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NNVC > SEC Filings for NNVC > Form 10-K on 30-Sep-2013All Recent SEC Filings

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Form 10-K for NANOVIRICIDES, INC.


30-Sep-2013

Annual Report


ITEM 7: MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the information contained in the consolidated financial statements of the Company and the notes thereto appearing elsewhere herein and in conjunction with the Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations set forth in (1) the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended June 30, 2013. Readers should carefully review the risk factors disclosed in this Form 10-K and other documents filed by the Company with the SEC.

As used in this report, the terms "Company", "we", "our", "us" and "NNVC" refer to Nanoviricides, Inc., a Nevada corporation.

PRELIMINARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws. These include statements about our expectations, beliefs, intentions or strategies for the future, which we indicate by words or phrases such as "anticipate," "expect," "intend," "plan," "will," "we believe," "NNVC believes," "management believes" and similar language. The forward-looking statements are based on the current expectations of NNVC and are subject to certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those set forth in the discussion under "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in this report. Actual results may differ materially from results anticipated in these forward-looking statements. We base the forward-looking statements on information currently available to us, and we assume no obligation to update them.

Investors are also advised to refer to the information in our previous filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), especially on Forms 10-K, 10-Q and 8-K, in which we discuss in more detail various important factors that could cause actual results to differ from expected or historic results. It is not possible to foresee or identify all such factors. As such, investors should not consider any list of such factors to be an exhaustive statement of all risks and uncertainties or potentially inaccurate assumptions.

Management's Plan of Operation

The Company's drug development business model was formed in May 2005 with a license to the patents and intellectual property held by TheraCour Pharma, Inc., that enabled creation of drugs engineered specifically to combat viral diseases in humans. This exclusive license from TheraCour Pharma serves as a foundation for our intellectual property. The Company was granted a worldwide exclusive perpetual license to this technology for several drugs with specific targeting mechanisms in perpetuity for the treatment of the following human viral diseases: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV/AIDS), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Rabies, Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), Influenza and Asian Bird Flu Virus. The Company has entered into an Additional License Agreement with TheraCour granting the Company the exclusive licenses in perpetuity for technologies developed by TheraCour for the additional virus types for Dengue viruses, Japanese Encephalitis virus, West Nile Virus, Viruses causing viral Conjunctivitis (a disease of the eye) and Ocular Herpes, and Ebola/Marburg viruses. The Company may want to add further virus types to its drug pipeline. The Company would then need to negotiate with TheraCour an amendment to the Licensing Agreement to include those of such additional viruses that the Company determines it wants to follow for further development. We are seeking to add to our existing portfolio of products through our internal discovery pre-clinical development programs and through an in-licensing strategy.

The Company intends to perform the regulatory filings and own all the regulatory licenses for the drugs it is currently developing. The Company will develop these drugs in part via subcontracts to TheraCour Pharma, Inc., the exclusive source for these nanomaterials. The Company may manufacture these drugs itself, or under subcontract arrangements with external manufacturers that carry the appropriate regulatory licenses and have appropriate capabilities. The Company intends to distribute these drugs via subcontracts with distributor companies or in partnership arrangements. The Company plans to market these drugs either on its own or in conjunction with marketing partners. The Company also plans to actively pursue co-development, as well as other licensing agreements with other Pharmaceutical companies. Such agreements may entail up-front payments, milestone payments, royalties, and/or cost sharing, profit sharing and many other instruments that may bring early revenues to the Company. Such licensing and/or co-development agreements may shape the manufacturing and development options that the company may pursue. The Company has received significant interest from certain pharmaceutical companies for potential licensing or co-development of some of our drug candidates. However, none of these distributor or co-development agreements is in place at the current time.

To date, we have engaged in organizational activities; developing and sourcing compounds and preparing nano-materials; and experimentation involving preclinical studies using cell cultures and animals. We have generated funding through the issuances of debt and the sales of securities under our shelf registration and the private placement of common stock (See, Item 5). The Company does not currently have any long term debt, other than Series B Convertible Preferred Debentures of $6M described under the Sale of Restricted Securities. We have not generated any revenues and we do not expect to generate revenues in the near future. We may not be successful in developing our drugs and start selling our products when planned, or we may not become profitable in the future. We have incurred net losses in each fiscal period since inception of our operations.

