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MOG-A > SEC Filings for MOG-A > Form 10-K on 12-Nov-2013All Recent SEC Filings

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Form 10-K for MOOG INC.


Annual Report

Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and
Results of Operations.

We are a worldwide designer, manufacturer and systems integrator of high performance precision motion and fluid controls and control systems for a broad range of applications in aerospace and defense and industrial markets. Within the aerospace and defense market, our products and systems include:
military and commercial aircraft flight controls, satellite positioning controls, controls for gun aiming, stabilization and automatic ammunition loading for armored combat vehicles, thrust vector controls for space launch vehicles and controls for steering tactical and strategic missiles. In the industrial market, our products are used in a wide range of applications including:
injection molding machines, metal forming, heavy industry, material and automotive testing, pilot training simulators, motors used in sleep apnea devices, enteral clinical nutrition and infusion therapy pumps, oil exploration, wind energy, power generation, surveillance systems and slip rings used on CT scanners.
We operate under five segments, Aircraft Controls, Space and Defense Controls, Industrial Systems, Components and Medical Devices. Our principal manufacturing facilities are located in the United States, United Kingdom, Philippines, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, China, Costa Rica, Japan, Luxembourg, India, Canada and Ireland.
We have long-term contracts with some of our customers. These contracts are predominantly within Aircraft Controls and Space and Defense Controls and represent 33% of our sales. We recognize revenue on these contracts using the percentage of completion, cost-to-cost method of accounting as work progresses toward completion. The remainder of our sales are recognized when the risks and rewards of ownership and title to the product are transferred to the customer, principally as units are delivered or as service obligations are satisfied. This method of revenue recognition is predominantly used within the Industrial Systems, Components and Medical Devices segments, as well as with aftermarket activity.
We concentrate on providing our customers with products designed and manufactured to the highest quality standards. Our products are applied in demanding applications, where performance really matters. In achieving a leadership position in the high performance, precision controls market, we have capitalized on our strengths, which include:
superior technical competence,

customer diversity and broad product portfolio, and

well-established international presence serving customers worldwide.

These strengths afford us the ability to innovate our current solutions into new, complimentary technologies, providing us the opportunity to advance our products from one market to another. In addition, we aim to provide more systems solutions for the platforms on which we currently participate while strengthening the current niche market positions that we serve. These activities will help us achieve our financial objectives of increasing our revenue base and improving our long term profitability and cash flow from operations. In doing so, we expect to maintain a balanced, diversified portfolio in terms of markets served, product applications, customer base and geographic presence. Our fundamental strategies to achieve our objectives include:
maintaining our technological excellence by building upon our systems integration capabilities while solving our customers' most demanding technical problems, in applications where performance really matters,

striving for organic growth as well as cost improvements,

utilizing our global capabilities,

developing products for new and emerging markets,

growing our profitable aftermarket business, and

capitalizing on strategic acquisitions and opportunities.

We face numerous challenges to improve shareholder value. These include, but are not limited to, adjusting to dynamic global economic conditions that are influenced by governmental, industrial and commercial factors, pricing pressures from customers, strong competition, foreign currency fluctuations and increases in employee benefit costs. We address these challenges by focusing on strategic revenue growth, by continuing to improve operating efficiencies through various process and manufacturing initiatives and using low cost manufacturing facilities without compromising quality. Based on periodic strategy reviews, including the financial outlook of our business, we may also engage in restructuring activities, including reducing overhead, consolidating facilities and exiting some product lines.
Acquisitions and Divestitures

All of our acquisitions are accounted for under the purchase method and, accordingly, the operating results for the acquired companies are included in the consolidated statements of earnings from the respective dates of acquisition. Under purchase accounting, we record assets and liabilities at fair value and such amounts are reflected in the respective captions on the consolidated balance sheets. The purchase price described for each acquisition below is net of any cash acquired, includes debt issued or assumed and the fair value of contingent consideration.

