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CXW > SEC Filings for CXW > Form 10-K on 27-Feb-2014All Recent SEC Filings




Annual Report


The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto appearing elsewhere in this report. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including, but not limited to, those described under "Risk Factors" and included in other portions of this report.


We currently own or control 53 correctional and detention facilities and manage an additional 13 facilities owned by our government partners, with a total design capacity of approximately 86,000 beds in 20 states and the District of Columbia. We are the nation's largest owner of privatized correctional and detention facilities and one of the largest prison operators in the United States, behind only the federal government and three states. Our size and experience provide us with significant credibility with our current and prospective customers, and enable us to generate economies of scale in purchasing power for food services, health care and other supplies and services we offer to our government partners.

REIT Conversion

In February 2013, we received a favorable ruling from the Internal Revenue Service ("IRS") substantially in the form submitted, and announced that we had completed our analysis of the feasibility and potential benefits of a conversion to a real estate investment trust ("REIT") and had completed the reorganization of our corporate structure to begin operating as a REIT for federal income tax purposes effective January 1, 2013. We believe that operating as a REIT maximizes our ability to create stockholder value given the nature of our assets, helps lower our cost of capital, draws a larger base of potential stockholders, provides greater flexibility to pursue growth opportunities, and creates a more efficient operating structure.

Since the completion of our REIT reorganization, we provide correctional services and conduct other operations through taxable REIT subsidiaries ("TRSs"). A TRS is a subsidiary of a REIT that is subject to applicable corporate income tax and certain qualification requirements. Our use of TRSs enables us to comply with REIT qualification requirements while providing correctional services at facilities we own and at facilities owned by our government partners and to engage in certain other operations. A TRS is not subject to the distribution requirements applicable to REITs so it may retain income generated by its operations for reinvestment.

As a REIT, we generally are not subject to federal income taxes on our REIT taxable income and gains that we distribute to our stockholders, including the income derived from providing prison bed capacity and dividends we earn from our TRSs' provision of correctional services to our government partners. However, even if we qualify as a REIT, our TRSs will be required to pay income taxes on their earnings at regular corporate income tax rates.

As a REIT, we generally are required to distribute annually to our stockholders at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding net capital gains). Our REIT taxable income will not typically include income earned by our TRSs except to the extent our TRSs pay dividends to the REIT. Prior to our REIT reorganization, we operated as a C-corporation for federal income tax purposes. A REIT is not permitted to retain earnings and profits accumulated during the periods it was taxed as a C-corporation, and must make one or more distributions to stockholders that equal

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or exceed those accumulated amounts. To satisfy this requirement, on April 8, 2013, our Board of Directors declared a special dividend to stockholders of $675.0 million, or $6.66 per share of common stock to distribute our accumulated earnings and profits attributable to tax periods ending prior to January 1, 2013. We paid the special dividend on May 20, 2013 to stockholders of record as of April 19, 2013. The special dividend was composed of cash and shares of our common stock, at each stockholder's election, subject to a cap on the total amount of cash equal to 20% of the aggregate amount of the special dividend, or $135.0 million. The balance of the special dividend was paid in the form of 13.9 million additional shares of our common stock.

Our Business

We are compensated for providing correctional bed space and operating and managing prisons and correctional facilities at an inmate per diem rate based upon actual or minimum guaranteed occupancy levels. The significant expansion of the prison population in the United States has led to overcrowding in the federal and state prison systems, providing us with opportunities for growth. Federal, state, and local governments are constantly under budgetary constraints putting pressure on governments to control correctional budgets, including per diem rates our customers pay to us as well as pressure on appropriations for building new prison capacity. Several of our state partners are projecting increases in tax revenues and improvements in their budgets. All of our state partners have balanced budget requirements, which may force them to further reduce their expenses if their tax revenues, which typically lag the overall economy, do not meet their expectations. Actions to control their expenses could include reductions in inmate populations through early release programs, alternative sentencing, or inmate transfers from facilities managed by private operators to facilities operated by government jurisdictions. Further, certain government partners have requested, and additional government partners could request, reductions in per diem rates or request that we forego prospective rate increases in the future as methods of addressing the budget shortfalls they may be experiencing. We believe we have been successful in working with our government partners to help them manage their correctional costs while minimizing the financial impact to us, and will continue to provide unique solutions to their correctional needs. We believe the long-term growth opportunities of our business remain very attractive as certain states consider efficiency and savings opportunities we can provide. Further, we expect insufficient bed development by our partners to result in future demand for additional bed capacity.

