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WGL > SEC Filings for WGL > Form 10-K on 20-Nov-2013All Recent SEC Filings

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Annual Report

Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of

Financial Condition and Results of Operations



This Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Management's Discussion) analyzes the financial condition, results of operations and cash flows of WGL Holdings and its subsidiaries. It also includes management's analysis of past financial results and potential factors that may affect future results, potential future risks and approaches that may be used to manage them. Except where the content clearly indicates otherwise, "WGL Holdings," "we," "us" or "our" refers to the holding company or the consolidated entity of WGL Holdings and all of its subsidiaries.

Management's Discussion is divided into the following two major sections:

WGL Holdings-This section describes the financial condition and results of operations of WGL Holdings and its subsidiaries on a consolidated basis. It includes discussions of our regulated operations, including Washington Gas and Hampshire, and our non-utility operations.

Washington Gas-This section describes the financial condition and results of operations of Washington Gas, a wholly owned subsidiary of WGL Holdings, which comprises the majority of the regulated utility segment.

Both sections of Management's Discussion-WGL Holdings and Washington Gas-are designed to provide an understanding of our operations and financial performance and should be read in conjunction with the respective company's financial statements and the combined Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this annual report.

Unless otherwise noted, earnings per share amounts are presented on a diluted basis, and are based on weighted average common and common equivalent shares outstanding.

Table of Contents

WGL Holdings, Inc.

Washington Gas Light Company

Part II

Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of

Financial Condition and Results of Operations (continued)

Management's Discussion Table of Contents


Executive Overview 28 Primary Factors Affecting WGL Holdings and Washington Gas 28 Critical Accounting Policies 33 Stock Based Compensation 36 WGL Holdings, Inc. 37 Results of Operations 37 Liquidity and Capital Resources 43 Contractual Obligations, Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements and Other Commercial Commitments 50 Credit Risk 53 Market Risk 55 Washington Gas Light Company 61 Results of Operations 61 Liquidity and Capital Resources 63 Rates and Regulatory Matters 64



WGL Holdings, through its wholly owned subsidiaries, sells and delivers natural gas and provides a variety of energy-related products and services to customers primarily in the District of Columbia and the surrounding metropolitan areas in Maryland and Virginia.

WGL Holdings has four operating segments:

regulated utility;

retail energy-marketing;

commercial energy systems; and

midstream energy services.

Our core subsidiary, Washington Gas, engages in the delivery and sale of natural gas that is regulated by regulatory commissions in the District of Columbia, Maryland and Virginia. Through the wholly owned unregulated subsidiaries of Washington Gas Resources, we offer energy-related products and services. We offer competitively priced natural gas, electricity and energy from renewable sources to customers through WGEServices, our non-utility retail energy-marketing subsidiary. We offer efficient and sustainable commercial energy solutions focused on upgrading energy related systems of large government and commercial facilities as well as own and operate distributed generation assets such as Solar PV systems through WGESystems and WGSW. WGL Midstream engages in acquiring and optimizing natural gas storage and transportation assets.

Activities and transactions that are not significant enough on a stand-alone basis to warrant treatment as an operating segment, and that do not fit into one of our four operating segments, are aggregated as "Other Activities" and are included as part of non-utility operations. Administrative and business development costs associated with WGL Holdings and Washington Gas Resources are also included in "Other activities."

Refer to the Business section under Item 1 of this report for further discussion of our regulated utility and non-utility business segments. For further discussion of our financial performance by operating segment, refer to Note 16 -Operating Segment Reporting of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.


The following is a summary of the primary factors that affect the operations and/or financial performance of our regulated and unregulated businesses. Refer to the sections entitled "Business" and "Risk Factors" under Item 1 and Item 1A, respectively, of this report for additional discussion of these and other factors that affect the operations and/or financial performance of WGL Holdings and Washington Gas.

Table of Contents

WGL Holdings, Inc.

