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OZRK > SEC Filings for OZRK > Form 10-Q on 7-Nov-2013All Recent SEC Filings

Show all filings for BANK OF THE OZARKS INC

Form 10-Q for BANK OF THE OZARKS INC


7-Nov-2013

Quarterly Report


Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Bank of the Ozarks, Inc. (the "Company") is a bank holding company whose primary business is commercial banking conducted through its wholly-owned state chartered bank subsidiary - Bank of the Ozarks (the "Bank"). The Company's results of operations depend primarily on net interest income, which is the difference between the interest income from earning assets, such as loans, leases, purchased loans not covered by Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC") loss share agreements ("purchased non-covered loans"), loans covered by FDIC loss share agreements ("covered loans") and investments, and the interest expense incurred on interest bearing liabilities, such as deposits, borrowings and subordinated debentures. The Company also generates non-interest income, including service charges on deposit accounts, mortgage lending income, trust income, bank owned life insurance ("BOLI") income, accretion of FDIC loss share receivable, net of amortization of FDIC clawback payable, other income from loss share and purchased non-covered loans, and gains on investment securities and from sales of other assets.

The Company's non-interest expense consists primarily of employee compensation and benefits, net occupancy and equipment expense and other operating expenses. The Company's results of operations are significantly affected by its provision for loan and lease losses and its provision for income taxes. This management's discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations provides a summary of the Company's operations for the third quarter and first nine months of 2013 and should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes presented elsewhere in this report.

Critical Accounting Policies

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("GAAP") requires management to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements. The Company's determination of (i) the provision to and the adequacy of the allowance for loan and lease losses ("ALLL"), (ii) the fair value of its investment securities portfolio, (iii) the fair value of foreclosed assets not covered by FDIC loss share agreements and
(iv) the fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed pursuant to business combination transactions all involve a higher degree of judgment and complexity than its other significant accounting policies. Accordingly, the Company considers the determination of (i) provision to and the adequacy of the ALLL, (ii) the fair value of its investment securities portfolio, (iii) the fair value of foreclosed assets not covered by FDIC loss share agreements and
(iv) the fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed pursuant to business combination transactions to be critical accounting policies.

Provision to and adequacy of the allowance for loan and lease losses. The ALLL is established through a provision for loan and lease losses charged against income. All or portions of loans or leases deemed to be uncollectible are charged against the ALLL when management believes that collectability of all or some portion of outstanding principal is unlikely. Subsequent recoveries, if any, of loans or leases previously charged off are credited to the ALLL.

The ALLL is maintained at a level management believes will be adequate to absorb probable incurred losses in the loan and lease portfolio. Provision to and the adequacy of the ALLL are based on evaluations of the loan and lease portfolio utilizing objective and subjective criteria. The objective criteria primarily include an internal grading system and specific allowances. In addition to these objective criteria, the Company subjectively assesses the adequacy of the ALLL and the need for additions thereto, with consideration given to the nature and mix of the portfolio, including concentrations of credit; general economic and business conditions, including national, regional and local business and economic conditions that may affect borrowers' or lessees' ability to pay; expectations regarding the current business cycle; trends that could affect collateral values and other relevant factors. The Company also utilizes a peer group analysis and a historical analysis to validate the overall adequacy of its ALLL. Changes in any of these criteria or the availability of new information could require adjustment of the ALLL in future periods. While a specific allowance has been calculated for impaired loans and leases and for loans and leases where the Company has otherwise determined a specific reserve is appropriate, no portion of the Company's ALLL is restricted to any individual loan or lease or group of loans or leases, and the entire ALLL is available to absorb losses from any and all loans and leases.

The Company's internal grading system assigns one of nine grades to all loans and leases except residential 1-4 family loans, consumer loans, purchased non-covered loans, covered loans, and certain other loans, with each grade being assigned a specific allowance allocation percentage.

