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EMN > SEC Filings for EMN > Form 10-K on 28-Feb-2014All Recent SEC Filings

Show all filings for EASTMAN CHEMICAL CO

Form 10-K for EASTMAN CHEMICAL CO


28-Feb-2014

Annual Report


ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Page

Critical Accounting Estimates 34

Non-GAAP and Pro Forma Combined Financial Measures 39

2013 Overview 41

Results of Operations
Summary of Consolidated Results 43 Summary by Operating Segment 51 Summary by Customer Location 61

Liquidity, Capital Resources, and Other Financial Information 63

  Environmental                                                     68

  Inflation                                                         70

  Recently Issued Accounting Standards                              70

  Outlook                                                           70

  Forward-Looking Statements and Risk Factors                       71

This Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations ("MD&A") is based upon the consolidated financial statements for Eastman Chemical Company ("Eastman" or the "Company"), which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted ("GAAP") in the United States, and should be read in conjunction with the Company's consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this 2013 Annual Report on Form 10-K (this "Annual Report"). All references to earnings per share ("EPS") contained in this report are diluted earnings per share unless otherwise noted.

On July 2, 2012, the Company completed its acquisition of Solutia Inc. ("Solutia"), a global leader in performance materials and specialty chemicals. The fair value of total consideration transferred was $4.8 billion, consisting of cash of $2.6 billion, net of cash acquired; equity in the form of Eastman stock of approximately $700 million; and the assumption and subsequent repayment of Solutia's debt at fair value of $1.5 billion. For additional information, see Note 2, "Acquisitions and Investments in Joint Ventures", to the Company's consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report. As of the date of acquisition, results of the acquired Solutia businesses are included in Eastman results.



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CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES

In preparing the consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP, the Company's management must make decisions which impact the reported amounts and the related disclosures. Such decisions include the selection of the appropriate accounting principles to be applied and assumptions on which to base estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, sales revenue and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. On an ongoing basis, the Company evaluates its estimates, including those related to allowances for doubtful accounts, impairment of long-lived assets, environmental costs, pension and other postretirement benefits, litigation and contingent liabilities, income taxes, and purchase accounting. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. The Company's management believes the critical accounting estimates described below are the most important to the fair presentation of the Company's financial condition and results. These estimates require management's most significant judgments in the preparation of the Company's consolidated financial statements.

Allowances for Doubtful Accounts

The Company maintains allowances for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the inability of its customers to make required payments. The Company believes, based on historical results, the likelihood of actual write-offs having a material impact on financial results is low. However, if one of the Company's key customers was to file for bankruptcy, or otherwise be unwilling or unable to make its required payments, or there was a significant slow-down in the economy, the Company could increase its allowances. This could result in a material charge to earnings. The Company's allowance for doubtful accounts was $12 million and $8 million at December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

Definite-lived Assets

Properties and equipment and definite-lived intangible assets to be held and used by the Company are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. The review of these long-lived assets is performed at the asset group level, which is the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities. If the carrying amount is not considered to be recoverable, an analysis of fair value is triggered. An impairment is recorded for the excess of the carrying amount of the asset over the fair value.

Goodwill

The Company conducts testing of goodwill annually in third quarter of each year or when impairment indicators arise, whichever comes first. The testing of goodwill is performed at the reporting unit level which the Company has determined to be its components. Components are defined as one level below an operating segment, and in order to be a reporting unit, the component must 1) be a "business" as defined by applicable accounting standards (an integrated set of activities and assets that is capable of being conducted and managed for the purpose of providing a return in the form of dividends, lower costs, or other economic benefits directly to the investors or other owners, member, or participants); 2) have discrete financial information available; and 3) be reviewed regularly by Company operating segment management. The Company aggregates certain components into reporting units based on economic similarities. During 2013 testing, the Company did not evaluate the acquired Solutia components for aggregation, instead testing each component as a separate reporting unit. Management will continue to review further aggregation as those components become integrated with Eastman.



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MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The Company uses an income approach and applies a fair value methodology based on discounted cash flows in testing the carrying value of goodwill for each reporting unit. The key assumptions and estimates used in the Company's 2013 goodwill impairment testing included a long-term projection of revenues, expenses, and cash flows, the estimated discount rate, and the estimated tax rate. The Company believes these assumptions are consistent with those a hypothetical market participant would use given circumstances that were present at the time the estimates were made. However, actual results and amounts may be significantly different from the Company's estimates. In addition, the use of different estimates or assumptions could result in materially different determinations. If the estimated fair value of a reporting unit is determined to be less than the carrying value of the net assets of the reporting unit including goodwill, additional steps, including an allocation of the estimated fair value to the assets and liabilities of the reporting unit, would be necessary to determine the amount, if any, of goodwill impairment.

