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MAS > SEC Filings for MAS > Form 10-K on 14-Feb-2014All Recent SEC Filings

Show all filings for MASCO CORP /DE/

Form 10-K for MASCO CORP /DE/


Annual Report

Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

The financial and business analysis below provides information which we believe is relevant to an assessment and understanding of our consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows. This financial and business analysis should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes.

The following discussion and certain other sections of this Report contain statements reflecting our views about our future performance and constitute "forward-looking statements" under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements can be identified by words such as "anticipate," "intend," "plan," "believe," "estimate," "expect," "assume," "seek," "appear," "may," "should," "will," "forecast" and similar references to future periods. These views involve risks and uncertainties that are difficult to predict and, accordingly, our actual results may differ materially from the results discussed in such forward-looking statements. We caution you against relying on any of these forward-looking statements. In addition to the various factors included in the "Executive Level Overview," "Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates" and "Outlook for the Company" sections, our future performance may be affected by our reliance on new home construction and home improvement, our reliance on key customers, the cost and availability of raw materials, shifts in consumer preferences and purchasing practices, our ability to improve our underperforming businesses and our ability to maintain our competitive position in our industries. These and other factors are discussed in detail in Item 1A "Risk Factors" of this Report. Any forward-looking statement made by us speaks only as of the date on which it was made. Factors or events that could cause our actual results to differ may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all of them. Unless required by law, we undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

Executive Level Overview

We manufacture, distribute and install home improvement and building products. These products are sold for home improvement and new home construction through mass merchandisers, hardware stores, home centers, homebuilders, distributors and other outlets for consumers and contractors and direct to the consumer.

2013 Results. Net sales were positively affected by increased new home construction and repair and remodel activity in the U.S. and Europe. Our results of operations were positively affected by increased sales volume and the related absorption of fixed costs, as well as a more favorable relationship between selling prices and commodity costs. Also, all of our businesses were positively affected by the benefits associated with the business rationalizations and process improvement initiatives that we have implemented over the last several years.

Our Cabinets and Related Products segment was affected by increased sales volume and selling prices, partially offset by a less favorable product mix. Our Plumbing Products segment results were favorably affected by increased sales volume and increased selling prices of our North American and International operations, partially offset by the loss of a portion of our bath products business. The Decorative Architectural Products segment was affected by increased sales volume, partially offset by a less favorable relationship between selling prices and commodity costs. The Installation and Other Services and Other Specialty Products segments were positively affected by increased sales volume and increased selling prices.

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Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("GAAP"). The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of any contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. We regularly review our estimates and assumptions, which are based upon historical experience, as well as current economic conditions and various other factors that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of certain assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates and assumptions.

We believe that the following critical accounting policies are affected by significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.

Revenue Recognition and Receivables

We recognize revenue as title to products and risk of loss is transferred to customers or when services are rendered. We record revenue for unbilled services performed based upon estimates of material and labor incurred in the Installation and Other Services segment; such amounts are recorded in Receivables. We record estimated reductions to revenue for customer programs and incentive offerings, including special pricing and co-operative advertising arrangements, promotions and other volume-based incentives. We maintain allowances for doubtful accounts receivable for estimated losses resulting from the inability of customers to make required payments. In addition, we monitor our customer receivable balances and the credit worthiness of our customers on an on-going basis. During downturns in our markets, declines in the financial condition and creditworthiness of customers impact the credit risk of the receivables involved and we have incurred bad debt expense related to customer defaults. Our bad debt expense was $8 million, $14 million and $12 million for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively.


We record inventories at the lower of cost or net realizable value, with expense estimates made for obsolescence or unsaleable inventory equal to the difference between the recorded cost of inventories and their estimated market value based upon assumptions about future demand and market conditions. On an on-going basis, we monitor these estimates and record adjustments for differences between estimates and actual experience. Historically, actual results have not significantly deviated from those determined using these estimates.

Financial Investments

We follow accounting guidance that defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value and expands disclosures about fair value measurements for our financial investments and liabilities. This guidance defines fair value as "the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date." Further, it defines a fair value hierarchy, as follows:
Level 1 inputs as quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities; Level 2 inputs as observable inputs other than Level 1 prices, such as quoted market prices for similar assets or liabilities or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by market data; and Level 3 inputs as unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are financial instruments whose value is determined using pricing models or instruments for which the determination of fair value requires significant management judgment or estimation.

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If applicable, we record investments in available-for-sale securities at fair value, and unrealized gains or losses (that are deemed to be temporary) are recognized, net of tax effect, through shareholders' equity, as a component of other comprehensive income in our consolidated balance sheet.