Collaborative Agreements and Contracts

On December 23, 2005, the Company signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology in Hanoi (NIHE), a unit of the Vietnamese Government's Ministry of Health. This Memorandum of Understanding calls for cooperation in the development and testing of certain nanoviricides. The parties agreed that NanoViricides will retain all intellectual property rights with respect to any resulting product and that the initial target would be the development of drugs against H5N1 (avian influenza). NIHE thereafter requested that we develop a drug for rabies, a request to which we agreed. The initial phase of this agreement called first for laboratory testing, followed by animal testing of several drug candidates developed by the Company. Preliminary laboratory testing of FluCideTM-I, AviFluCide-ITM and AviFluCide-HPTM were successfully performed at the laboratories of the National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology in Hanoi (NIHE), against both clade 1 and clade 2 of H5N1 virus isolated in Vietnam. Successful animal testing of RabiCide-ITM, the company's rabies drug, was performed in Vietnam during the first half of 2007, and reproducibly repeated in 2008. Rabies testing can safely be done at their BSL2 facility. The H5N1 animal testing requires a BSL3 (biological safety laboratory level 3) laboratory. NIHE has acquired a BSL3 animal testing capacity during 2008.

We have finalized execution of a Materials Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (M-CRADA) with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA in July, 2008. This agreement was initiated based on our success against Rabies in the animal studies conducted at NIHE Vietnam. Preliminary animal studies against Rabies were expected to start in the last quarter of calendar year 2009 or first quarter of calendar year 2010. The Company has lowered the priority of this program during the recent economic crisis in order to use our resources most effectively. Subsequent to the agreement execution, the Company has supplied certain materials to CDC for testing. This testing, if successful, is expected to expand to involve potential use of nanoviricides as
(1) a post- infection therapeutic drug against rabies, possibly in conjunction with a rabies vaccine, and (2) a post-exposure prophylactic drug against rabies, to replace costly human or monoclonal antibodies, possibly in conjunction with a rabies vaccine. To date, there is no effective post-infection therapeutic against rabies. Post-exposure prophylaxis market has been estimated to be as much $300M to $500M worldwide.

We have finalized a CRADA with Walter Reed Army Institutes of Research (WRAIR) to develop collaboratively antiviral agents against all four types of dengue viruses in April, 2007. Preliminary work has commenced under this CRADA. This CRADA is expected to be renegotiated due to changes in funding requirements at WRAIR. The Company has not renewed this agreement.

We have finalized a Materials Transfer Agreement (MTA) with the United States Army Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) to develop antiviral agents against Ebola, Marburg and other hemorrhagic viruses in October 2007. Preliminary studies began in February, 2008. Certain nanoviricides candidates were found to be highly successful against Ebola virus in pre-clinical cell culture studies. Ebola virus is known to produce, in vivo, a soluble decoy protein that is a portion of its surface glycoprotein. If the nanoviricides that were successful in the in vitro studies bind to the decoy protein portion of the Ebola virus envelope, then we would expect that the nanoviricides would be neutralized in vivo by the decoy protein. We are therefore developing novel ligands that would potentially bind to the Ebola virus glycoprotein portion that is known to be not a part of the decoy protein. The MTA was extended for another year in October, 2009 to continue these studies. The Company has lowered the priority of this program during the recent economic crisis in order to use our resources most effectively.

We have finalized an agreement with a Medical Institute to perform animal studies of our eye drop formulation of nanoviricides against viral EKC (viral Epidemic Kerato-conjunctivitis) in March, 2008. The first EKC-CideTM-I animal study was completed in June, 2008. Biochemical testing of the samples is continuing. The study indicated that the best nanoviricide drug candidate showed excellent clearance of clinical signs of the disease, viz. redness of the eye as well as sticky exudates, in a short time after treatment. We have received significant interest from certain Pharmaceutical companies in this drug candidate.

On May 6, 2009, the Company entered into a Clinical Study Agreement with THEVAC, LLC, a company affiliated with the Emerging Technology Center of the Louisiana State University. At present, TheVac is performing biological testing of anti-herpes nanoviricides. TheVac is conducting studies on the effect of anti-herpes nanoviricide drug candidates against herpes cold sores and genital herpes in cell culture models. In addition, TheVac is also conducting studies on the effect of anti-herpes nanoviricides drug candidates in a mouse model of herpes keratitis. Professor Gus Kousoulas and his team at Louisiana State University have validated and published on this animal model extensively in peer-reviewed scientific journals.