As a result of the tests performed during 2013, there was no impairment of the Company's goodwill. Fair values substantially exceeded the carrying values for each reporting unit tested, except for the performance films (a part of the Advanced Materials operating segment) and rubber chemicals (a part of the Additives & Functional Products operating segment) reporting units acquired from Solutia. As anticipated, because of the recent acquisition of Solutia, the fair value of these two reporting units was not substantially in excess of the carrying value.

Goodwill of $743 million is allocated to the rubber chemicals reporting unit, whose fair value exceeded its carrying value by 16 percent. Two of the most critical assumptions used in the calculation of the fair value of the rubber chemicals reporting unit are the long-term growth rate and the discount rate. The Company performed a sensitivity analysis on both of those assumptions. The fair value exceeds the carrying value with either a 1 percent decrease in the long-term growth rate or a 1 percent increase in the discount rate.

Goodwill of $532 million is allocated to the performance films reporting unit, whose fair value exceeded its carry value by 11 percent. Two of the most critical assumptions used in the calculation of the fair value of the performance films reporting unit are the long-term growth rate and the discount rate. The Company performed a sensitivity analysis on both of those assumptions. The fair value exceeds the carrying value with a 1 percent decrease in the long-term growth rate; however, with a 1 percent increase in the discount rate, the fair value was 2 percent less than the carrying value.

In order to determine the discount rate, the Company uses a market perspective weighted average cost of capital ("WACC") approach. The WACC is calculated incorporating weighted average returns on debt and equity from market participants. Therefore, changes in the market, which are beyond the control of the Company, may have an impact on future calculations of estimated fair value.

Indefinite-lived Intangible Assets

The Company conducts testing of indefinite-lived intangible assets annually in third quarter of each year or when impairment indicators arise, whichever comes first. The carrying value of indefinite-lived intangible assets is considered to be impaired when the fair value, as established by appraisal or based on discounted future cash flows of certain related products, is less than their respective carrying values.

Indefinite-lived intangible assets, consisting of various trademarks, are tested for potential impairment by comparing the estimated fair value to the carrying amount. The Company uses an income approach, specifically the relief from royalty method, to test indefinite-lived intangible assets. The estimated fair value of the trademarks is determined based on an assumed royalty rate savings, discounted by the calculated market participant WACC plus a 1 percent risk premium. The carrying value of indefinite-lived intangible assets is considered to be impaired when the estimated fair value is less than the carrying value of the trademarks.

As of July 1, 2013, the testing date, the Company had $568 million in indefinite-lived intangible assets. There was no impairment of the Company's indefinite-lived intangible assets as a result of the tests performed during third quarter 2013.

The Company will continue to monitor both goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for any indication of triggering events which might require additional testing before the next required annual impairment test.

As the Company's assumptions related to long-lived assets are subject to change, write-downs may be required in the future. If estimates of fair value less costs to sell are revised, the carrying amount of the related asset is adjusted, resulting in a charge to earnings.



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MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Environmental Costs

The Company accrues environmental remediation costs when it is probable that the Company has incurred a liability at a contaminated site and the amount can be reasonably estimated. When a single amount cannot be reasonably estimated but the cost can be estimated within a range, the Company accrues the minimum amount. This undiscounted accrued amount reflects liabilities expected to be paid out within 30 years and the Company's assumptions about remediation requirements at the contaminated site, the nature of the remedy, the outcome of discussions with regulatory agencies and other potentially responsible parties at multi-party sites, and the number and financial viability of other potentially responsible parties. Changes in the estimates on which the accruals are based, unanticipated government enforcement action, or changes in health, safety, environmental, and chemical control regulations and testing requirements could result in higher or lower costs. Estimated future environmental expenditures for remediation costs ranged from the minimum or best estimate of $341 million to the maximum of $581 million at December 31, 2013. The maximum estimated future costs are considered to be reasonably possible and are inclusive of the amounts accrued at December 31, 2013.

In accordance with GAAP, the Company also establishes reserves for closure/postclosure costs associated with the environmental and other assets it maintains. Environmental assets, as defined by GAAP, include but are not limited to waste management units, such as landfills, water treatment facilities, and ash ponds. When these types of assets are constructed or installed, a reserve is established for the future costs anticipated to be associated with the retirement or closure of the asset based on an expected life of the environmental assets and the applicable regulatory closure requirements. These future estimated costs are charged against earnings over the estimated useful life of the assets. Currently, the Company estimates the useful life of each individual asset is up to 50 years. If the Company changes its estimate of the environmental asset retirement obligation costs or its estimate of the useful lives of these assets, expenses charged against earnings could increase or decrease.