Washington Gas Light Company

Part II

Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of

Financial Condition and Results of Operations (continued)

Weather Conditions and Weather Patterns

Washington Gas. Washington Gas' operations are seasonal, with a significant portion of its revenues derived from the delivery of natural gas to residential and commercial heating customers during the winter heating season. Weather conditions directly influence the volume of natural gas delivered by Washington Gas. Weather patterns tend to be more volatile during "shoulder" months within our fiscal year in which Washington Gas is going into or coming out of the primary portion of its winter heating season. During the shoulder months within quarters ending December 31 (particularly in October and November) and June 30 (particularly in April and May), customer heating usage may not correlate highly with historical levels or with the level of heating degree days (HDDs) that occur, particularly when weather patterns experienced are not consistently cold or warm.

Washington Gas' rates are determined on the basis of expected normal weather conditions. Washington Gas has weather protection strategies that are designed to neutralize the estimated financial effects of variations from normal weather. Refer to the section entitled "Market Risk-Weather Risk" for a further discussion of Washington Gas' weather protection strategies.

WGEServices. The financial results of our retail energy-marketing subsidiary, WGEServices, are also affected by deviations in weather from normal levels and abnormal customer usage during the shoulder months described above. Because WGEServices sells both natural gas and electricity, its financial results may fluctuate due to unpredictable deviations in weather during the winter heating and summer cooling seasons. WGEServices purchases weather-related instruments to help manage this risk. Refer to the section entitled "Market Risk-Weather Risk" for further discussion of WGEServices' weather-related instruments.

WGL Midstream. Variations from normal weather may also affect the financial results of our wholesale energy business, WGL Midstream, primarily with regards to summer - winter storage spreads and in transportation spreads throughout the fiscal year. WGL Midstream manages these weather risks with, among other things, physical and financial hedging. Refer to the section entitled "Market Risk-Weather Risk" for further discussion of WGL Midstream's weather-related instruments.

Regulatory Environment, Regulatory Decisions and Changes in Legislation

Washington Gas is regulated by the PSC of DC, the PSC of MD and the SCC of VA. These regulatory commissions approve the terms and conditions of service and the rates that Washington Gas can charge customers for its rate-regulated services in their respective jurisdictions. Changes in these rates as ordered by regulatory commissions affect Washington Gas' financial performance.

Washington Gas expects that regulatory commissions will continue to set the prices and terms for delivery service that give it an opportunity to recover reasonable operating expenses and earn a just and reasonable rate of return on the capital invested in its distribution system.

WGEServices is subject to regulation by the public service commissions of the states in which the company is authorized as a competitive service provider. These regulatory commissions: (i) authorize WGEServices to provide service, review certain terms and conditions of service and (ii) establish the regulatory rules for interactions between the utility and the competitive service provider. In addition, these regulatory commissions issue orders and promulgate rules that establish the broad structure and conduct of retail energy markets. Changes to the rules and orders by the regulatory commissions may affect WGEServices' financial performance.

WGL Holdings has completed an internal assessment in preparation for the Dodd-Frank Act (the Act) legislation and requirements. The Company's determination is that none of its entities, either separately or in the aggregate, will be classified as swap dealers or major swap participants under the Act.

Availability of Natural Gas Supply and Pipeline Transportation and Storage Capacity

Washington Gas. Washington Gas is responsible for acquiring sufficient natural gas supplies, interstate pipeline capacity and storage capacity to meet its customer requirements. As such, Washington Gas must contract for reliable, adequate supplies and delivery capacity to its distribution system, while considering: (i) the dynamics of the commodity supply and interstate pipeline and storage capacity markets; (ii) its own on-system natural gas peaking facilities and (iii) the characteristics of its customer base. Energy-marketing companies that sell natural gas to customers located within Washington Gas' service territory are responsible for acquiring natural gas for their customers; however, Washington Gas allocates certain storage and pipeline capacity related to these customers in accordance with regulatory requirements.