In the past, we have invested excess cash in auction rate securities. Auction rate securities are investment securities that have interest rates which are reset every 7, 28 or 35 days. At December 31, 2013, our investment in auction rate securities was $22 million; we have not increased our investment in auction rate securities since 2007. The fair value of auction rate securities is estimated, on a recurring basis, using a discounted cash flow model (Level 3 input). If we changed the discount rate used in the fair value estimate by 75 basis points, the value of the auction rate securities would change by approximately $1 million.

We have maintained investments in a number of private equity funds, which aggregated $63 million at December 31, 2013. We carry our investments in private equity funds and other private investments at cost. It is not practicable for us to estimate a fair value for private equity funds and other private investments because there are no quoted market prices, and sufficient information is not readily available for us to utilize a valuation model to determine the fair value for each fund. These investments are evaluated, on a non-recurring basis, for potential other-than-temporary impairment when impairment indicators are present, or when an event or change in circumstances has occurred that may have a significant adverse effect on the fair value of the investment. Due to the significant unobservable inputs, the fair value measurements used to evaluate impairment are a Level 3 input.

Impairment indicators we consider include the following: whether there has been a significant deterioration in earnings performance, asset quality or business prospects; a significant adverse change in the regulatory, economic or technological environment; a significant adverse change in the general market condition or geographic area in which the investment operates; industry and sector performance; current equity and credit market conditions; and any bona fide offers to purchase the investment for less than the carrying value. We also consider specific adverse conditions related to the financial health of and business outlook for the fund, including industry and sector performance. The significant assumptions utilized in analyzing a fund for potential other-than-temporary impairment include current economic conditions, market analysis for specific funds and performance indicators in the applicable sectors.

We have and will continue to reduce our investments in long-term financial assets. At December 31, 2013, we have investments in 14 venture capital funds, with an aggregate carrying value of $15 million. The venture capital funds have invested in start-up or smaller, early-stage established businesses, principally in the information technology, bio-technology and health care sectors. At December 31, 2013, we also have investments in 15 buyout funds, with an aggregate carrying value of $48 million. The buyout funds have invested in later-stage, established businesses and no buyout fund has a concentration in a particular sector.

Since there is no active trading market for these investments, they are for the most part illiquid. These investments, by their nature, can also have a relatively higher degree of business risk, including financial leverage, than other financial investments. The timing of distributions from the funds, which depends on particular events related to the underlying investments, as well as the funds' schedules for making distributions and their needs for cash, can be difficult to predict. As a result, the amount of income we record from these investments can vary substantially from quarter to quarter. Future changes in market conditions, the future performance of the underlying investments or new information provided by private equity fund managers could affect the recorded values of these investments and the amounts realized upon liquidation.

We record an impairment charge to earnings when an investment has experienced a decline in fair value that is deemed to be other-than-temporary.

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Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets

We record the excess of purchase cost over the fair value of net tangible assets of acquired companies as goodwill or other identifiable intangible assets. In the fourth quarter of each year, or as events occur or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount, we complete the impairment testing of goodwill utilizing a discounted cash flow method. We selected the discounted cash flow methodology because we believe that it is comparable to what would be used by other market participants. We have defined our reporting units and completed the impairment testing of goodwill at the operating segment level, as defined by accounting guidance. Our operating segments are reporting units that engage in business activities for which discrete financial information, including five-year forecasts, is available.

Determining market values using a discounted cash flow method requires us to make significant estimates and assumptions, including long-term projections of cash flows, market conditions and appropriate discount rates. Our judgments are based upon historical experience, current market trends, consultations with external valuation specialists and other information. While we believe that the estimates and assumptions underlying the valuation methodology are reasonable, different estimates and assumptions could result in different outcomes. In estimating future cash flows, we rely on internally generated five-year forecasts for sales and operating profits, including capital expenditures, and generally a one to three percent long-term assumed annual growth rate of cash flows for periods after the five-year forecast. We generally develop these forecasts based upon, among other things, recent sales data for existing products, planned timing of new product launches, estimated housing starts and estimated repair and remodel activity.

In 2013, we utilized estimated housing starts, from independent industry sources, growing from current levels to 1.5 million units in 2018 (terminal growth year) and operating profit margins improving to approximate historical levels for those business units by 2018 (terminal growth year). We utilize our weighted average cost of capital of approximately 10 percent as the basis to determine the discount rate to apply to the estimated future cash flows. Our weighted average cost of capital increased in 2013 due to improving market conditions and an increased stock price. In 2013, due to improving market conditions and based upon our assessment of the risks impacting each of our businesses, we applied a risk premium to increase the discount rate to a range of 11.5 percent to 13.5 percent for most of our reporting units.