In accordance with GAAP, the Company also monitors conditional obligations and will record reserves associated with them when and to the extent that more detailed information becomes available concerning applicable retirement costs.

The Company's reserve, including the above remediation, was $368 million at December 31, 2013 and $394 million at December 31, 2012, representing the minimum or best estimate for remediation costs and the best estimate of the amount accrued to date over the regulated assets' estimated useful lives for asset retirement obligation costs.

Pension and Other Postretirement Benefits

The Company maintains defined benefit pension plans that provide eligible employees with retirement benefits. Additionally, Eastman subsidizes life insurance, health care, and dental benefits for eligible retirees, and health care and dental benefits for retirees' eligible survivors. The costs and obligations related to these benefits reflect the Company's assumptions related to general economic conditions (particularly interest rates) and expected return on plan assets. In July 2012, as part of its acquisition of Solutia, the Company assumed Solutia's U.S. and non-U.S. defined benefit pension and other postretirement benefit plans. Prior to the acquisition, the Solutia U.S. pension plans had been closed to new participants and were no longer accruing additional benefits. In 2011, as part of its acquisition of Sterling Chemicals, Inc. ("Sterling"), the Company assumed Sterling's U.S. pension plans. For valuing the obligations and assets of the Company's U.S. and non-U.S. defined benefit pension plans, the Company assumed weighted average discount rates of 4.59 percent and 4.18 percent, respectively, and a weighted average expected return on plan assets of 7.83 percent and 5.78 percent, respectively, at December 31, 2013. The Company assumed a weighted average discount rate of 4.75 percent for its other postretirement benefit plans and an expected return on plan assets of 3.75 percent for its voluntary employees' beneficiary association retiree trust at December 31, 2013. The cost of providing plan benefits also depends on demographic assumptions including retirements, mortality, turnover, and plan participation.

The December 31, 2013 projected benefit obligation and 2014 expense are affected by year-end 2013 assumptions. The following table illustrates the sensitivity to changes in the Company's long-term assumptions in the expected return on assets and assumed discount rate for all pension plans and other postretirement benefit plans. The sensitivities below are specific to the time periods noted. They also may not be additive, so the impact of changing multiple factors simultaneously cannot be calculated by combining the individual sensitivities shown.



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                    MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
                 FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

                                                        Impact on 2014
               Impact on                                   Pre-tax
              2014 Pre-tax                                 Benefits
                Benefits                                   Expense       Impact on
                Expense                                   (Excludes     December 31,
               (Excludes                                mark-to-market  2013 Benefit
             mark-to-market Impact on December 31, 2013  impact) for   Obligation for
                impact)          Projected Benefit          Other          Other
 Change in     for Pension    Obligation for Pension    Postretirement Postretirement
 Assumption      Plans                 Plans            Benefit Plans  Benefit Plans
                                U.S.        Non-U.S.
  25 basis
   point
decrease in
  discount
    rate      -$2 Million   +$57 Million  +$32 Million   -$1 Million    +$26 Million

  25 basis
   point
increase in
  discount
    rate      +$2 Million   -$55 Million  -$31 Million   +$1 Million    -$24 Million

  25 basis
   point
decrease in
  expected
 return on
   assets     +$7 Million     No Impact     No Impact    +$1 Million     No Impact

  25 basis
   point
increase in
  expected
 return on
   assets     -$7 Million     No Impact     No Impact    -$1 Million     No Impact

The expected return on assets and assumed discount rate used to calculate the Company's pension and other postretirement benefit obligations are established each December 31. The expected return on assets is based upon the long-term expected returns in the markets in which the trusts invest their funds, primarily in the following markets: U.S. and non-U.S. fixed income, U.S. and non-U.S. public equity, private equity, and real estate markets. Historically, over approximately a ten year period, the Company's average achieved actual return has been near the expected return on assets. The assumed discount rate is based upon a portfolio of high-grade corporate bonds, which are used to develop a yield curve. This yield curve is applied to the expected durations of the pension and other postretirement benefit obligations. As future health care benefits under the U.S. benefit plan have been fixed at a certain contribution amount, changes in the health care cost trend assumptions do not have a material impact on the results of operations.

The Company uses fair value accounting for plan assets. If actual experience differs from long-term assumptions for asset returns and discount rates which were used in determining the current year expense, the difference is recognized immediately as part of the mark-to-market ("MTM") net gain or loss in the fourth quarter of each year, and any other quarter in which an interim remeasurement is triggered. The MTM net gain or loss applied to earnings from continuing operations in 2013, 2012, and 2011 due to the actual experience versus assumptions of returns on plan assets and discount rates for the defined benefit pension and other postretirement benefit plans were net gain of $383 million, net loss of $276 million, and net loss of $144 million, respectively. The 2013 net MTM gain included an $86 million gain triggered by an other postretirement benefit plan amendment. At December 31, 2013, the Company's weighted-average assumed discount rate was 4.55 percent, up significantly from the prior year, resulting in an actuarial gain of approximately $280 million. In addition, overall there were significant increases in pension asset values of approximately $105 million due to asset values appreciating in excess of the assumed weighted-average rate of return. The actual return of approximately $275 million or 11 percent less the expected return of approximately $170 million or 7.13 percent results in the approximately $105 million increase.