The grade for each graded individual loan or lease is determined by the account officer and other approving officers at the time the loan or lease is made and changed from time to time to reflect an ongoing assessment of loan or lease risk. Grades are reviewed on specific loans and leases from time to time by senior management and as part of the Company's internal loan review process. The risk elements considered by management in its determination of the appropriate grade for individual loans and leases include the following, among others:
(1) for non-farm/non-residential, multifamily residential, and


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agricultural real estate loans, the debt service coverage ratio (income from the property in excess of operating expenses compared to loan repayment requirements), operating results of the owner in the case of owner-occupied properties, the loan-to-value ratio, the age, condition, value, nature and marketability of the collateral and the specific risks and volatility of income, property value and operating results typical of properties of that type; (2) for construction and land development loans, the perceived feasibility of the project including the ability to sell developed lots or improvements constructed for resale or ability to lease property constructed for lease, the quality and nature of contracts for presale or preleasing, if any, experience and ability of the developer and loan-to-cost and loan-to-value ratios; (3) for commercial and industrial loans and leases, the operating results of the commercial, industrial or professional enterprise, the borrower's or lessee's business, professional and financial ability and expertise, the specific risks and volatility of income and operating results typical for businesses in the applicable industry and the age, condition, value, nature and marketability of collateral; and (4) for non-real estate agricultural loans and leases, the operating results, experience and ability of the borrower or lessee, historical and expected market conditions and the age, condition, value, nature and marketability of collateral. In addition, for each category the Company considers secondary sources of income and the financial strength of the borrower or lessee and any guarantors.

Residential 1-4 family, consumer loans and certain other loans, are assigned an allowance allocation percentage based on past due status.

Allowance allocation percentages for the various risk grades and past due categories for residential 1-4 family, consumer loans and certain other loans are determined by management and are adjusted periodically. In determining these allowance allocation percentages, management considers, among other factors, historical loss percentages and a variety of subjective criteria in determining the allowance allocation percentages.

As provided for under GAAP, management has up to 12 months following the date of a business combination transaction to finalize the fair values of acquired assets and assumed liabilities. Once management has finalized the fair values of acquired assets and assumed liabilities within this 12-month period, management considers such values to be the day 1 fair values ("Day 1 Fair Values").

For covered loans, management separately monitors this portfolio and periodically reviews loans contained within this portfolio against the factors and assumptions used in determining the Day 1 Fair Values. To the extent that a loan's performance has deteriorated from management's expectation established in conjunction with the determination of the Day 1 Fair Values, such loan is considered in the determination of the required level of ALLL. To the extent that a revised loss estimate exceeds the loss estimate established in the determination of the Day 1 Fair Values, such deterioration will result in an allowance allocation or a charge-off.

For purchased non-covered loans, management segregates this portfolio into loans that contain evidence of credit deterioration on the date of purchase and loans that do not contain evidence of credit deterioration on the date of purchase. Purchased non-covered loans with evidence of credit deterioration are regularly monitored and are periodically reviewed by management. To the extent that a loan's performance has deteriorated from management's expectation established in conjunction with the determination of the Day 1 Fair Values, such loan is considered in the determination of the required level of ALLL. To the extent that a revised loss estimate exceeds the loss estimate established in the determination of Day 1 Fair Values, such determination will result in an allowance allocation or a charge-off.

All other purchased non-covered loans are graded by management at the time of purchase. The grades on these purchased non-covered loans are reviewed regularly as part of the ongoing assessment of such loans. To the extent that current information indicates it is possible that the Company will not be able to collect all amounts according to the contractual terms thereof, such loan is considered in the determination of the required level of ALLL and may result in an allowance allocation or a charge-off.

At September 30, 2013 and 2012 and at December 31, 2012, the Company had no allowance for its purchased non-covered loans and its covered loans because all losses had been charged off on such loans whose performance had deteriorated from management's expectations established in conjunction with the determination of the Day 1 Fair Values.