On May 13, 2010, the Company announced that it had entered into a Research and Development Agreement with Professor Ken Rosenthal Lab at NEOUCOM (now called NEOMED). Professor Rosenthal has developed in vitro or cell culture based tests for identifying the effectiveness of antiviral agents against HSV. He has also developed a skin lesion mouse model for HSV infection. Dr. Rosenthal has been involved in the evaluation of HSV vaccines as well as anti-HSV drugs. His laboratory has developed an improved mouse model of skin-infection with HSV to follow the disease progression. This model has been shown to provide highly uniform and reproducible results. A uniform disease pattern including onset of lesions and further progression to zosteriform lesions is observed in all animals in this model. This uniformity makes it an ideal model for comparative testing of various drug candidates. Dr. Rosenthal is a professor of microbiology, immunology and biochemistry at Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy (NEOUCOM). He is a leading researcher in the field of herpes viruses. His research interests encompass several aspects of how herpes simplex virus (HSV) interacts with the host to cause disease. His research has addressed how HSV infects skin cells and examined viral properties that facilitate its virulence and ability to cause encephalitis. In addition, Dr. Rosenthal has also been studying a viral protein that makes the HSV more virulent by helping the virus to take over the cellular machinery to make copies of its various parts, assemble these parts together into virus particles and release the virus to infect other cells. He is also researching how the human host immune response works against HSV for the development of protective and therapeutic vaccines.

On August 16, 2010, the Company reported that its anti-Herpes drug candidates demonstrated significant efficacy in the recently completed cell culture studies in Dr. Rosenthal Lab at NEOUCOM. Several of the anti-Herpes nanoviricides® demonstrated a dose-dependent maximal inhibition of Herpes virus infectivity in a cell culture model. Almost complete inhibition of the virus production was observed at clinically usable concentrations. These studies employed the H129 strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). H129 is an encephalitic strain that closely resembles a clinical isolate; it is known to be more virulent than classic HSV-1 laboratory strains. The H129 strain will be used in subsequent animal testing of nanoviricides.

On May 17, 2010, the Company announced that it had signed a research and development agreement with the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), for the testing of its anti-HIV drug candidates. Cheryl Stoddart, PhD, Assistant Professor in the UCSF Division of Experimental Medicine, will be the Principal Investigator. Dr. Stoddart is a recognized investigator in preclinical studies of anti-HIV compounds using the standard SCID-hu Thy/Liv humanized mouse model. In particular, she is well known for her work in validating that this mouse model is capable of accurately predicting clinical antiviral efficacy in humans. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), a division of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), has recognized UCSF as an important site for anti-HIV drug screening studies. Dr. Stoddart's in-vivo testing of anti-HIV nanoviricides will complement the Company's previously announced in-vitro anti-HIV testing that is ongoing at the Southern Research Institute in Frederick, MD. Their expertise is in the testing of oral anti-HIV drugs. They need to implement successfully, protocols for injectable anti-HIV drug testing. Currently the Company's anti-HIV injectables animal testing is performed by KARD Scientific.

On February 16, 2010, the Company announced that it had signed a research and development agreement with Dr. Eva Harris's laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley). Under this agreement, Dr. Harris and coworkers will evaluate the effectiveness of nanoviricides® drug candidates against various dengue viruses. Cell culture models as well as in vivo animal studies will be employed for testing the drug candidates. Dr. Eva Harris is a Professor of Infectious Diseases at UC Berkeley. She is a leading researcher in the field of dengue. Her group has developed a unique animal model for dengue virus infection and disease that effectively emulates the pathology seen in humans. In particular, the critical problem of dengue virus infection, called "Antibody-Dependent Enhancement" (ADE), is reproduced in this animal model. When a person who was previously infected with one serotype of dengue virus is later infected by a different serotype, the antibodies produced by the immune system can lead to increased severity of the second dengue infection, instead of controlling it. ADE thus can lead to severe dengue disease or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF).

Subsequent Event.

Management performed an evaluation of the Company's activity through the date these financials were issued to determine if they must be reported. The Management of the Company determined that there were the following reportable subsequent events to be disclosed:

Amendments to Articles of Incorporation or Bylaws; Change in Fiscal Year.

1. The Company filed a Certificate of Change to its Articles of Incorporation pursuant to Section 78.209 of the Nevada Revised Statutes (the "Amendment") on September 3, 2013 to effectuate the Company's reverse stock split on a 1 for 3.5 basis, effective September 10, 2013. The Amendment effectuated the split by simultaneously decreasing the number of the Company's authorized and outstanding capital stock on a basis of 1 for 3.5 shares (the "Split"). Accordingly, upon effectiveness of the Split, the Company's authorized capital stock shall consist of (i) 85,714,286 shares of Common Stock and (ii) 5,714,286 blank check preferred shares, par value $0.001 (the "Preferred Stock"), of which approximately 46,854,239 shares of Common Stock and 2,820,572 shares of Preferred Stock were outstanding.

The Registrant elected to effectuate the Split in order that the price of the Common Stock qualify for listing on a national securities exchange. The Amendment was unanimously approved by the Board of Directors so that the Common Stock would comply with such listing requirement.