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MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The Company does not anticipate that a change in pension and other postretirement benefit obligations caused by a change in the assumed discount rate during 2014 will impact the cash contributions to be made to the pension plans during 2014. While the amount of the change in these obligations does not correspond directly to cash funding requirements, it is an indication of the amount the Company will be required to contribute to the plans in future years. The amount and timing of such cash contributions is dependent upon interest rates, actual returns on plan assets, retirement, attrition rates of employees, and other factors. For further information regarding pension and other postretirement benefit obligations, see Note 11, "Retirement Plans", to the Company's consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report.

Litigation and Contingent Liabilities

From time to time, the Company and its operations are parties to or targets of lawsuits, claims, investigations and proceedings, including product liability, personal injury, asbestos, patent and intellectual property, commercial, contract, environmental, antitrust, health and safety, and employment matters, which are handled and defended in the ordinary course of business. The Company accrues a liability for such matters when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount can be reasonably estimated. When a single amount cannot be reasonably estimated but the cost can be estimated within a range, the Company accrues the minimum amount. The Company expenses legal costs, including those expected to be incurred in connection with a loss contingency, as incurred. Based upon facts and information currently available, the Company believes the amounts reserved are adequate for such pending matters; however, results of operations could be affected by monetary damages, costs or expenses, and charges against earnings in particular periods.

Income Taxes

The Company records deferred tax assets and liabilities based on temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities, applying enacted tax rates expected to be in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The ability to realize deferred tax assets is evaluated through the forecasting of taxable income using historical and projected future operating results, the reversal of existing temporary differences, and the availability of tax planning strategies. Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not that a tax benefit will not be realized. In the event that the actual outcome from future tax consequences differs from management estimates and assumptions, the resulting change to the provision for income taxes could have a material adverse impact on the consolidated results of operations and statement of financial position. As of December 31, 2013, a valuation allowance of $204 million has been provided against the deferred tax assets.

The Company recognizes income tax positions that meet the more likely than not threshold and accrues interest related to unrecognized income tax positions, which is recorded as a component of the income tax provision.

Purchase Accounting

In general, the acquisition method of accounting requires companies to record assets acquired and liabilities assumed at their respective fair values at the date of acquisition. The Company estimates fair value using the exit price approach which is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly market. An exit price is determined from the viewpoint of unrelated market participants as a whole, in the principal or most advantageous market, and may result in the Company valuing assets or liabilities at a fair value that is not reflective of the Company's intended use of the assets or liabilities. Any amount of the purchase price paid that is in excess of the estimated fair values of net assets acquired or liabilities assumed is recorded in the line item goodwill on the Company's consolidated balance sheets. Management's judgment is used to determine the estimated fair values assigned to assets acquired and liabilities assumed, as well as asset lives for property, plant and equipment and amortization periods for intangible assets, and can materially affect the Company's results of operations.



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MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

NON-GAAP AND PRO FORMA COMBINED FINANCIAL MEASURES

In addition to evaluating the Company's financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and cash flows as reported in accordance with GAAP, Eastman management also evaluates Company and operating segment performance, and makes resource allocation and performance evaluation decisions, excluding the effect of transactions, costs, and losses or gains that do not directly arise from Eastman's normal, or "core", business and operations, or are otherwise of an unusual or non-recurring nature. These transactions, costs, and losses or gains relate to, among other things, cost reduction, growth and profitability improvement initiatives, and other events outside of core business operations (such as MTM losses or gains for pension and other postretirement benefit plans, typically in the fourth quarter of each year and any quarters in which an interim remeasurement is triggered). Because non-core or non-recurring transactions, costs, and losses or gains may materially affect the Company's, or any particular operating segment's, financial condition or results in a specific period in which they are recognized, Eastman believes it is appropriate to evaluate both the financial measures prepared and calculated in accordance with GAAP and the related non-GAAP financial measures excluding the effect on our results of these non-core or non-recurring items. In addition to using such measures to evaluate results in a specific period, management evaluates such non-GAAP measures, and believes that investors may also evaluate such measures, because such measures may provide more complete and consistent comparisons of the Company's, and its segments', operational performance on a period-over-period historical basis and, as a result, provide a better indication of expected future trends. Management discloses these non-GAAP . . .

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