In the fourth quarter of 2013, we estimated that future discounted cash flows projected for all of our reporting units were greater than the carrying values. Any increases in estimated discounted cash flows would have no effect on the reported value of goodwill.

If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, we measure the possible goodwill impairment based upon an allocation of the estimate of fair value of the reporting unit to all of the underlying assets and liabilities of the reporting unit, including any previously unrecognized intangible assets (Step Two Analysis). The excess of the fair value of a reporting unit over the amounts assigned to its assets and liabilities is the implied fair value of goodwill. An impairment loss is recognized to the extent that a reporting unit's recorded goodwill exceeds the implied fair value of goodwill.

In 2013, we did not recognize any impairment charges for goodwill.

A 10 percent decrease in the estimated fair value of our reporting units at December 31, 2013 would not have resulted in any additional analysis of goodwill impairment for any additional business unit.

We review our other indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment annually, in the fourth quarter, or as events occur or circumstances change that indicate the assets may be impaired without regard to the reporting unit. We consider the implications of both external (e.g., market growth, competition and local economic conditions) and internal (e.g., product sales and expected product growth) factors and their potential impact on cash flows related to the intangible asset in both the near- and long-term. In 2013, we did not recognize any impairment charges for other indefinite-lived intangible assets.

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Intangible assets with finite useful lives are amortized using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives. We evaluate the remaining useful lives of amortizable identifiable intangible assets at each reporting period to determine whether events and circumstances warrant a revision to the remaining periods of amortization.

Stock-Based Compensation

Our 2005 Plan provides for the issuance of stock-based incentives in various forms to employees and non-employee Directors. At December 31, 2013, outstanding stock-based incentives were in the form of long-term stock awards, stock options, phantom stock awards and stock appreciation rights.

Long-Term Stock Awards

We grant long-term stock awards to key employees and non-employee Directors and do not cause net share dilution inasmuch as we generally continue the practice of repurchasing and retiring an equal number of shares on the open market. We measure compensation expense for stock awards at the market price of our common stock at the grant date. There was $69 million (8 million common shares) of total unrecognized compensation expense related to unvested stock awards at December 31, 2013, which was included as a reduction of common stock and paid-in capital. We recognize this expense ratably over the shorter of the vesting period of the stock awards, typically five to ten years, or the length of time until the grantee becomes retirement-eligible at age 65. Pre-tax compensation expense for the annual vesting of long-term stock awards was $34 million for 2013.

Stock Options

We grant stock options to key employees. The exercise price equals the market price of our common stock at the grant date. These options generally become exercisable (vest ratably) over five years beginning on the first anniversary from the date of grant and expire no later than ten years after the grant date.

We measure compensation expense for stock options using a Black-Scholes option pricing model. We recognize this compensation expense ratably over the shorter of the vesting period of the stock options, typically five years, or the length of time until the grantee becomes retirement-eligible at age 65. Pre-tax compensation expense for stock options was $13 million for 2013.

We estimated the fair value of stock options at the grant date using a Black-Scholes option pricing model with the following assumptions for 2013:
risk-free interest rate - 1.22%, dividend yield - 1.47%, volatility factor - 49.07% and expected option life - six years. For expense calculation purposes, the weighted average grant-date fair value of option shares granted in 2013 was $8.35 per option share.

If we increased our assumptions for the risk-free interest rate and the volatility factor by 50 percent, the expense related to the fair value of stock options granted in 2013 would increase by 42 percent. If we lowered our assumptions for the risk-free interest rate and the volatility factor by 50 percent, the expense related to the fair value of stock options granted in 2013 would decrease by 52 percent.

Employee Retirement Plans

Effective January 1, 2010, we froze all future benefit accruals under substantially all of our domestic qualified and non-qualified defined-benefit pension plans. As a result of this action, the liabilities for these plans were remeasured; in addition, certain assumptions appropriate for on-going plans (e.g., turnover, mortality and compensation increases) have been modified or eliminated for the remeasurement.

Accounting for defined-benefit pension plans involves estimating the cost of benefits to be provided in the future, based upon vested years of service, and attributing those costs over the time period each employee works. We develop our pension costs and obligations from actuarial valuations. Inherent in

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these valuations are key assumptions regarding inflation, expected return on plan assets, mortality rates and discount rates for obligations and expenses. We consider current market conditions, including changes in interest rates, in selecting these assumptions. Changes in assumptions used could result in changes to reported pension costs and obligations within our consolidated financial statements.

In December 2013, we increased our discount rate for obligations to an average of 4.40 percent from 3.80 percent. The discount rate for obligations is based upon the expected duration of each defined-benefit pension plan's liabilities matched to the December 31, 2013 Towers Watson Rate Link curve. The discount rates we use for our defined-benefit pension plans ranged from 1.75 percent to 4.80 percent, with the most significant portion of the liabilities having a discount rate for obligations of 4.20 percent or higher. The assumed asset return was primarily 7.25 percent, reflecting the expected long-term return on plan assets.

