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FSLR > SEC Filings for FSLR > Form 10-K on 26-Feb-2014All Recent SEC Filings

Show all filings for FIRST SOLAR, INC.

Form 10-K for FIRST SOLAR, INC.


Annual Report

Item 7: Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Unless expressly stated or the context otherwise requires, the terms "we," "our," "us," and "First Solar" refer to First Solar, Inc. and its subsidiaries. In addition to historical consolidated financial information, the following discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties, and assumptions as described under the "Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements," that appears earlier in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated by these forward-looking statements as a result of many factors, including those discussed under Item 1A: "Risk Factors," and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Unit of Power

When referring to our manufacturing capacity, total sales and solar module sales, the unit of electricity in watts for megawatts("MW") and gigawatts ("GW") is direct current ("DC") unless otherwise noted. When referring to our PV solar power systems, the unit of electricity in watts for MW and GW is alternating current ("AC") unless otherwise noted.


We are a global provider of solar energy solutions, focused on providing power solutions across key market segments. We design, manufacture and sell photovoltaic ("PV") solar modules with an advanced thin-film semiconductor technology, and we develop, design, construct and sell PV solar power solutions that primarily use the solar modules we manufacture. We are also developing crystalline silicon solar modules with proprietary high-power density, mono-crystalline technology and we provide single-axis mounting systems with proprietary tracking capabilities. Additionally, we provide operations and maintenance ("O&M") services to plant owners that use solar modules manufactured by us or by other third-party manufacturers. We have substantial, ongoing research and development efforts focused on module and systems level innovations. We are the world's largest thin-film PV solar module manufacturer and one of the world's largest PV solar module manufacturers. Our mission is to create enduring value by enabling a world powered by clean, affordable solar energy.

In addressing overall global demand for PV solar electricity, we have developed a differentiated, fully integrated systems business that can provide competitively priced utility-scale PV solutions for system owners and low cost solar electricity to end-users. Our fully integrated systems business has enabled us to drive cost reduction across the value chain, identify and break constraints to sustainable markets, and deliver compelling solutions to our customers and end-users. With our fully integrated systems business, we believe we are in a position to expand our business in economically sustainable markets (in which support programs are minimal), which are developing in areas that have a combination of abundant solar resources, relatively high current electricity costs and sizable electricity demand. We are committed to continually lowering the cost of solar electricity, and in the long-term, we plan to compete on an economic basis with conventional fossil-fuel-based peaking power generation.

We believe that combining our vertical integration across the value chain enables us to be more competitive, accelerate the adoption of our technology in solar power systems, and identify and remove constraints to the successful migration to sustainable solar markets around the world. Our vertically integrated capabilities enable us to maximize value and mitigate risk for our customers and offer valuable benefits such as grid integration and stabilization, thereby positioning us to deliver meaningful PV energy solutions to varied energy problems worldwide. We seek to offer leadership across the entire solar value chain, resulting in more reliable and cost effective PV energy solutions for our customers, and furthering our mission to create enduring value by enabling a world powered by clean, affordable solar electricity.

Market Overview

The solar industry continues to be characterized by intense pricing competition, both at the module and system level, with many solar companies generating operating losses or little to no operating income. In the aggregate, manufacturers of solar modules and cells have installed production capacity that exceeds global demand. We believe the solar industry will continue to experience periods of structural imbalance between supply and demand (i.e., where production capacity exceeds global demand), and that such periods will put pressure on pricing. In light of such market realities, we continue to execute our Long Term Strategic Plan described below under which we are focusing on our competitive strengths. A key core strength is our differentiated, vertically integrated business model that enables us to provide utility-scale PV generation solutions to sustainable geographic markets that have an immediate need for mass-scale PV electricity.

Solar markets worldwide continue to develop, in part aided by demand elasticity resulting from declining industry average selling prices, both at the module and system level, which make solar power more affordable to new markets, and we have continued to develop our localized presence and expertise in these markets. For example, in November 2013, we announced that construction had started on our 1.4 MW DC solar project in Kitakyushu-shi, Japan, utilizing our CdTe thin-film PV modules. In November 2013, we also announced that we entered into an agreement with JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation for the distribution in Japan through April 2015 of First Solar high efficiency crystalline silicon modules, expected to be manufactured beginning in 2014. In January 2014, we announced that we had started construction on Australia's largest utility-scale solar project, the 102 MW Nyngan solar project in New South Wales.