Governments continue to experience many significant spending demands which have constrained correctional budgets limiting their ability to expand existing facilities or construct new facilities. We believe the outsourcing of prison management services to private operators allows governments to manage increasing inmate populations while simultaneously controlling correctional costs and improving correctional services. We believe our customers discover that partnering with private operators to provide residential services to their inmates introduces competition to their prison system, resulting in improvements to the quality and cost of corrections services throughout their correctional system. Further, the use of facilities owned and managed by private operators allows governments to expand correctional capacity without incurring large capital commitments and allows them to avoid long-term pension obligations for their employees.

We also believe that having beds immediately available to our partners provides us with a distinct competitive advantage when bidding on new contracts. While we have been successful in winning contract awards to provide management services for facilities we do not own, and will continue to pursue such management contracts, we believe the most significant opportunities for growth are in providing our government partners with available beds within facilities we currently own or that we develop. We also believe that owning the

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facilities in which we provide management services enables us to more rapidly replace business lost compared with managed-only facilities, since we can offer the same beds to new and existing customers and, with customer consent, may have more flexibility in moving our existing inmate populations to facilities with available capacity. Our management contracts generally provide our customers with the right to terminate our management contracts at any time without cause.

We have staff throughout the organization actively engaged in marketing our available capacity to existing and prospective customers. Historically, we have been successful in substantially filling our inventory of available beds and the beds that we have constructed. Filling these available beds would provide substantial growth in revenues, cash flow, and earnings per share. However, we can provide no assurance that we will be able to fill our available beds.

Although the demand for prison beds in the short term has been and could continue to be affected by the severe budget challenges many of our customers currently face, these challenges put further pressure on our customers' ability to construct new prison beds of their own, which we believe could result in further reliance on the private sector for providing the capacity we believe our customers will need in the long term. We will continue to pursue build-to-suit opportunities like the 1,124-bed Jenkins Correctional Center we constructed and placed into service in 2012 for the state of Georgia, as well as the recently announced 2,552-bed facility in Trousdale County, Tennessee. In the long-term, we would like to see continued and meaningful utilization of our remaining capacity and better visibility from our customers before we add any additional capacity on a speculative basis.

We also remain steadfast in our efforts to contain costs. Approximately 65% of our operating expenses consist of salaries and benefits. The turnover rate for correctional officers for our company, and for the corrections industry in general, remains high. Although we experienced an improvement in workers' compensation and medical benefits costs for our employees in 2013 as compared to the prior year, we remain focused on these costs due to continued rising healthcare costs throughout the country and the uncertainty of the impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on future healthcare costs. Reducing these staffing costs requires a long-term strategy to control such costs, and we continue to dedicate resources to enhance our benefits, provide training and career development opportunities to our staff and attract and retain quality personnel. Recognizing the challenges we faced as a result of the economic downturn, our efforts to contain costs were intensified, as we implemented a company-wide initiative to improve operating efficiencies, and established a framework for accelerating the process and ensuring continuous delivery over the long-term. We continue to generate favorable results from this initiative.

Through the combination of our initiatives to increase our revenues by taking advantage of our available beds as well as delivering new bed capacity through new facility construction and expansion opportunities, and our strategies to contain our operating expenses, we believe we will be able to maintain our competitive advantage and continue to improve the quality services we provide to our customers at an economical price, thereby producing value to our stockholders.


The consolidated financial statements are prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. As such, we are required to make certain estimates, judgments and assumptions that we believe are reasonable based upon the information available. These estimates and assumptions affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of

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revenue and expenses during the reporting period. A summary of our significant accounting policies is described in Note 2 to our audited financial statements. The significant accounting policies and estimates which we believe are the most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating our reported financial results include the following:

Asset impairments: Although we experienced asset impairments of $5.6 million, excluding goodwill, during 2013 associated with the termination of the management contract at the managed-only Wilkinson County Correctional Facility and the lease termination at the North Georgia Detention Center, the primary risk we face for future asset impairment charges, excluding goodwill, is associated with correctional facilities we own. As of December 31, 2013, we had $2.5 billion in property and equipment, including $158.5 million in long-lived assets excluding equipment, at nine idled facilities, including the Mineral Wells and Marion Adjustment facilities that were idled during 2013. The impairment analyses we performed for each of these facilities excluded the net book value of equipment, as a substantial portion of the equipment is easily transferrable to other company-owned facilities without significant cost. From the date each facility became idle, the idled facilities incurred combined operating expenses of $6.8 million, $6.2 million, and $5.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012, and 2011, respectively. The 2013 amount excludes expenses incurred in connection with the activation of the Diamondback Correctional Facility beginning in the third quarter of 2013. The carrying values of these facilities as of December 31, 2013 were as follows (in thousands):