The Company generally places a loan or lease, excluding purchased non-covered loans with evidence of credit deterioration on the date of purchase and covered loans, on nonaccrual status when such loan or lease is (i) deemed impaired or
(ii) 90 days or more past due, or earlier when doubt exists as to the ultimate collection of payments. The Company may continue to accrue interest on certain loans or leases contractually past due 90 days or more if such loans or leases are both well secured and in the process of collection. At the time a loan or lease is placed on nonaccrual status, interest previously accrued but uncollected is generally reversed and charged against interest income. Nonaccrual loans and leases are generally returned to accrual status when payments are less than 90 days past due and the Company reasonably expects to collect all payments. If a loan or lease is determined to be uncollectible, the portion of the principal determined to be uncollectible is charged against the ALLL. Any loan for which the terms have been modified and for which (i) the borrower is experiencing


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financial difficulties and (ii) a concession has been granted to the borrower by the Company is considered a troubled debt restructuring ("TDR") and is included in impaired loans and leases. Income on nonaccrual loans or leases, including impaired loans and leases but excluding certain TDRs which continue to accrue interest, is recognized on a cash basis when and if actually collected.

All loans and leases deemed to be impaired are evaluated individually. The Company considers a loan or lease, excluding purchased non-covered loans and covered loans, to be impaired when based on current information and events, it is probable that the Company will be unable to collect all amounts due according to the contractual terms thereof. The Company considers a purchased non-covered loan with evidence of credit deterioration at the date of purchase and a covered loan to be impaired once a decrease in expected cash flows or other deterioration in the loan's expected performance, subsequent to the determination of the Day 1 Fair Values, results in an allowance allocation, a partial or full charge-off or in a provision for loan and lease losses. Purchased non-covered loans without evidence of credit deterioration at the date of purchase are considered impaired when current information indicates it is probable that the Company will not be able to collect all amounts due according to the contractual terms thereof. Most of the Company's nonaccrual loans and leases, excluding purchased non-covered loans and covered loans, and all TDRs are considered impaired. The majority of the Company's impaired loans and leases are dependent upon collateral for repayment. For such loans and leases, impairment is measured by comparing collateral value, net of holding and selling costs, to the current investment in the loan or lease. For all other impaired loans and leases, the Company compares estimated discounted cash flows to the current investment in the loan or lease. To the extent that the Company's current investment in a particular loan or lease exceeds its estimated net collateral value or its estimated discounted cash flows, the impaired amount is specifically considered in the determination of the ALLL or is charged off as a reduction of the ALLL.

The Company also maintains an ALLL for certain loans and leases, excluding purchased non-covered loans and covered loans, not considered impaired where
(i) the customer is continuing to make regular payments, although payments may be past due, (ii) there is a reasonable basis to believe the customer may continue to make regular payments, although there may also be an elevated risk that the customer may default, and (iii) the collateral or other repayment sources are likely to be insufficient to recover the current investment in the loan or lease if a default occurs. The Company individually evaluates such loans and leases to determine if an ALLL is needed for these loans and leases. For the purpose of calculating the amount of such ALLL, management typically assumes that (i) no further regular payments occur and (ii) all sums recovered will come from liquidation of collateral and collection efforts from other payment sources. To the extent that the Company's current investment in a particular loan or lease evaluated for such an ALLL exceeds its net collateral value or its estimated discounted cash flows, such excess is considered allocated ALLL for purposes of the determination of the ALLL.

The Company may also include further allowance allocation for risk-rated loans, including commercial real estate loans and excluding purchased non-covered loans and covered loans, that are in markets determined by management to be "stressed". Stressed markets may include any specific geography experiencing
(i) high unemployment substantially above the U.S. average, (ii) significant over-development in one or more commercial real estate categories, (iii) recent or announced loss of a major employer or significant workforce reductions,
(iv) significant declines in real estate values and (v) various other factors. The additional ALLL for such stressed markets compensates for the expectation that a higher risk of loss is anticipated for the "work-out" or liquidation of a real estate loan in a stressed market versus a market that is not experiencing any significant levels of stress. The required allocation percentage applicable to real estate loans in stressed markets may be applied to the total market or it may be determined at the individual loan level based on collateral value, loan-to-value or loan-to-cost ratios, strength of the borrower and/or guarantor, viability of the underlying project and other factors. The Company had no allowance allocation for loans in stressed markets at September 30, 2013 and 2012 or December 31, 2012.