In 2013, we completed two business combinations. One of these business combinations was in our Space and Defense Controls segment. We acquired Broad Reach Engineering for $46 million. Based in Colorado, Broad Reach Engineering is a leading designer and manufacturer of spaceflight electronics and software for aerospace, scientific, commercial and military missions. The company also provides ground testing, launch and on-orbit operations. We also completed one business combination in our Components segment. We acquired Aspen Motion Technologies, located in Radford, Virginia for $34 million. Aspen is a designer and manufacturer of high-performance permanent magnet brushless DC motors, integrated digital controls and motorized impellers. Aspen also specializes in custom motor designs for end product integration in a variety of high-performance industrial applications.

In 2012, we completed four business combinations. Two of these business combinations were in our Components segment. We acquired Protokraft, LLC, based in Tennessee, for $13 million plus contingent consideration with a fair value of $5 million. Protokraft designs and manufactures opto-electronic transceivers, ethernet switches and media converters packaged into rugged, environmentally-sealed connectors. We also acquired Tritech International Limited, based in the United Kingdom, for $34 million, which includes a working capital adjustment of $1 million paid in 2013. Tritech is a leading designer and manufacturer of high performance acoustic sensors, sonars, video cameras and mechanical tooling equipment. We also completed two business combinations in our Space and Defense Controls segment. We acquired Bradford Engineering, based in the Netherlands, for $13 million. Bradford is a developer and manufacturer of satellite equipment including attitude control, propulsion and thermal control subsystems. We also acquired In-Space Propulsion for $45 million. In-Space Propulsion has locations in New York, California, Ireland and the United Kingdom and is a developer and manufacturer of liquid propulsion systems and components for satellites and missile defense systems.

In 2013, we completed one divestiture in our Medical Devices segment. We sold our Buffalo, New York operations of Ethox Medical for $5 million.

Also in 2013, we began exploring strategic options for the Medical Devices segment, including the possibility of selling the entire segment.
Our financial statements and accompanying notes are prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that affect the amounts reported. These estimates, assumptions and judgments are affected by our application of accounting policies, which are discussed in Note 1 of Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this report. We believe the accounting policies discussed below are the most critical in understanding and evaluating our financial results. These critical accounting policies have been reviewed with the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors.

Revenue Recognition on Long-Term Contracts Revenue representing 33% of 2013 sales was accounted for using the percentage of completion, cost-to-cost method of accounting. This method of revenue recognition is predominantly used within the Aircraft Controls and Space and Defense Controls segments due to the contractual nature of the business activities, with the exception of their respective aftermarket activities. The contractual arrangements are either firm fixed-price or cost-plus contracts and are with the U.S. Government or its prime subcontractors, foreign governments or commercial aircraft manufacturers, including Boeing and Airbus. The nature of the contractual arrangements includes customers' requirements for delivery of hardware as well as funded nonrecurring development work in anticipation of follow-on production orders.
We recognize revenue on contracts in the current period using the percentage of completion, cost-to-cost method of accounting as work progresses toward completion as determined by the ratio of cumulative costs incurred to date to estimated total contract costs at completion, multiplied by the total estimated contract revenue, less cumulative revenue recognized in prior periods. Changes in estimates affecting sales, costs and profits are recognized in the period in which the change becomes known using the cumulative catch-up method of accounting, resulting in the cumulative effect of changes reflected in the period. Estimates are reviewed and updated quarterly for substantially all contracts. A significant change in an estimate on one or more contracts could have a material effect on our results of operations.