              Shelby Training Center                       $     751
              Queensgate Correctional Facility                11,808
              Prairie Correctional Facility                   19,366
              Huerfano County Correctional Center             19,800
              Diamondback Correctional Facility               44,223
              Otter Creek Correctional Center                 24,805
              Houston Educational Facility                     6,473
              Mineral Wells Pre-Parole Transfer Facility      17,856
              Marion Adjustment Center                        13,429

                                                           $ 158,511

We evaluate the recoverability of the carrying values of our long-lived assets, other than goodwill, when events suggest that an impairment may have occurred. Such events primarily include, but are not limited to, the termination of a management contract or a significant decrease in inmate populations within a correctional facility we own or manage. Accordingly, we tested each of the aforementioned nine currently idled facilities for impairment when we were notified by the respective customers that they would no longer be utilizing such facility.

We re-perform the impairment analyses on an annual basis for each of the idle facilities and evaluate on a quarterly basis market developments for the potential utilization of each of these facilities in order to identify events that may cause us to reconsider our most recent assumptions. Such events could include negotiations with a prospective customer for the utilization of an idle facility at terms significantly less favorable than used in our most recent impairment analysis, or changes in legislation surrounding a particular facility that could impact our ability to house certain types of inmates at such facility, or a demolition or substantial renovation of a facility. Further, a substantial increase in the number of available beds at other facilities we own could lead to a deterioration in market conditions and cash flows that we might be able to obtain under a new management contract at our idle facilities. We have historically secured contracts with customers at existing facilities that were already operational, allowing us to move the existing population to other idle facilities. Although

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they are not frequently received, an unsolicited offer to purchase any of our idle facilities at amounts that are less than the carrying value could also cause us to reconsider the assumptions used in our most recent impairment analysis. However, we can provide no assurance that we will be able to secure agreements to utilize our idle facilities, or that we will not incur impairment charges in the future.

The estimates of recoverability are initially based on projected undiscounted cash flows that are comparable to historical cash flows from management contracts at similar facilities to the idled facilities and sensitivity analyses that consider reductions to such cash flows. Our sensitivity analyses included reductions in projected cash flows by as much as half of the historical cash flows generated by the respective facility as well as prolonged periods of vacancies. In all cases, the projected undiscounted cash flows in our analyses as of December 31, 2013, exceeded the carrying amounts of each facility by material amounts.

Our evaluations also take into consideration our historical experience in securing new management contracts to utilize facilities that had been previously idled for periods comparable to or in excess of the periods that our currently idle facilities have been idle. Such previously idled facilities are currently being operated under contracts that generate cash flows resulting in the recoverability of the net book value of the previously idled facilities by substantial amounts. Due to a variety of factors, the lead time to negotiate contracts with our federal and state partners to utilize idle bed capacity is generally lengthy and has historically resulted in periods of idleness similar to the ones we are currently experiencing at our idle facilities. As a result of our analyses, we determined each of these assets to have recoverable values in excess of the corresponding carrying values.

By their nature, these estimates contain uncertainties with respect to the extent and timing of the respective cash flows due to potential delays or material changes to historical terms and conditions in contracts with prospective customers that could impact the estimate of cash flows.
Notwithstanding the effects the current economy has had on our customers' demand for prison beds in the short term which has led to our decision to idle certain facilities, we believe the long-term trends favor an increase in the utilization of our correctional facilities and management services. This belief is based on our experience in operating in difficult economic environments and in working with governmental agencies faced with significant budgetary challenges, which is a primary contributing factor to the lack of appropriated funding to build new bed capacity by the federal and state governments with which we partner.

Goodwill impairments. As of December 31, 2013, we had $16.1 million of goodwill related to certain of our managed-only facilities, a facility we lease, and related to our acquisition of Correctional Alternatives, Inc. ("CAI"), as further described hereafter. We evaluate the carrying value of goodwill during the fourth quarter of each year, in connection with our annual budgeting process, and whenever circumstances indicate the carrying value of goodwill may not be recoverable. Such circumstances primarily include, but are not limited to, the termination of a management contract or a significant decrease in inmate populations within a reporting unit.

During the second quarter of 2013, we received notification that we were not selected for the continued management of the Wilkinson County Correctional Facility at the end of the contract on June 30, 2013. As a result of this managed-only contract termination, we reported a goodwill impairment charge of $0.8 million in the second quarter of 2013, which has been reported in discontinued operations in the consolidated statement of operations.