In North America, we continue to execute on our advanced-stage utility-scale project pipeline. We continue to make construction progress on what are currently or will be among the world's largest PV solar power systems. We expect a substantial portion of our consolidated net sales, operating income and cash flows through the end of 2014 to be derived from these projects. We continue to advance the development and selling efforts for the other projects included in our advanced-stage utility-scale project pipeline, and we continue to develop our early-to-mid stage project pipeline and evaluate acquisitions of projects to continue to add to our advanced-stage utility-scale project pipeline. In October 2013, we announced that we had agreed to sell the 250 MW AC Silver State South Solar Project to a subsidiary of NextEra Energy Resources. First Solar will provide EPC services for the project, which is adjacent to the 50 MW Silver State North project that was developed and built by First Solar and commissioned in 2012. In November 2013, we announced that we signed power purchase agreements with member cities of the Southern California Public Power Authority (SCPPA) for electricity to be generated at the 40 MW PV solar power plant that we are developing and will construct in Kern County, California. In January 2014, we announced that we had started construction on Phase I of the Barilla Solar Project in Pecos County, Texas. First Solar will build, commission and operate the 22 MW power plant, and expects to offer the output to customers, including municipal utilities and electric cooperatives.

We believe industry module average selling prices have begun to show signs of stabilization in several markets, after a long period of significant decline across multiple markets. Lower industry module pricing, while currently challenging for solar manufacturers (particularly manufacturers with high cost structures), is expected to continue to contribute to global market diversification and volume elasticity. Over time, declining average selling prices are consistent with the erosion of one of the primary historical constraints to widespread solar market penetration, its affordability. In the near term, however, in light of industry-wide manufacturing capacity that exceeds demand, it is unclear whether growing worldwide demand could absorb industry-wide module supply without further inventory build-up and/or price reductions, which could adversely affect our results of operations. If competitors reduce module pricing to levels below their cash manufacturing costs, or are able to operate at negative or minimal operating margins for sustained periods of time, our results of operations could be further adversely affected. We continue to mitigate this uncertainty in part by executing on and building our advance-stage utility-scale systems pipeline as a buffer against demand fluctuations, accelerating our module efficiency improvement and BoS cost reduction roadmaps to maintain and increase our competitiveness, profitability and capital efficiency, adjusting our production plans and capacity utilization to match our expected demand, and continuing the development of worldwide geographic markets.

In the components business, we continue to face intense competition from manufacturers of crystalline silicon solar modules and other types of solar modules and PV systems. Solar module manufacturers compete with one another in several product performance attributes, including reliability and selling price per watt, and, with respect to solar power systems, return on equity ("ROE") and LCOE, meaning the net present value of total life cycle costs of the solar power project divided by the quantity of energy which is expected to be produced over the system's life. We are among the lowest cost PV module manufacturers in the solar industry on a module cost per watt basis, based on publicly available information. This cost competitiveness is reflected in the price at which we sell our modules and fully integrated PV solar power systems and enables our PV solar power systems to compete favorably in respect of their ROE or LCOE. Our cost competitiveness is based in large part on our proprietary technology (which enables conversion efficiency improvements and enables us to produce a module in less than 2.5 hours using a continuous and highly automated industrial manufacturing process, as opposed to a batch process), our scale, and our operational excellence. In addition, our CdTe modules use approximately 1-2% of the amount of the polysilicon that is used to manufacture traditional crystalline silicon solar modules. The cost of polysilicon is a significant driver of the manufacturing cost of crystalline silicon solar modules, and the timing and rate of change in the cost of silicon feedstock and polysilicon could lead to changes in solar module pricing levels. Polysilicon costs had periods of decline over the past several years, contributing to a decline in our manufacturing cost competitiveness over traditional crystalline silicon module manufacturers. Given the lower conversion efficiency of our modules compared to certain types of crystalline silicon modules, there may be higher BoS costs associated with systems using our modules. Thus, to compete effectively on the basis of LCOE, our modules need to maintain a certain cost advantage per watt compared to crystalline silicon-based modules with higher conversion efficiencies. We continue to reduce BoS costs associated with PV solar power systems using our modules. We believe we can continue to reduce BoS costs by improving module conversion efficiency, leveraging volume procurement around standardized hardware platforms, using innovative