The increase in demand for pipeline and storage capacity compared to the available capacity is a business issue for local distribution companies, such as Washington Gas. To help maintain the adequacy of pipeline and storage capacity

Table of Contents

WGL Holdings, Inc.

Washington Gas Light Company

Part II

Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of

Financial Condition and Results of Operations (continued)

for its growing customer base, Washington Gas has contracted with various interstate pipeline and storage companies for expanded transportation and storage capacity services. The last of these capacity expansion projects is expected to be placed into service during fiscal year 2016. Washington Gas will continue to monitor other opportunities to acquire or participate in additional pipeline and storage capacity that will support customer growth and improve or maintain the high level of service expected by its customer base.

WGEServices. WGEServices contracts for storage and pipeline capacity to meet its customers' needs primarily through transportation releases and storage services allocated from the utility companies in the various service territories in which it provides retail energy commodity.

WGL Midstream. WGL Midstream contracts for storage and pipeline capacity in its asset optimization activities through both long term contracts and short term transportation releases. WGL Midstream also contracts for physical natural gas supply on both a long term and short term basis.

Diversity of Natural Gas Supply

Washington Gas. An objective of Washington Gas' supply sourcing strategy is to diversify receipts from multiple production areas to meet all firm customers' natural gas supply requirements. This strategy is designed to protect Washington Gas' receipt of supply from being curtailed by possible financial difficulties of a single supplier, natural disasters and other unforeseen events, and to take advantage of competitive commodity prices associated with natural gas supplies.

WGEServices. WGEServices has the ability to purchase the majority of its natural gas from Shell Energy under a five-year secured supply arrangement but maintains the right to purchase supply from other providers to meet demand. To supplement WGEServices' natural gas supplies during periods of high customer demand, WGEServices maintains gas inventories in storage facilities that are allocated by natural gas utilities such as Washington Gas.

WGL Midstream. WGL Midstream buys and sells wholesale natural gas across a diversified base of counterparties. WGL Midstream's activities are also diversified across many liquid regional markets across the United States.

Volatility of Natural Gas and Electricity Prices

Volatility of natural gas and electricity prices impacts the regulated utility segment and the non-utility retail energy-marketing segment as described below.

Washington Gas. Under its regulated gas cost recovery mechanisms, Washington Gas records cost of gas expense equal to revenue from customers associated with this cost for each period reported. Consequently, an increase in the cost of gas due to an increase in the purchase price of the natural gas commodity generally has no short-term direct effect on Washington Gas' net income.

However, to the extent Washington Gas does not have regulatory mechanisms in place to mitigate the indirect effects of higher gas prices, its net income may decrease for factors such as: (i) lower natural gas consumption caused by customer conservation; (ii) increased short-term interest expense to finance a higher natural gas storage and accounts receivables balances and (iii) higher expenses for uncollectible accounts.

WGEServices. WGEServices may be positively or negatively affected indirectly by significant changes in the wholesale price of natural gas and electricity. WGEServices' risk management policies and procedures are designed to minimize the risk that WGEServices' purchase commitments and the related sales commitments do not closely match (refer to the section entitled "Market Risk" for further discussion of WGEServices' mitigation of commodity price risk). Additionally, in the short-term, volatile energy prices may change the costs associated with uncollectible accounts, borrowing costs, certain fees paid to public service commissions and other costs. To the extent that cost increases cannot be recovered from retail customers due to competitive factors, WGEServices' operating results would be negatively affected.

WGL Midstream. WGL Midstream can be positively or negatively affected by significant volatility in the wholesale price of natural gas. WGL Midstream risk management policies and procedures are designed to minimize the risk that purchase commitments and the related sale commitments do not closely match. In general, opportunities for asset optimization activities are increased for WGL Midstream with increased volatility in natural gas prices. These opportunities are primarily in short term transportation and storage spreads, seasonal storage spreads and long term supply or basis transactions.