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During the third quarter of 2013, we reported an asset impairment of $1.0 million for the write-off of goodwill associated with the Idaho Correctional Center. During the second quarter of 2013, the state of Idaho reported that they expected to solicit bids for the management of the Idaho Correctional Center upon the expiration of our contract in June 2014. During the third quarter of 2013, we decided not to submit a bid and, therefore, expect to transition management to another operator upon expiration of the contract. The state announced in early 2014 that it will take over management of the facility effective July 1, 2014.

During the fourth quarter of 2013, we reported an asset impairment of $1.1 million for the write-off of goodwill associated with the Bay Correctional Facility in Florida. In the fourth quarter of 2013, the Florida Department of Management Services ("DMS") awarded to another operator the contract to manage this facility owned by the state of Florida upon the expiration of our contract on January 31, 2014.

In September 2011, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2011-08 that gives companies the option to perform a qualitative assessment that may allow them to skip the annual two-step impairment test. Under the amendments in ASU 2011-08, a company has the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If, after assessing the totality of events or circumstances, an entity determines it is not more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then performing the two-step impairment test is unnecessary. If the two-step impairment test is required, we determine the fair value of a reporting unit using a collaboration of various common valuation techniques, including market multiples and discounted cash flows. We evaluated our goodwill for impairment in the fourth quarter of 2013 by using the qualitative factors described in ASU 2011-08 and concluded that it was not more likely than not that the fair value of our reporting units was less than the carrying amounts thus allowing us to forego the two-step impairment test. We do not expect our estimates or assumptions used in this analysis to change in the near term such that they would trigger an impairment of goodwill, except for notification of a contract termination or non-renewal of a contract by a customer at a facility with goodwill, like we experienced during 2013 at the Wilkinson, Idaho, and Bay Correctional facilities. Each of these techniques requires considerable judgment and estimations which could change in the future.

Income taxes. Deferred income taxes reflect the available net operating losses and the net tax effect of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for income tax purposes using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect of changes in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in the statement of operations in the period that includes the enactment date. As a result of our election to be taxed as a REIT effective January 1, 2013, during the first quarter of 2013 we recorded a net tax benefit of $137.7 million for the revaluation of certain deferred tax assets and liabilities and other income taxes associated with the REIT conversion based on the revised estimated annual effective tax rate as a REIT. Realization of the future tax benefits related to deferred tax assets is dependent on many factors, including our past earnings history, expected future earnings, the character and jurisdiction of such earnings, unsettled circumstances that, if unfavorably resolved, would adversely affect utilization of our deferred tax assets, carryback and carryforward periods, and tax planning strategies that could potentially enhance the likelihood of realization of a deferred tax asset.

Self-funded insurance reserves. As of December 31, 2013 and 2012, we had $33.8 million and $33.9 million, respectively, in accrued liabilities for employee health, workers' compensation, and automobile insurance claims. We are significantly self-insured for employee health, workers' compensation, and automobile liability insurance claims. As

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such, our insurance expense is largely dependent on claims experience and our ability to control our claims. We have consistently accrued the estimated liability for employee health insurance claims based on our history of claims experience and the estimated time lag between the incident date and the date we pay the claims. We have accrued the estimated liability for workers' compensation claims based on an actuarial valuation of the outstanding liabilities, discounted to the net present value of the outstanding liabilities, using a combination of actuarial methods used to project ultimate losses, and our automobile insurance claims based on estimated development factors on claims incurred. The liability for employee health, workers' compensation, and automobile insurance includes estimates for both claims incurred and for claims incurred but not reported. These estimates could change in the future. It is possible that future cash flows and results of operations could be materially affected by changes in our assumptions, new developments, or by the effectiveness of our strategies.

Legal reserves. As of December 31, 2013 and 2012, we had $6.2 million and $8.6 million, respectively, in accrued liabilities related to certain legal proceedings in which we are involved. We have accrued our best estimate of the probable costs for the resolution of these claims based on a range of potential outcomes. In addition, we are subject to current and potential future legal proceedings for which little or no accrual has been reflected because our current assessment of the potential exposure is nominal. These estimates have been developed in consultation with our General Counsel's office and, as appropriate, outside counsel handling these matters, and are based upon an analysis of potential results, assuming a combination of litigation and settlement strategies. It is possible that future cash flows and results of operations could be materially affected by changes in our assumptions, new developments, or by the effectiveness of our strategies.


Our results of operations are impacted by the number of facilities we owned and managed, the number of facilities we managed but did not own, the number of facilities we leased to other operators, and the facilities we owned that were not in operation. The following table sets forth the changes in the number of facilities operated for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011.

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                                           Effective        and          Managed
                                             Date         Managed         Only         Leased       Total
Facilities as of December 31, 2010                              45             21            2          68
Purchase of Lake Erie Correctional
Institution                              December 2011           1             -            -            1
. . .
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