installation techniques and know how, and accelerating installation times. BoS costs can represent a significant portion of the costs associated with the construction of a typical utility-scale PV solar power system.

While our modules and PV solar power systems are currently competitive in cost, reliability and performance attributes, there can be no guarantee such competitiveness will continue to exist in the future to the same extent or at all. Any declines in the competitiveness of our products could result in additional margin compression, further declines in the average selling prices of our solar modules, erosion in our market share for modules and PV solar power systems, decreases in the rate of net sales growth, and/or declines in overall net sales. We have taken, and continue to take, various actions to mitigate the potential impact resulting from competitive pressures, including adjusting our pricing policies as necessary, accelerating progress along our module efficiency improvement and BoS cost reduction roadmaps, and further focusing our research and development on increasing the conversion efficiency of our solar modules.

As we continue to expand our systems business into sustainable markets, we can offer value beyond the solar module, reduce our exposure to module-only competition, provide differentiated product offerings to minimize the impact of solar module commoditization, and provide comprehensive utility-scale PV solar power system solutions that significantly reduce solar electricity costs. Thus, our systems business allows us to play a more active role than many of our competitors in managing the demand for our solar modules. Finally, we continue to form and develop strong relationships with our customers and strategic partners around the world and continue to develop our range of product offerings, including EPC capabilities and O&M services, in order to enhance the competitiveness of systems using our solar modules. For example, we have and expect in the future to form joint ventures or other business arrangements with project developers in certain strategic markets in order to provide our modules and potential systems business PV generation solutions to the projects developed by such ventures.

Certain Trends and Uncertainties

We believe that our continuing operations may be favorably or unfavorably impacted by the following trends and uncertainties that may affect our financial condition and results of operations. See Item 1A: "Risk Factors" and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a discussion of other risks that may affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Long Term Strategic Plan

In executing our Long Term Strategic Plan ("LTSP") we are focusing on providing solar PV generation solutions using our modules to sustainable geographic markets that we believe have a compelling need for mass-scale PV electricity, including markets throughout the Americas, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and Africa. As part of our LTSP, we are focusing on opportunities in which our solar PV generation solutions will compete directly with fossil fuel offerings on an LCOE basis. Execution of the LTSP entails a reallocation of resources around the globe, in particular dedicating resources to regions such as Latin America, Asia, the Middle East, and Africa where we have not traditionally conducted significant business to date. We are evaluating and managing closely the appropriate level of resources required as we transition into and penetrate these specific markets. We have and intend to continue to dedicate significant capital and human resources to reduce the total installed cost of solar PV generation, to optimize the design and logistics around our solar PV generation solutions, and to ensure that our solutions integrate well into the overall electricity ecosystem of each specific market.

We expect that, over time, an increasing portion of our consolidated net sales, operating income and cash flows will come from solar offerings in the sustainable markets described above as we execute on our LTSP. The timing, execution and financial impacts of our LTSP are subject to risks and uncertainties, as described in the Risk Factors. We are focusing our resources in those markets and energy applications in which solar power can be a least-cost, best-fit energy solution, particularly in regions with high solar resources, significant current or projected electricity demand and/or relatively high existing electricity prices. As part of these efforts, we continue to expand resources globally, including by appointing country heads and supporting professional, sales and other staff in target sustainable markets. Accordingly we are shifting current costs and expect to incur additional costs over time as we establish a localized business presence in these regions.