Table of Contents

WGL Holdings, Inc.

Washington Gas Light Company

Part II

Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of

Financial Condition and Results of Operations (continued)

Non-Weather Related Changes in Natural Gas Consumption Patterns

Natural gas supply requirements for the utility are affected by changes in the natural gas consumption patterns of our customers that are driven by factors other than weather. Natural gas usage per customer may decline as customers change their consumption patterns in response to: (i) more volatile and higher natural gas prices, as discussed above; (ii) customer upgrades to energy efficient appliances and (iii) a decline in the economy in the region in which we operate.

For each jurisdiction in which Washington Gas operates, changes in customer usage profiles are reflected in rate case proceedings and rates are adjusted accordingly. Changes in customer usage by existing customers that occur subsequent to rate case proceedings in the Maryland jurisdiction generally will not change revenues because the RNA mechanism stabilizes the level of delivery charge revenues received from customers.

In Virginia, decoupling rate mechanisms for residential, small commercial and industrial and group metered apartment customers permit Washington Gas to adjust revenues for non-weather related changes in customer usage. The WNA and the CRA are billing mechanisms that eliminate the effects of both weather and other factors such as conservation.

In the District of Columbia, decreases in existing customer usage that occur subsequent to Washington Gas' most recent rate case proceeding will have the effect of reducing revenues, which may be offset by additions of new customers.

Maintaining the Safety and Reliability of the Natural Gas Distribution System

Maintaining and improving the public safety and reliability of Washington Gas' distribution system is our highest priority providing benefits to both customers and investors through lower costs and improved customer service. Washington Gas continually monitors and reviews changes in requirements of the codes and regulations that govern the operation of the distribution system and refines its safety practices, with a particular focus on design, construction, maintenance, operation, replacement, inspection and monitoring practices to meet or exceed these requirements. Significant changes in regulations can impact the cost of operating and maintaining the system. Operational issues that affect public safety and the reliability of Washington distribution system that are not addressed within a timely and adequate manner could adversely affect our future earnings and cash flows, as well as result in a loss of customer confidence.

Competitive Environment

Washington Gas. Washington Gas faces competition based on customers' preference for natural gas compared to other energy products, and the comparative prices of those products. The most significant product competition occurs between natural gas and electricity in the residential market. Changes in the competitive position of natural gas relative to electricity and other energy products have the potential of causing a decline in the number of future natural gas customers. At present, Washington Gas has seen no significant evidence that changes in the competitive position of natural gas has contributed to such a decline.

The residential market generates a significant portion of Washington Gas' net income. In its service territory, Washington Gas continues to attract the majority of the new residential construction market. Consumers' continuing preference for natural gas allows Washington Gas to maintain a strong market presence.

In each of the jurisdictions served by Washington Gas, regulators and utilities have implemented customer choice programs to purchase natural gas. These programs allow customers the choice of purchasing their natural gas from unregulated third party marketers, rather than from the local utility. There is no direct effect on Washington Gas' net income when customers purchase their natural gas commodity from unregulated third party marketers because Washington Gas charges its customers the cost of gas without any mark-up. The transfer of sales customers to third party marketers does reduce the level of investment in storage inventory, thereby lowering our recovery of carrying charges.

WGEServices. WGEServices competes with regulated utilities and other unregulated third party marketers to sell the natural gas and electric commodity to customers. Marketers of these commodities compete largely on price; therefore, gross margins are relatively small. WGEServices is exposed to certain credit and market risks associated with both its natural gas and electric supply (refer to the sections entitled "Credit Risk" and "Market Risk" for further discussion of these risk exposures and how WGEServices manages them).

WGEServices' electric sales growth opportunities are significantly affected by the price for Standard Offer Service (SOS) offered by electric utilities. These rates, often identified by customer class, are periodically reset based on the regulatory requirements in each jurisdiction. Future opportunities to add new electric customers will be dependent on the competitiveness of WGEServices' rates relative to SOS rates offered by local electric utilities as well as the prices offered by other energy marketers.

