefit standards, which could result in higher costs for goods and services supplied to us.
Our revenues in future periods will continue to be subject to these and other factors that are beyond our control and, as a result, are likely to fluctuate. Critical Accounting Estimates
The accounting estimates described below are those we consider critical in preparing our Consolidated Financial Statements. Management is required to make estimates and assumptions that can affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures with respect to contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the Consolidated Financial Statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual amounts could differ from those estimates. See Note A of Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional description of the significant accounting policies that have been followed in preparing our Consolidated Financial Statements. Reserve for Title Claim Losses. Title companies issue two types of policies, owner's and lender's policies, since both the new owner and the lender in real estate transactions want to know that their interest in the property is insured against certain title defects outlined in the policy. An owner's policy insures the buyer against such defects for as long as he or she owns the property (as well as against warranty claims arising out of the sale of the property by such owner). A lender's policy insures the priority of the lender's security interest over the claims that other parties may have in the property. The maximum amount of liability under a title insurance policy is generally the face amount of the policy plus the cost of defending the insured's title against an adverse claim, however, occasionally we do incur losses in excess of policy limits. While most non-title forms of insurance, including property and casualty, provide for the assumption of risk of loss arising out of unforeseen future events, title insurance serves to protect the policyholder from risk of loss for events that predate the issuance of the policy.
Unlike many other forms of insurance, title insurance requires only a one-time premium for continuous coverage until another policy is warranted due to changes in property circumstances arising from refinance, resale, additional liens, or other events. Unless we issue the subsequent policy, we receive no notice that our exposure under our policy has ended and, as a result, we are unable to track the actual terminations of our exposures.
Our reserve for title claim losses includes reserves for known claims as well as for losses that have been incurred but not yet reported to us ("IBNR"), net of recoupments. We reserve for each known claim based on our review of the estimated amount of the claim and the costs required to settle the claim. Reserves for IBNR claims are estimates that are established at the time the premium revenue is recognized and are based upon historical experience and other factors, including industry trends, claim loss history, legal environment, geographic considerations, and the types of policies written. We also reserve for losses arising from escrow title-related and other fees relating to closing and disbursement functions due to fraud or operational error.
The table below summarizes our reserves for known claims and incurred but not reported claims related to title insurance:

                                             December 31, 2013        %        December 31, 2012        %
                                                                     (in millions)
Known claims                               $               240      14.7 %   $               286      16.4 %
IBNR                                                     1,396      85.3                   1,462      83.6
Total Reserve for Title Claim Losses       $             1,636     100.0 %   $             1,748     100.0 %

Although claims against title insurance policies can be reported relatively soon after the policy has been issued, claims may be reported many years later. Historically, approximately 60% of claims are paid within approximately five years of the policy being written. By their nature, claims are often complex, vary greatly in dollar amounts and are affected by economic and market . . .

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