Joint ventures or other business arrangements with strategic partners are a key part of our LTSP, and we have begun initiatives in several markets using such arrangements to expedite our penetration of those markets and establish relationships with potential customers and policymakers. Some of these business arrangements have and are expected in the future to involve significant investments or other allocations of capital on our part. We are in the process of developing relationships with policymakers, regulators, and end customers in each of these markets with a view to creating markets for utility scale PV solar power systems. We sell solar power solutions directly to end customers, including independent power producers, utilities, retail electricity providers and commercial and industrial customers. Depending on the market opportunity, our sales offerings range from module only sales, to module sales with a range of development, engineering, procurement and construction services and solutions, to full turn-key PV solar power system sales. We expect these sales offerings to continue to evolve over time as we work with our customers to

optimize how our PV solar generation solutions can best meet our customers' energy and economic needs. As described above under "Item 1: Business - Offerings and Capabilities," in addition to our utility-scale power plant offering, we have an AC Power Block offering as well as fuel displacement, commercial and industrial and off-grid and energy access offerings.

In order to create or maintain a market position in certain strategically targeted markets our offerings from time to time may need to be competitively priced at levels associated with minimal gross profit margins, which may adversely affect our results of operations. We expect the profitability associated with our various sales offerings to vary from one another over time, and possibly vary from our internal long-range profitability expectations and targets, depending on the market opportunity and the relative competitiveness of our offering compared with other energy solutions, fossil fuel based or otherwise, that are available to potential customers.

We expect to use our working capital, the availability under our Revolving Credit Facility, or non-recourse project financing to finance the construction of certain of our PV solar power systems, if the sale of such systems prior to construction beginning does not meet our economic return expectations or we cannot sell under terms and conditions that are favorable to us. From time to time we may temporarily own and operate certain PV solar systems with the intention to sell at a later date. The ability to do so allows us to gain control of the sales process, provide a lower risk profile to a future buyer of a PV solar system and improve our ability to drive higher eventual sale values. As of February 2014, we own and operate one completed solar power plant. We also currently own two additional solar power plants under construction that are delivering power to the grid. We may also elect to construct and/or retain ownership interests in a merchant power plant, as we are doing with our Barilla Solar Project currently under construction in west Texas. We continue to pursue strategic partnerships that open up new geographic markets and those that provide access to a lower cost of capital and optimize the value of our projects. Additionally, our joint ventures and other business arrangements with strategic partners have and may in the future result in us temporarily retaining a minority or non-controlling ownership interest in the underlying systems projects we develop, supply modules to, or construct potentially for a period of up to several years. In each of the above mentioned examples, we may retain such ownership interests in a consolidated and/or unconsolidated separate entity.

Construction of Some of the World's Largest Solar PV Power Systems

We expect a substantial portion of our consolidated net sales, operating income and cash flows through the end of 2014 to be derived from several large projects in North America, including the following projects which are currently or will be among the world's largest PV solar power systems: the 550 MW Topaz Solar Farm, located in San Luis Obispo County, California; the 550 MW Desert Sunlight Solar Farm, located west of Blythe, California; the 230 MW AVSR project, located north of Los Angeles, California; the 139 MW Campo Verde project, located in Imperial County, California; the 250 MW Moapa solar project, located on the Moapa River Indian Reservation in Clark County, northeast of Las Vegas, Nevada; the 250 MW Silver State South project, located near Primm in Clark County, Nevada; the 150 MW Solar Gen 2 project, located in California's Imperial Valley; and the 58 MW Copper Mountain Solar 2 project, part of the 150 MW Copper Mountain Solar complex in Boulder City, Nevada. Please see the tables under "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Systems Project Pipeline" for additional information about these and other projects within our systems business advanced-stage project pipeline. Construction progress of these projects is subject to risks and delays as described in "Item 1A: Risk Factors" and elsewhere in this report. Revenue recognition for these and other systems projects is in many cases not linear in nature due to the timing of when all revenue recognition criteria have been or are expected to be met, and consequently period over period comparisons of results of operations may not be meaningful. As we progress construction towards substantial completion of these PV power systems, we may have a larger portion of our net sales, operating income and cash flows come from future sales of solar offerings outside of North America, pursuant to our LTSP described above. North America however, will continue to represent a meaningful portion of our net sales, operating income and cash flows as a significant portion of our advance-stage project pipeline, excluding the projects above, is also comprised of projects in North America.
Systems Project Pipeline

