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CVI > SEC Filings for CVI > Form 10-K on 26-Feb-2014All Recent SEC Filings

Show all filings for CVR ENERGY INC

Form 10-K for CVR ENERGY INC


26-Feb-2014

Annual Report


Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results
of Operations
You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with our financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Report.
Forward-Looking Statements
This Report, including, without limitation, the sections captioned "Business" and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," contains "forward-looking statements" as defined by the SEC. Such statements are those concerning contemplated transactions and strategic plans, expectations and objectives for future operations. These include, without limitation:
         statements, other than statements of historical fact, that address
          activities, events or developments that we expect, believe or
          anticipate will or may occur in the future;


         statements relating to future financial performance, future capital
          sources and other matters; and


         any other statements preceded by, followed by or that include the words
          "anticipates," "believes," "expects," "plans," "intends," "estimates,"
          "projects," "could," "should," "may," or similar expressions.

Although we believe that our plans, intentions and expectations reflected in or suggested by the forward-looking statements we make in this Report, including this Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, are reasonable, we can give no assurance that such plans, intentions or expectations will be achieved. These statements are based on assumptions made by us based on our experience and perception of historical trends, current conditions, expected future developments and other factors that we believe are appropriate in the circumstances. Such statements are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control. You are cautioned that any such statements are not guarantees of future performance and that actual results or developments may differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including but not limited to those set forth under the section captioned "Risk Factors" and contained elsewhere in this Report.
All forward-looking statements contained in this Report only speak as of the date of this Report. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances that occur after the date of this Report, or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events, except to the extent required by law.


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Overview and Executive Summary
We are a diversified holding company primarily engaged in the petroleum refining and nitrogen fertilizer manufacturing industries through our holdings in the Refining Partnership and the Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership. The Refining Partnership is an independent petroleum refiner and marketer of high value transportation fuels. The Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership produces nitrogen fertilizers in the form of UAN and ammonia. We own the general partner and a majority of the common units representing limited partner interests in each of the Refining Partnership and the Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership.
We operate under two business segments: petroleum and nitrogen fertilizer. For the fiscal years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, we generated consolidated net sales of $9.0 billion, $8.6 billion and $5.0 billion, respectively, and operating income of $710.5 million, $1,034.9 million and $566.6 million, respectively. The petroleum business generated net sales of $8.7 billion, $8.3 billion and $4.8 billion, and the nitrogen fertilizer business generated net sales of $323.7 million, $302.3 million and $302.9 million in each case for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively. The petroleum business generated operating income of $603.0 million, $1,012.5 million and $465.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively. The nitrogen fertilizer business generated operating income of $124.9 million, $115.8 million and $136.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively.
Petroleum business. The petroleum business consists of our interest in the Refining Partnership. We own the general partner and approximately 71% of the common units of the Refining Partnership. The petroleum business consists of a 115,000 bpcd rated capacity complex full coking medium-sour crude oil refinery in Coffeyville, Kansas and, as of December 15, 2011, a 70,000 bpcd rated capacity medium complexity crude oil unit refinery in Wynnewood, Oklahoma capable of processing 20,000 bpcd of light sour crude oil (within its rated capacity of 70,000 bpcd). In addition, its supporting businesses include (1) a crude oil gathering system with a gathering capacity of approximately 55,000 bpd serving Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Missouri and Texas, (2) a rack marketing business supplying refined petroleum product through tanker trucks directly to customers located in close geographic proximity to Coffeyville, Kansas and Wynnewood, Oklahoma and at throughput terminals on Magellan and NuStar's refined petroleum products distribution systems, (3) a 145,000 bpd pipeline system (supported by approximately 350 miles of Company owned and leased pipeline) that transports crude oil to the Coffeyville refinery and associated crude oil storage tanks with a capacity of 1.2 million barrels, (4) crude oil storage tanks with a capacity of 0.5 million barrels in Wynnewood, Oklahoma, (5) 1.0 million barrels of company owned crude oil storage capacity in Cushing, Oklahoma, (6) an additional 3.3 million barrels of leased crude oil storage capacity located in Cushing and (7) approximately 4.5 million barrels of combined refinery related storage capacity.
The Coffeyville refinery is situated approximately 100 miles northeast of Cushing, Oklahoma, one of the largest crude oil trading and storage hubs in the United States and the Wynnewood refinery is approximately 130 miles southwest of Cushing. Cushing is supplied by numerous pipelines from U.S. domestic locations and Canada. The early June 2012 reversal of the Seaway pipeline that now flows from Cushing, Oklahoma to the U.S. Gulf Coast has eliminated the ability to source foreign waterborne crude oil, as well as deep water U.S. Gulf of Mexico produced sweet and sour crude oil grades. In addition to rack sales (sales which are made at terminals into third-party tanker trucks), Coffeyville makes bulk sales (sales through third-party pipelines) into the mid-continent markets and other destinations utilizing the product pipeline networks owned by Magellan, Enterprise, and NuStar.
Crude oil is supplied to the Coffeyville refinery through the gathering system and by a pipeline owned by Plains that runs from Cushing to its Broome Station tank farm. The petroleum business maintains capacity on the Spearhead and Keystone pipelines from Canada to Cushing. It also maintains leased and owned storage in Cushing to facilitate optimal crude oil purchasing and blending. The Coffeyville refinery blend consists of a combination of crude oil grades, including domestic grades and various Canadian medium and heavy sours and sweet synthetics. Crude oil is supplied to the Wynnewood refinery through two third-party pipelines operated by Sunoco Pipeline and Excel Pipeline and historically has mainly been sourced from Texas and Oklahoma. The Wynnewood refinery is capable of processing a variety of crudes, including WTS, WTI, sweet and sour Canadian and other U.S. domestically produced crude oils. The petroleum business expects to spend approximately $60.0 million on a hydrocracker project that will increase the conversion capability and the ULSD yield of the Wynnewood refinery. As of December 31, 2013, approximately $23.4 million has been spent on the Wynnewood hydrocracker project. The access to a variety of crude oils coupled with the complexity of the refineries allows the petroleum business to purchase crude oil at a discount to WTI. The consumed crude oil cost discount to WTI for 2013 was $2.57 per barrel compared to $2.26 per barrel in 2012 and $3.98 per barrel in 2011.
Nitrogen fertilizer business. The nitrogen fertilizer business consists of our interest in the Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership. We own the general partner and approximately 53% of the common units of the Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership. The nitrogen fertilizer business consists of a nitrogen fertilizer manufacturing facility that is the only operation in North America that utilizes a petroleum coke, or pet coke, gasification process to produce nitrogen fertilizer. The facility includes a