Occasionally, it is appropriate to combine or segment contracts. Contracts are combined in those limited circumstances when they are negotiated as a package in the same economic environment with an overall profit margin objective and constitute, in essence, an agreement to do a single project. In such cases, we recognize revenue and costs over the performance period of the combined contracts as if they were one. Contracts are segmented in limited circumstances if the customer had the right to accept separate elements of the contract and the total amount of the proposals on the separate components approximated the amount of the proposal on the entire project. For segmented contracts, we recognize revenue and costs as if they were separate contracts over the performance periods of the individual elements or phases.
Contract costs include only allocable, allowable and reasonable costs which are included in cost of sales when incurred. For applicable U.S. Government contracts, contract costs are determined in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulations and the related Cost Accounting Standards. The nature of these costs includes development engineering costs and product manufacturing costs such as direct material, direct labor, other direct costs and indirect overhead costs. Contract profit is recorded as a result of the revenue recognized less costs incurred in any reporting period. Amounts representing performance incentives, penalties, contract claims or change orders are considered in estimating revenues, costs and profits when they can be reliably estimated and realization is considered probable. Revenue recognized on contracts for unresolved claims or unapproved contract change orders was not material in 2013, 2012 or 2011.
Contract Loss Reserves
At September 28, 2013, we had contract loss reserves of $44 million. For contracts with anticipated losses at completion, a provision for the entire amount of the estimated remaining loss is charged against income in the period in which the loss becomes known. Contract losses are determined considering all direct and indirect contract costs, exclusive of any selling, general or administrative cost allocations that are treated as period expenses. Loss reserves are more common on firm fixed-price contracts that involve, to varying degrees, the design and development of new and unique controls or control systems to meet the customers' specifications. Reserves for Inventory Valuation
At September 28, 2013, we had net inventories of $552 million, or 33% of current assets. Reserves for inventory were $94 million, or 15% of gross inventories. Inventories are stated at the lower-of-cost-or-market with cost determined primarily on the first-in, first-out method of valuation.
We record valuation reserves to provide for slow-moving or obsolete inventory by using both a formula-based method that increases the valuation reserve as the inventory ages and, additionally, a specific identification method. We consider overall inventory levels in relation to firm customer backlog in addition to forecasted demand including aftermarket sales. Changes in these and other factors such as low demand and technological obsolescence could cause us to increase our reserves for inventory valuation, which would negatively impact our gross margin. As we record provisions within cost of sales to increase inventory valuation reserves, we establish a new, lower cost basis for the inventory.

Reviews for Impairment of Goodwill
At September 28, 2013, we had $767 million of goodwill, or 24% of total assets. We test goodwill for impairment for each of our reporting units at least annually, during our fourth quarter, and whenever events occur or circumstances change, such as changes in the business climate, poor indicators of operating performance or the sale or disposition of a significant portion of a reporting unit.
We identify our reporting units by assessing whether the components of our operating segments constitute businesses for which discrete financial information is available and segment management regularly reviews the operating results of those components. Certain of our reporting units are our operating segments while others are one level below our operating segments.
Companies may perform a qualitative assessment as the initial step in the annual goodwill impairment testing process for all or selected reporting units. Companies are also allowed to bypass the qualitative analysis and perform a quantitative analysis if desired. Economic uncertainties and the length of time from the calculation of a baseline fair value are factors that we consider in determining whether to perform a quantitative test.
When we evaluate the potential for goodwill impairment using a qualitative assessment, we consider factors including, but not limited to, macroeconomic conditions, industry conditions, the competitive environment, changes in the market for our products and services, regulatory and political developments, entity specific factors such as strategy and changes in key personnel and overall financial performance. If, after completing this assessment, it is determined that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value, we proceed to a quantitative two-step impairment test.
Quantitative testing first requires a comparison of the fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying value. We use the discounted cash flow method to estimate the fair value of each of our reporting units. The discounted cash flow method incorporates various assumptions, the most significant being projected revenue growth rates, operating profit margins and cash flows, the terminal growth rate and the discount rate. Management projects revenue growth rates, operating margins and cash flows based on each reporting unit's current business, expected developments and operational strategies over a five-year period. If the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, goodwill is considered impaired and any loss must be measured. In measuring the impairment loss, the implied fair value of goodwill is determined by assigning a fair value to all of the reporting unit's assets and liabilities, including any unrecognized intangible assets, as if the reporting unit had been acquired in a business combination at fair value. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit goodwill exceeds the implied fair value of that goodwill, an impairment loss would be recognized in an amount equal to that excess.
Reporting units other than Medical Devices For our annual test of goodwill for impairment in 2013, we performed a quantitative assessment for each of our reporting units. In performing these assessments, we used a 3% terminal growth rate, which is supported by our historical growth rate, near-term projections and long-term expected market growth. We then discounted our projected cash flows using weighted-average costs of capital that ranged from 10.5% to 11.5% for our various reporting units. These discount rates reflect management's assumptions of marketplace participants' cost of capital. Based on our tests, the fair value of each reporting unit exceeded its carrying amount by over 10%. Therefore, we concluded that goodwill was not impaired.
While any individual assumption could differ from those that we used, we believe the overall fair values of our reporting units are reasonable as the values are derived from a mix of reasonable assumptions. However, had we used discount rates that were 100 basis points higher than those we assumed or terminal growth rates that were 100 basis points lower than those we assumed, the fair value of each reporting unit would have still exceeded its carrying value by over 10%. We evaluate the reasonableness of the resulting fair values of our reporting units by comparing the aggregate fair value to our market capitalization and assessing the reasonableness of any resulting premium.