The Company also includes specific ALLL allocations for qualitative factors including, among other factors, (i) concentrations of credit, (ii) general economic and business conditions, (iii) trends that could affect collateral values and (iv) expectations regarding the current business cycle. The Company may also consider other qualitative factors in future periods for additional ALLL allocations, including, among other factors, (1) credit quality trends (including trends in nonperforming loans and leases expected to result from existing conditions), (2) seasoning of the loan and lease portfolio,
(3) specific industry conditions affecting portfolio segments, (4) the Company's expansion into new markets and (5) the offering of new loan and lease products.

Changes in the criteria used in this evaluation or the availability of new information could cause the ALLL to be increased or decreased in future periods. In addition bank regulatory agencies, as part of their examination process, may require adjustments to the ALLL based on their judgment and estimates.

Fair value of the investment securities portfolio. The Company has classified all of its investment securities as available for sale ("AFS"). Accordingly, its investment securities are stated at estimated fair value in the consolidated financial statements with unrealized gains and losses, net of related income taxes, reported as a separate component of stockholders' equity and any related changes are included in accumulated other comprehensive income.


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The Company utilizes independent third parties as its principal sources for determining fair value of investment securities which are measured on a recurring basis. As a result, the Company receives estimates of fair values from at least two independent pricing sources for the majority of its individual securities within its investment portfolio. For investment securities traded in an active market, the fair values are obtained from independent pricing services and are based on quoted market prices if available. If quoted market prices are not available, fair values are based on market prices for comparable securities, broker quotes, comprehensive interest rate tables, pricing matrices or a combination thereof. For investment securities traded in a market that is not active, fair value is determined using unobservable inputs. Additionally, the valuation of investment securities acquired in FDIC-assisted or traditional acquisitions may include certain unobservable inputs. All fair value estimates of the Company's investment securities are reviewed and approved on a quarterly basis by the Company's Investment Portfolio Manager and its Chief Financial Officer.

The fair values of the Company's investment securities traded in both active and inactive markets can be volatile and may be influenced by a number of factors including market interest rates, prepayment speeds, discount rates, credit quality of the issuer, general market conditions including market liquidity conditions and other factors. Factors and conditions are constantly changing and fair values could be subject to material variations from period to period that may significantly impact the Company's financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.

Fair value of foreclosed assets not covered by FDIC loss share agreements. Repossessed personal properties and real estate acquired through or in lieu of foreclosure are initially recorded at the lesser of current principal investment or fair value less estimated cost to sell at the date of repossession or foreclosure. Valuations of these assets are periodically reviewed by management with the carrying value of such assets adjusted through non-interest expense to the then estimated fair value net of estimated selling costs, if lower, until disposition. Fair values of these assets are generally based on third party appraisals, broker price opinions or other valuations of the property.

Fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed pursuant to business combination transactions. Assets acquired and liabilities assumed in business combinations are recorded at estimated fair value on their purchase date. Loans covered by FDIC loss share agreements, or covered loans, are accounted for in accordance with the provisions of GAAP applicable to loans acquired with deteriorated credit quality and pursuant to the American Institutes of Certified Public Accountants' ("AICPA") December 18, 2009 letter in which the AICPA summarized the Securities and Exchange Commission's ("SEC") view regarding the accounting in subsequent periods for discount accretion associated with non-credit impaired loans acquired in a business combination or asset purchase. Considering, among other factors, the general lack of adequate underwriting, proper documentation, appropriate loan structure and insufficient equity contributions for a large number of these acquired loans, and the uncertainty of the borrowers' and/or guarantors' ability or willingness to make contractually required (or any) principal and interest payments, management has determined that a significant portion of the loans acquired in FDIC-assisted acquisitions had evidence of credit deterioration since origination. Accordingly, management has elected to apply the provisions of GAAP applicable to loans acquired with deteriorated credit quality as provided by the AICPA's December 18, 2009 letter, to all loans acquired in its FDIC-assisted acquisitions.