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1,225 ton-per-day ammonia unit, a 3,000 ton-per-day UAN unit and a gasifier complex having a capacity of 84 million standard cubic feet per day of hydrogen. The gasifier is a dual-train facility, with each gasifier able to function independently of the other, thereby providing redundancy and improving reliability. In 2013, the nitrogen fertilizer business produced 930,643 tons of UAN and 401,971 tons of ammonia. Approximately 95% of the produced ammonia tons and substantially all of the purchased ammonia were upgraded into UAN. The Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership will continue to expand the nitrogen fertilizer business' existing asset base to execute its growth strategy. The Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership's growth strategy includes expanding production of UAN and acquiring additional infrastructure and production assets. The Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership completed a significant two-year plant expansion in February 2013, which increased its UAN production capacity by 400,000 tons, or approximately 50%, per year. The Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership now upgrades substantially all of the ammonia it produces into higher margin UAN fertilizer. The primary raw material feedstock utilized in the nitrogen fertilizer production process is pet coke, which is produced during the crude oil refining process. In contrast, all of the competitors of the nitrogen fertilizer business use natural gas as their primary raw material feedstock. Historically, pet coke has been less expensive than natural gas on a per ton of fertilizer produced basis and pet coke prices have been more stable when compared to natural gas prices. We believe the nitrogen fertilizer business has historically been one of the lowest cost producers and marketers of UAN and ammonia fertilizers in North America. The nitrogen fertilizer business currently purchases most of its pet coke from the Refining Partnership pursuant to a long-term agreement having an initial term that ends in 2027, subject to renewal. On average, during the past five years, over 70% of the pet coke utilized by the nitrogen fertilizer plant was produced and supplied by the Refining Partnership's crude oil refinery in Coffeyville.