Medical Devices reporting unit
We tested goodwill of our Medical Devices reporting unit for impairment in our fourth quarter as part of our annual test. In performing this assessment, we estimated fair value using a discounted cash flow analysis. We projected sales and operating margins. We used a 3% terminal growth rate, which is supported by our historical growth rate, near-term projections and long-term expected market growth. We then discounted our projected cash flows using a 10.5% weighted-average cost of capital that reflects management's assumptions of marketplace participants' cost of capital. In our fourth quarter, we also began a strategic assessment of our Medical Devices segment, including the possibility of divesting the entire segment. Our estimate of fair value was supported by information obtained as part of our strategic review of this business. Our test resulted in a fair value of Medical Devices that was less than its carrying amount, requiring us to measure goodwill for impairment.
We determined the implied fair value of goodwill, and recognized a $38 million goodwill impairment charge in our fourth quarter of 2013 for the excess of the carrying amount of goodwill over its implied fair value.
The determination of our assumptions is subjective and requires significant estimates. Changes in these estimates and assumptions could materially affect the results of our reviews for impairment of goodwill. Purchase Price Allocations for Business Combinations During 2013, we completed two business combinations for a total purchase price of $80 million. Under purchase accounting, we recorded assets and liabilities at fair value as of the acquisition dates. We identified and ascribed value to customer relationships, patents and technology, trade names, backlog and contracts and estimated the useful lives over which these intangible assets would be amortized. Valuations of these assets were performed largely using discounted cash flow models. These valuations support the conclusion that identifiable intangible assets had a value of $29 million. The resulting goodwill was $41 million.

Ascribing value to intangible assets requires estimates used in projecting relevant future cash flows, in addition to estimating useful lives of such assets. Using different assumptions could have a material effect on our current and future amortization expense.
Pension Assumptions
We maintain various defined benefit pension plans covering employees at certain locations. Pension expense for all defined benefit plans for 2013 was $51 million. Pension obligations and the related costs are determined using actuarial valuations that involve several assumptions. The most critical assumptions are the discount rate and the long-term expected return on assets. Other assumptions include mortality rates, salary increases and retirement age. The discount rate is used to state expected future cash flows at present value. Using a higher discount rate decreases the present value of pension obligations and decreases pension expense. We began using the Mercer Pension Above Mean Discount Yield Curve to determine the discount rate for our U.S. plans as of September 28, 2013. The discount rate is constructed from bonds included in the Mercer Yield Curve that have a yield higher than the mean yield curve. We believe that the Mercer Pension Above Mean Discount Yield Curve best mirrors the yields of bonds that would be selected by management if actions were taken to settle our obligation. The yield curve calculation matches the notional cash inflows of the hypothetical bond portfolio with the expected benefit payments to arrive at the discount rate. Previously, we used the Mercer Yield Curve to determine the discount rate for our U.S. plans. In determining expense for 2013 for our largest U.S. plan, we used a 3.75% discount rate, compared to 4.75% for 2012. We will use a 5.0% discount rate to determine our expense in 2014 for this plan. This 125 basis point increase in the discount rate will decrease our pension expense by $12 million in 2014. Of the 125 basis point increase in the discount rate, 25 basis points relate to our use of the Mercer Pension Above Mean Discount Yield Curve in determining 2014 expense compared to using the Mercer Yield Curve in determining 2013 expense.

The long-term expected return on assets assumption reflects the average rate of return expected on funds invested or to be invested to provide for the benefits included in the projected benefit obligation. In determining the long-term expected return on assets assumption, we consider our current and target asset allocations. We consider the relative weighting of plan assets, the historical performance of total plan assets and individual asset classes and economic and other indicators of future performance. Asset management objectives include maintaining an adequate level of diversification to reduce interest rate and market risk and to provide adequate liquidity to meet immediate and future benefit payment requirements. In determining the 2013 expense for our largest plan, we used an 8.6% return on assets assumption, compared to 8.9% for 2012. A 50 basis point decrease in the long-term expected return on assets assumption would increase our annual pension expense by $2 million.