Our net underfunded amount for our qualified defined-benefit pension plans, which is the difference between the projected benefit obligation and plan assets, decreased to $324 million at December 31, 2013 from $462 million at December 31, 2012, primarily due to increased asset returns, as well as higher rates of return in the bond market in 2013, which decreased our long-term pension liabilities. In accordance with accounting guidance, the underfunded amount has been recognized on our consolidated balance sheets at December 31, 2013 and 2012. Qualified domestic pension plan assets in 2013 had a net gain of 13.6 percent compared to average gains of 12 percent for the InvestorForce Defined Benefit Plan Universe.

Our projected benefit obligation for our unfunded non-qualified defined-benefit pension plans was $163 million at December 31, 2013 compared with $181 million at December 31, 2012. In accordance with accounting guidance, this unfunded amount has been recognized on our consolidated balance sheets at December 31, 2013 and 2012.

At December 31, 2013, we reported a net liability of $487 million, of which $163 million was related to our non-qualified, supplemental retirement plans, which are not subject to the funding requirements of the Pension Protection Act of 2006. In accordance with the Pension Protection Act, the Adjusted Funding Target Attainment Percentage ("AFTAP") for the various defined-benefit pension plans ranges from 74 percent to 82 percent.

We expect pension expense for our qualified defined-benefit pension plans to be $18 million in 2014 compared with $23 million in 2013. If we assumed that the future return on plan assets was one-half percent lower than the assumed asset return and the discount rate decreased by 50 basis points, the 2014 pension expense would increase by $5 million. We expect pension expense for our non-qualified defined-benefit pension plans to be $8 million in 2014 compared with $8 million in 2013.

We anticipate that we will be required to contribute approximately $60 million to $70 million in 2014 to our qualified and non-qualified defined-benefit plans.

Income Taxes

The accounting guidance for income taxes requires that the future realization of deferred tax assets depends on the existence of sufficient taxable income in future periods. Possible sources of taxable income include taxable income in carryback periods, the future reversal of existing taxable temporary differences recorded as a deferred tax liability, tax-planning strategies that generate future income or gains in excess of anticipated losses in the carryforward period and projected future taxable income.

If, based upon all available evidence, both positive and negative, it is more likely than not (more than 50 percent likely) such deferred tax assets will not be realized, a valuation allowance is recorded. Significant weight is given to positive and negative evidence that is objectively verifiable. A company's three-year cumulative loss position is significant negative evidence in considering whether deferred tax assets are realizable and the accounting guidance restricts the amount of reliance we can place on projected taxable income to support the recovery of the deferred tax assets.

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In the fourth quarter of 2010, we recorded a $372 million valuation allowance against our U.S. Federal deferred tax assets as a non-cash charge to income tax expense. In reaching this conclusion, we considered the weaker retail sales of certain of our building products and the slower than anticipated recovery in the U.S. housing market which led to U.S. operating losses and significant U.S. goodwill impairment charges, that primarily occurred in the fourth quarter of 2010, causing us to be in a three-year cumulative U.S. loss position.

During 2012 and 2011, objective and verifiable negative evidence, such as U.S. operating losses and significant impairment charges for U.S. goodwill in 2011 and other intangible assets, continued to outweigh positive evidence necessary to reduce the valuation allowance. As a result, we recorded increases of $65 million and $89 million in the valuation allowance related to our U.S. Federal deferred tax assets as a non-cash charge to income tax expense in 2012 and 2011, respectively.

A return to sustainable profitability in the U.S. is required before we would change our judgment regarding the need for a valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets.

Although the recent strengthening in new home construction activity has resulted in profitability in the Company's U.S. operations in 2013, we continue to record a full valuation allowance against the U.S. Federal deferred tax assets as the Company remained in a three-year cumulative loss position throughout 2013.

It is reasonably possible that the continued improvements in our U.S. operations could result in the objective positive evidence necessary to warrant the reversal of all or a portion of the valuation allowance, up to approximately $550 million, as early as the second half of 2014. Until such time, the profits from our U.S. operations will be offset by the net operating loss carryforward resulting in a lower U.S. effective tax rate.

The $175 million and $203 million of deferred tax assets at December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively, for which there is no valuation allowance recorded, are anticipated to be realized through the future reversal of existing taxable temporary differences recorded as deferred tax liabilities.

Should we determine that we would not be able to realize our remaining deferred tax assets in the future, an adjustment to the valuation allowance would be recorded in the period such determination is made. The need to maintain . . .

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