Transaction Agreement
On April 18, 2012, CVR Energy entered into a Transaction Agreement (the "Transaction Agreement") with IEP Energy LLC and certain of its affiliates (collectively "IEP"). Pursuant to the Transaction Agreement, IEP offered (the "Offer") to purchase all of the issued and outstanding shares of CVR Energy's common stock for a price of $30.00 per share in cash, without interest, less any applicable withholding taxes, plus one non-transferable contingent cash payment ("CCP") right for each share, which represented the contractual right to receive an additional cash payment per share if a definitive agreement for the sale of CVR Energy was executed on or before August 18, 2013 and such transaction closed. As no sale of the Company was executed by the date outlined in the Transaction Agreement, the CCPs expired on August 19, 2013.
In May 2012, IEP acquired a majority of the common stock of CVR Energy through the Offer. As of December 31, 2013, IEP owned approximately 82% of CVR Energy's outstanding common stock.
Refining Partnership Initial Public Offering On January 23, 2013, the Refining Partnership completed the Refining Partnership IPO. The Refining Partnership sold 24,000,000 common units at a price of $25.00 per common unit, resulting in gross proceeds of $600.0 million. Of the common units issued, 4,000,000 units were purchased by an affiliate of Icahn Enterprises. Additionally, on January 30, 2013, the underwriters closed their option to purchase an additional 3,600,000 common units at a price of $25.00 per common unit resulting in gross proceeds of $90.0 million. The common units, which are listed on the NYSE, began trading on January 17, 2013 under the symbol "CVRR." In connection with the Refining Partnership IPO, the Refining Partnership paid approximately $32.5 million in underwriting fees and incurred approximately $3.9 million of other offering costs.
Prior to the Refining Partnership IPO, CVR owned 100% of the Refining Partnership and net income earned during this period was fully attributable to the Company. Following the Refining Partnership IPO and through May 19, 2013, CVR Energy indirectly owned approximately 81% of the Refining Partnership's outstanding common units and 100% of the Refining Partnership's general partner, which holds a non-economic general partner interest.


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Refining Partnership Underwritten Offering On May 20, 2013, the Refining Partnership completed the Underwritten Offering by selling 12,000,000 common units to the public at a price of $30.75 per unit. American Entertainment Properties Corporation ("AEPC"), an affiliate of Icahn Enterprises LP, also purchased an additional 2,000,000 common units at the public offering price in a privately negotiated transaction with a subsidiary of CVR Energy, which was completed on May 29, 2013. In connection with the Underwritten Offering, on June 10, 2013, the Refining Partnership sold an additional 1,209,236 common units to the public at a price of $30.75 per unit in connection with the exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional common units. The transactions described in this paragraph are collectively referred to as the "Transactions." Following the closing of the Transactions and as of December 31, 2013, public security holders held approximately 29% of all outstanding Refining Partnership common units (including units held by affiliates of Icahn Enterprises, representing approximately 4% of all outstanding Refining Partnership common units), and CVR Refining Holdings held approximately 71% of all outstanding Refining Partnership common units in addition to owning 100% of CVR Refining GP, LLC, the general partner.
The Refining Partnership utilized proceeds of approximately $394.0 million from the Underwritten Offering (including the underwriters' option) to redeem 13,209,236 common units from CVR Refining Holdings. The net proceeds to a subsidiary of CVR Energy from the sale of 2,000,000 common units to AEPC were approximately $61.5 million. The Refining Partnership did not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of common units by CVR Energy to AEPC.

Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership Secondary Offering On May 28, 2013, Coffeyville Resources, LLC ("CRLLC"), a wholly-owned subsidiary of CVR Energy, completed the Secondary Offering in which it sold 12,000,000 Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership common units to the public at a price of $25.15 per unit. The net proceeds to CRLLC from the Secondary Offering were approximately $292.6 million, after deducting approximately $9.2 million in underwriting discounts and commissions. The Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership did not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of common units by CRLLC. Following the closing of the Secondary Offering and as of December 31, 2013, public security holders held approximately 47% of all outstanding Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership common units, and CRLLC held approximately 53% of all outstanding Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership common units in addition to owning 100% of CVR GP, LLC, the general partner.
Major Influences on Results of Operations Petroleum Business
The earnings and cash flows of the petroleum business are primarily affected by the relationship between refined product prices and the prices for crude oil and other feedstocks that are processed and blended into refined products. The cost to acquire crude oil and other feedstocks and the price for which refined products are ultimately sold depend on factors beyond its control, including the supply of and demand for crude oil, as well as gasoline and other refined products which, in turn, depend on, among other factors, changes in domestic and foreign economies, weather conditions, domestic and foreign political affairs, production levels, the availability of imports, the marketing of competitive fuels and the extent of government regulation. Because the petroleum business applies first-in, first-out ("FIFO") accounting to value its inventory, crude oil price movements may impact net income in the short term because of changes in the value of its unhedged on-hand inventory. The effect of changes in crude oil prices on our results of operations is influenced by the rate at which the prices of refined products adjust to reflect these changes.
The prices of crude oil and other feedstocks and refined product prices are also affected by other factors, such as product pipeline capacity, local market conditions and the operating levels of competing refineries. Crude oil costs and the prices of refined products have historically been subject to wide fluctuations. Widespread expansion or upgrades of competitors' facilities, price volatility, international political and economic developments and other factors are likely to continue to play an important role in refining industry economics. These factors can impact, among other things, the level of inventories in the market, resulting in price volatility and a reduction in product margins. Moreover, the refining industry typically experiences seasonal fluctuations in demand for refined products, such as increases in the demand for gasoline during the summer driving season and for home heating oil during the winter, primarily in the Northeast. In addition to current market conditions, there are long-term factors that may impact the demand for refined products. These factors include mandated renewable fuels standards, proposed climate change laws and regulations, and increased mileage standards for vehicles. The petroleum business is also


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subject to the EPA's Renewable Fuel Standard ("RFS"), which requires it to blend "renewable fuels" in with its transportation fuels or purchase renewable fuel credits, known as renewable identification numbers ("RINs"), in lieu of blending.
The EPA is required to determine and publish the applicable annual renewable fuel percentage standards for each compliance year by November 30 for the forthcoming year. The percentage standards represent the ratio of renewable fuel volume to gasoline and diesel volume. On August 6, 2013, the EPA announced the final 2013 renewable fuel percentage standard would be raised to 9.74%. In 2013, the Wynnewood refinery was subject to the RFS for the first time. However, because the cost of purchasing RINs has been extremely volatile and has significantly increased over the last year, the Wynnewood refinery has petitioned the EPA as a "small refinery" for hardship relief from the RFS requirements in 2013 and 2014 based on the "disproportionate economic impact" on the Wynnewood refinery. During 2013, the cost of RINs became extremely volatile as the EPA's proposed renewable fuel volume mandates approached the "blend wall." The blend wall refers to the point at which refiners are required to blend more ethanol into the transportation fuel supply than can be supported by the demand for E10 gasoline (gasoline containing 10 percent ethanol by volume). The EPA has published the proposed volume mandates for 2014, which acknowledge the blend wall and are generally lower than the volumes for 2013 and lower than statutory mandates. The price of RINs decreased significantly after the 2014 proposed mandate was published; however, RIN prices have remained volatile and have increased in 2014. The cost of RINs for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011 was approximately $180.5 million, $21.0 million and $19.0 million, respectively. The future cost of RINs for the petroleum business is difficult to estimate. In particular, the cost of RINs is dependent upon a variety of factors, which include the availability of RINs for purchase, the price at which RINs can be purchased, transportation fuel production levels, the mix of the petroleum business' petroleum products, as well as the fuel blending performed at its refineries, all of which can vary significantly from quarter to quarter. Based upon recent market prices of RINs and current estimates related to the other variable factors, the petroleum business estimates that the total cost of RINs will be approximately $75.0 million to $150.0 million for the year ending December 31, 2014.
If sufficient RINs are unavailable for purchase at times when the petroleum business seeks to purchase RINs, or if the petroleum business has to pay a significantly higher price for RINs or if the petroleum business is subject to penalties as a result of delays in its ability to timely deliver RINs to the EPA, its business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. Many petroleum refiners blend renewable fuel into their transportation fuels and do not have to pass on the costs of compliance through the purchase of RINs to their customers. Therefore, it may be significantly harder for the petroleum business to pass on the costs of compliance with RFS to its customers.
In order to assess the operating performance of the petroleum business, we compare net sales, less cost of product sold (exclusive of depreciation and amortization), or the refining margin, against an industry refining margin benchmark. The industry refining margin benchmark is calculated by assuming that two barrels of benchmark light sweet crude oil is converted into one barrel of conventional gasoline and one barrel of distillate. This benchmark is referred to as the 2-1-1 crack spread. Because we calculate the benchmark margin using the market value of NYMEX gasoline and heating oil against the market value of NYMEX WTI, we refer to the benchmark as the NYMEX 2-1-1 crack spread, or simply, the 2-1-1 crack spread. The 2-1-1 crack spread is expressed in dollars per barrel and is a proxy for the per barrel margin that a sweet crude oil refinery would earn assuming it produced and sold the benchmark production of gasoline and distillate.
Although the 2-1-1 crack spread is a benchmark for the refinery margin, because the refineries have certain feedstock costs and logistical advantages as compared to a benchmark refinery and their product yield is less than total refinery throughput, the crack spread does not account for all the factors that affect refinery margin. The Coffeyville refinery is able to process a blend of crude oil that includes quantities of heavy and medium sour crude oil that has historically cost less than WTI. The Wynnewood refinery has the capability to process blends of a variety of crude oil ranging from medium sour to light sweet crude oil, although isobutene, gasoline components, and normal butane are also typically used. We measure the cost advantage of the crude oil slate by calculating the spread between the price of the delivered crude oil and the price of WTI. The spread is referred to as the consumed crude oil differential. The refinery margin can be impacted significantly by the consumed crude oil differential. The consumed crude oil differential will move directionally with changes in the WTS differential to WTI and the WCS differential to WTI as both these differentials indicate the relative price of heavier, more sour, slate to WTI. The correlation between the consumed crude oil differential and published differentials will vary depending on the volume of light medium sour crude oil and heavy sour crude oil the petroleum business purchases as a percent of its total crude oil volume and will correlate more closely with such published differentials the heavier and more sour the crude oil slate.
The petroleum business produces a high volume of high value products, such as gasoline and distillates. The petroleum business benefits from the fact that its marketing region consumes more refined products than it produces, resulting in prices that reflect the logistics cost for U.S. Gulf Coast refineries to ship into its region. The result of this logistical advantage and the fact that the actual product specifications used to determine the NYMEX 2-1-1 crack spread are different from the actual production in its refineries is that prices the petroleum business realizes are different than those used in determining the 2-1-1 crack spread. The difference between its price and the price used to calculate the 2-1-1 crack spread is referred to as gasoline