The following tables summarize, as of February 25, 2014, our approximately 3.8 GW systems business advanced-stage project pipeline. As of December 31, 2013, for the Projects Sold/ Under Contract in our advanced-stage project pipeline of approximately 2.7 GW, we have recognized revenue with respect to the equivalent of approximately 1.4 GW. Such MW equivalent amount refers to the ratio of revenue recognized for the Projects Sold/ Under Contract in our advanced-stage project pipeline compared to total contracted revenue for such projects, multiplied by the total MW for such projects. The remaining revenue to be recognized subsequent to December 31, 2013 for the Projects Sold/ Under Contract in our advanced-stage project pipeline is expected to be approximately $4.1 billion. The substantial majority of such amount is expected to be recognized as revenue through the later of the substantial completion or project closing dates of the Projects Sold/ Under Contract. The remaining revenue to be recognized does not have a direct correlation to expected remaining module shipments for such Projects Sold/ Under Contract as expected module shipments do not represent total systems revenues and do not consider the timing of when all revenue recognition criteria

are met including timing of module installation. The actual volume of modules installed in our Projects Sold/ Under Contract will be greater than the Project Size in MW AC as module volumes required for a project are based upon MW DC, which will be greater than the MW AC size pursuant to a DC-AC ratio typically ranging from 1.2 to 1.4. Such ratio varies across different projects due to various system design factors. Projects are removed from our advanced-stage project pipeline tables below once we have completed construction and after all revenue has been recognized.

We continually seek to make additions to our advance-stage project pipeline. We are actively developing our early to mid-stage project pipeline in order to secure PPAs and we are also pursuing opportunities to acquire advance-stage projects, which already have PPAs in place. From February 27, 2013 through February 25, 2014, we acquired 610 MW of advance-stage projects, and we expect to acquire additional advance-stage projects when such acquisitions meet our strategic and/or our return on investment requirements.

Projects Sold/ Under Contract
(Includes uncompleted sold projects, projects under sales contracts subject to
conditions precedent, and EPC agreements including partner developed projects
that we will be or are constructing)
                                                                                As of December 31,
                                                                 Expected Year
                                    Power                           Revenue
                         Project   Purchase                       Recognition             Percentage
                         Size in  Agreement      Third Party        Will Be    Percentage of Revenue
Project/Location        MW AC (1)  ("PPA")     Owner/Purchaser   Completed By   Complete  Recognized
Topaz, California           550      PG&E        MidAmerican       2014/2015      72%        72%
Desert Sunlight,
California                  550   PG&E / SCE NextEra/GE/Sumitomo   2014/2015      74%        62%
Agua Caliente, Arizona      290      PG&E     NRG / MidAmerican      2014         99%        99%
McCoy, California           250      SCE         NextEra (2)         2016          -%         -%
Silver State South,
Nevada                      250      SCE         NextEra (9)         2016          -%         -%
AVSR, California            230      PG&E          Exelon            2014         88%        88%
AGL, Australia              155      AGL         AGL (2) (6)         2015          1%         -%
Campo Verde, California     139     SDG&E         Southern           2014         96%         -%
Imperial Energy Center
South, California           130     SDG&E        Tenaska (2)         2014         99%        99%
California (Multiple
Locations) (10)              79   PG&E/ SCE      Various (2)         2014          1%         -%
Copper Mountain 2,
Nevada                       58      PG&E        Sempra (2)        2015 (3)        -%         -%
PNM2, New Mexico             22    UOG (4)         PNM (2)           2014         99%        99%
Total                     2,703

Projects with Executed PPA - Not Sold/ Not Contracted


                                                           Expected or
                                                              Actual     As of December
                             Project                       Substantial      31, 2013
                    Fully    Size in    Power Purchase      Completion     Percentage
Project/Location  Permitted MW AC (1)  Agreement ("PPA")       Year         Complete
. . .
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