Table of Contents

WGL Holdings, Inc.

Washington Gas Light Company

Part II

Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of

Financial Condition and Results of Operations (continued)

WGL Midstream. WGL Midstream competes in the wholesale natural gas markets with other third party wholesale marketers to buy and sell natural gas as well as storage and pipeline capacity. Marketers of these commodities compete largely on price; therefore, gross margins are relatively small. WGL Midstream is exposed to certain credit and market risks associated with its asset optimization activities (refer to the sections entitled "Credit Risk" and "Market Risk" for further discussion of these risk exposures and how WGL Midstream manages them).

Environmental Matters

We are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations related to environmental matters. These evolving laws and regulations may require expenditures over a long timeframe. It is our position that, at this time, the appropriate remediation is being undertaken at all the relevant sites. Refer to Note 12 -Environmental Matters of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of these matters.

Industry Consolidation

In recent years, the energy industry has seen a number of consolidations, combinations, disaggregations and strategic alliances. Consolidation will present combining entities with the challenges of remaining focused on the customer and integrating different organizations. Others in the energy industry are discontinuing operations in certain portions of the energy industry or divesting portions of their business and facilities.

From time to time, we perform studies and, in some cases, hold discussions regarding utility and energy-related investments and strategic transactions with other companies. The ultimate effect on us of any such investments and transactions that may occur cannot be determined at this time.

Economic Conditions and Interest Rates

We operate in one of the nation's largest regional economies, including several of the nation's wealthiest counties. Our service territory's economic strength has allowed long-term stable expansion of Washington Gas' regulated customer base and has provided active markets for our subsidiaries' energy-related products and services. However, concerns exist about the region's close ties to the federal government, particularly related to the local effects of across-the-board spending cuts (also known as "sequester") and the recent federal shutdown. While it will take time for these impacts to be fully understood, we are optimistic about improvement when appropriate budget legislation is written and government activity resumes on a more normal footing.

The national economy has shown continued modest growth in gross domestic product, personal consumption and fixed investment during fiscal 2013. The unemployment rate has also improved modestly.

In this low-growth and uncertain environment, WGL Holdings and Washington Gas may be affected by continued levels of customer conservation and, particularly as driven by the local economy, year-over-year changes in uncollectible accounts expense. Refer to "Non-Weather Related Changes in Natural Gas Consumption Patterns", above, for a discussion of regulatory mechanisms in place to mitigate the effects of customer conservation at Washington Gas.

Treasury interest rates fell slightly during fiscal year 2013, as the Federal Reserve, despite of market expectations, did not taper its quantitative easing activities. Year-over-year, national inflation was 1.2% as measured by the consumer price index for urban consumers (CPI-U), but inflation is a concern longer term. Refer to "Inflation" below for a discussion of the regulatory impacts of inflation and the section entitled "General Factors Affecting Liquidity" for a discussion of our access to capital markets.

We require short-term debt financing to manage our working capital needs and long-term debt financing to support the capital expenditures of Washington Gas. A rise in interest expense without the timely recognition of the higher cost of debt in our utility rates could adversely affect future earnings. A rise in short-term interest rates from current low levels, without the higher cost of debt being reflected in the prices charged to customers, could also negatively affect the results of operations of our retail energy-marketing segment.


From time to time, Washington Gas seeks approval for rate increases from regulatory commissions to help it manage the effects of inflation on its operating costs, capital investment and returns. Inflation has a significant effect on Washington Gas' replacement cost of plant and equipment. While the regulatory commissions having jurisdiction over Washington Gas' retail rates allow only historical cost depreciation to be recovered in rates, we anticipate that Washington Gas should be allowed to recover the increased costs of its investment and earn a return thereon after replacement of facilities occurs.

Table of Contents

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