At the time such covered loans are acquired, management individually evaluates substantially all loans acquired in the transaction. This evaluation allows management to determine the estimated fair value of the covered loans (not considering any FDIC loss sharing agreements) and includes no carryover of any previously recorded ALLL. In determining the estimated fair value of covered loans, management considers a number of factors including, among other things, the remaining life of the acquired loans, estimated prepayments, estimated loss ratios, estimated value of the underlying collateral, estimated holding periods, and net present value of cash flows expected to be received. To the extent that any covered loan is not specifically reviewed, management applies a loss estimate to that loan based on the average expected loss rates for the purchased loans that were individually reviewed in that covered loan portfolio.

In determining the Day 1 Fair Values of covered loans, management calculates a non-accretable difference (the credit component of the covered loans) and an accretable difference (the yield component of the covered loans). The non-accretable difference is the difference between the contractually required payments and the cash flows expected to be collected in accordance with management's determination of the Day 1 Fair Values. Subsequent increases in expected cash flows will generally result in an adjustment to accretable yield, which will have a positive impact on interest income. Subsequent decreases to the expected cash flows will generally result in a provision for loan and lease losses. Subsequent increases in cash flows following any previous decrease will result in a reversal of the provision for loan and lease losses to the extent of prior charges and then an adjustment to accretable yield, which will have a positive impact on interest income. Any increase or decrease in expected cash flows will result in a corresponding adjustment of the FDIC loss share receivable or the accretion thereof for the portion of such reduced or additional loss expected to be collected from the FDIC.

The accretable difference on covered loans is the difference between the expected cash flows and the net present value of expected cash flows. Such difference is accreted into earnings using the effective yield method over the term of the loans. In determining the net present value of the expected cash flows for purposes of establishing the Day 1 Fair Values, the Company used discount rates ranging from 6.0% to 9.5% per annum depending on the risk characteristics of each individual loan. At September 30, 2013, the weighted average period during which management expects to receive the estimated cash flows for its covered loan portfolio (not considering any payment under the FDIC loss share agreements) is 2.4 years.


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Management separately monitors the covered loan portfolio and periodically reviews loans contained within this portfolio against the factors and assumptions used in determining the Day 1 Fair Values. A loan is typically reviewed (i) when it is modified or extended, (ii) when material information becomes available to the Company that provides additional insight regarding the loan's performance, the status of the borrower, or the quality or value of the underlying collateral, or (iii) in conjunction with the annual review of projected cash flows which include a substantial portion of each acquired covered loan portfolio. Management separately reviews the performance of the portfolio of covered loans on an annual basis, or more frequently to the extent that material information becomes available regarding the performance of an individual loan, to make determinations of the constituent loans' performance and to consider whether there has been any significant change in performance since management's initial expectations established in conjunction with the determination of the Day 1 Fair Values or since management's most recent review of such portfolio's performance. To the extent that a loan is performing in accordance with or exceeding management's expectation established in conjunction with the determination of the Day 1 Fair Values, such loan is not included in any of the Company's credit quality ratios, is not considered to be an impaired loan, and is not considered in the determination of the required ALLL. To the extent that a loan's performance has deteriorated from management's expectation established in conjunction with the determination of the Day 1 Fair Values, such loan is included in certain of the Company's credit quality metrics, is considered an impaired loan, and is considered in the determination of the required level of ALLL. Any improvement in the expected performance of a covered loan would result in a reversal of the provision for loan and lease losses to the extent of prior charges and then an adjustment to accretable yield, which would have a positive impact on interest income.

At the time of acquisition of purchased non-covered loans, management individually evaluates substantially all loans acquired in the transaction. For those purchased loans without evidence of credit deterioration, management evaluates each reviewed loan using an internal grading system with a grade assigned to each loan at the date of acquisition. To the extent that any purchased non-covered loan is not specifically reviewed, such loan is assumed to have characteristics similar to the characteristics of the aggregate acquired portfolio. The grade for each purchased non-covered loan is reviewed subsequent to the date of acquisition any time a loan is renewed or extended or at any time information becomes available to the Company that provides material insight regarding the loan's performance, the borrower or the underlying collateral. To the extent that a loan is performing in accordance with management's initial expectations, such loan is not considered impaired and is not considered in the determination of the required ALLL. To the extent that current information . . .

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