Deferred Tax Asset Valuation Allowances
At September 28, 2013, we had gross deferred tax assets of $237 million and a deferred tax asset valuation allowance of $4 million. The deferred tax assets principally relate to benefit accruals, inventory obsolescence, tax benefit carry forwards and contract loss reserves. The $4 million deferred tax asset valuation allowance relates to certain tax benefit carryforwards.
We record a valuation allowance to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount of future tax benefit that we believe is more likely than not to be realized. We consider recent earnings projections, allowable tax carryforward periods, tax planning strategies and historical earnings performance to determine the amount of the valuation allowance. Changes in these factors could cause us to adjust our valuation allowance, which would impact our income tax expense when we determine that these factors have changed.


                                                                  2013 vs. 2012               2012 vs. 2011
(dollars in millions
except per share data)     2013        2012        2011     $ Variance    % Variance     $ Variance    % Variance
Net sales                $ 2,610     $ 2,470     $ 2,331      $    141            6 %     $     139           6 %
Gross margin                30.0 %      30.2 %      29.2 %
Research and development
expenses                 $   135     $   116     $   106      $     18           16 %     $      10           9 %
Selling, general and
administrative expenses
as a percentage of sales    15.2 %      15.6 %      15.2 %
Interest expense         $    27     $    34     $    36      $     (7 )        (21 %)    $      (1 )        (4 %)
Goodwill Impairment      $    38     $     -     $     -      $     38          n/a       $       -         n/a
Restructuring expense    $    14     $     -     $     1      $     14          n/a       $      (1 )       n/a
Other                    $     8     $     1     $    (1 )    $      8        1,079 %     $       2        (165 %)
Effective tax rate          27.0 %      27.0 %      26.0 %
Net earnings             $   120     $   152     $   136      $    (32 )        (21 %)    $      16          12 %
Diluted earnings per
share                    $  2.63     $  3.33     $  2.95      $  (0.70 )        (21 %)    $    0.38          13 %

Net sales increased in 2013 compared to 2012 due to growth in Aircraft Controls, Components, Space and Defense Controls and Medical Devices, while sales in Industrial Systems declined. Acquisitions in Space and Defense Controls and in Components combined contributed 70% of the growth in 2013. Net sales increased in 2012 compared to 2011 due to growth in Aircraft Controls and Components.

Our gross margin in 2013 was similar to our gross margin in 2012. Favorable product mix in Aircraft Controls, Components and Medical Devices was offset by charges associated with recent acquisitions in Space and Defense Controls. Our gross margin increased in 2012 compared to 2011 due to more beneficial product mix across multiple segments. We had stronger gross margins in Aircraft Controls, Components and Industrial Systems, while gross margins were fairly flat in Space and Defense Controls and Medical Devices.

Research and development expenses increased in 2013 compared to 2012 due to reimbursements negotiated on commercial transport programs in 2012 and increased activity on the Boeing 787-9 program in 2013. Research and development expenses increased in 2012 compared to 2011 due to the ramp up of activity on the Airbus A350 program, partially offset by reduced activity on the Boeing 787-8 program.

Selling, general and administrative expenses as a percentage of sales for 2013 decreased compared to 2012 due to cost containment activities. Our selling, general and administrative expenses as a percentage of sales increased in 2012 compared to 2011 due to a shift of activity from direct product support to selling support.

Interest expense decreased in 2013 compared to 2012 due to the early redemption of our 6% senior subordinated notes on January 15, 2013. Interest expense decreased in 2012 compared to 2011 as a result of lower interest rates.

In the fourth quarter of 2013, we took a $38 million goodwill impairment charge in our Medical Devices segment. The impairment charge net of tax was $24 million, or $0.52 per share.

In 2013, we restructured certain operations to better align our cost structure with our projected sales levels. The restructuring actions taken have resulted in workforce reductions in our Industrial Systems, Space and Defense Controls and Aircraft Controls segments.

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