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PADD II, Group 3 vs. NYMEX basis, or gasoline basis, and Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel PADD II, Group 3 vs. NYMEX basis, or Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel basis. If both gasoline and Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel basis are greater than zero, this means that prices in its marketing area exceed those used in the 2-1-1 crack spread. The direct operating expense structure is also important to the petroleum business' profitability. Major direct operating expenses include energy, employee labor, maintenance, contract labor, and environmental compliance. The predominant variable cost is energy, which is comprised primarily of electrical cost and natural gas. The petroleum business is therefore sensitive to the movements of natural gas prices. Assuming the same rate of consumption of natural gas for the year ended December 31, 2013, a $1.00 change in natural gas prices would have increased or decreased the petroleum business' natural gas costs by approximately $9.0 million.
Because crude oil and other feedstocks and refined products are commodities, the petroleum business has no control over the changing market. Therefore, the lower target inventory it is able to maintain significantly reduces the impact of commodity price volatility on its petroleum product inventory position relative to other refiners. This target inventory position is generally not hedged. To the extent its inventory position deviates from the target level, the petroleum business considers risk mitigation activities usually through the purchase or sale of futures contracts on the NYMEX. Its hedging activities carry customary time, location and product grade basis risks generally associated with hedging activities. Because most of its titled inventory is valued under the FIFO costing method, price fluctuations on its target level of titled inventory have a major effect on the petroleum business' financial results. Safe and reliable operations at the refineries are key to the petroleum business' financial performance and results of operations. Unplanned downtime at the refineries may result in lost margin opportunity, increased maintenance expense and a temporary increase in working capital investment and related inventory position. The petroleum business seeks to mitigate the financial impact of planned downtime, such as major turnaround maintenance, through a diligent planning process that takes into account the margin environment, the availability of resources to perform the needed maintenance, feedstock logistics and other factors. The refineries generally require a facility turnaround every four to five years. The length of the turnaround is contingent upon the scope of . . .

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