2. On September 9, 2013, subsequent to the Split, the Company entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement (the "Agreement") with certain purchasers (the "Purchasers"), relating to the offering and sale (the "Offering") of units ("Units") at the aggregate purchase price of $3.50 ("Purchase Price") per Unit, consisting of one share of the Company's common stock, par value $0.001 per share (the "Common Stock") and a warrant to purchase one share of Common Stock ("Warrant"), issuable upon exercise of the Warrant at the exercise price of $5.25 per share (the "Warrant Shares", collectively with the Units, Common Stock and Warrant, the "Securities") The Warrants are exercisable immediately and expire five years after issuance.

On September 12, 2013, the Company and the Purchasers consummated the purchase and sale of the Securities (the "Closing"), and the Company raised gross proceeds of $10,308,996 before estimated expenses of the Offering of approximately $668,540, which includes placement agent and attorneys' fees.

In connection with the Offering, pursuant to a Placement Agency Agreement dated September 9, 2013 among Midtown Partners & Co., LLC and Chardan Capital Markets, LLC (collectively, the "Placement Agents"), the Company paid the Placement Agents an aggregate cash fee representing 6% (3% each) of the gross Purchase Price paid by the Purchasers and warrants to purchase an aggregate of 2% (1% each) of the number of shares of Common Stock sold in the Offering (the "Compensation Warrants") representing two percent of the Shares and substantially similar to the Warrants, at an exercise price equal to $5.25 per share. The Compensation Warrants will otherwise comply with FINRA Rule 5110(g)(1) in that for a period of six months after the issuance date of the Compensation Warrants, neither the Compensation Warrants nor any warrant shares issued upon exercise of the compensation warrants shall be sold, transferred, assigned, pledged, or hypothecated, or be the subject of any hedging, short sale, derivative, put, or call transaction that would result in the effective economic disposition of the securities by any person for a period of 180 days immediately following the Closing.

On September 25, 2013, the Company's Common Stock was listed and began trading on the NYSE MKT national exchange, and its trading was concomitantly terminated on OTCBB.

The Company's Drug Pipeline

Management believes that it has achieved significant milestones in the development of a number of antiviral nanoviricide drug candidates. We now have six high efficacy lead drug candidates against five commercially important diseases, namely, All Influenza viruses ((1) Injectable FluCide for hospitalized patients, and (2) Oral FluCide for the rest of the patients), (3) HIV (HIVCide-I), (4) Nanoviricide Eye Drops for Viral Infections of the External Eye, (5) HerpeCide™, a nanoviricide against Herpes "Cold Sores" and genital herpes, and (6) DengueCide™, a designated Orphan Drug against Dengue viruses. Further, the Company has identified highly active nanoviricide drug candidates against Ebola/Marburg, and against Rabies. In addition, the Company has also established the technology feasibility for (a) broad-spectrum nanoviricides, and
(b) Just-in-Time ADIF™ technology; both of which are well suited for stockpiling to defend against known as well as novel infectious diseases.

The Company has not yet performed detailed safety profile studies to be included in a "Tox Package" for submission to the FDA for any of our drug candidates. Our studies regarding safety of the various nanoviricide drug candidates to date have been preliminary and of a limited nature.

Management's beliefs are based on results of pre-clinical cell culture studies and in vivo animal studies using small animals such as various types of specially engineered mice and rabbits, as appropriate.

The Company thus has a strong and growing drug pipeline to take us several years into the future. The Company already has technologies in development that promise to yield even better drugs against various diseases as the drugs we are developing now approach their product end of lifecycle.

It should be noted that all of our studies to date were preliminary. Thus, the evidence we have developed is indicative, but not considered confirmative, of the capabilities of the nanoviricides technology's potential. With the success of these preliminary studies, the Company has decided to perform further pre-clinical studies that validate safety and efficacy of its materials and its various anti-viral drugs. Management intends to use capital and debt financing to enable the completion of these goals.

The Company continued its organizational efforts and has signed or is in the process of obtaining several new agreements and contracts that are expected to have a significant positive impact for us in the near future. In addition, the Company has improved its anti-influenza drug candidates further. The Company has now declared a clinical candidate against influenza. The Company anticipates that this single drug will be effective against all influenza viruses. The Company is developing this drug as an Injectable FluCide for hospitalized, severely ill, patients, and as an Oral FluCide for the rest of the patients. We plan on conducting testing of these two FluCide drugs against a number of different influenza virus strains in the very near future. In addition, the Company has further optimized the ligands for use in its anti-HIV drug program, and continues to optimize the resulting nanoviricides under the HIVCide program. The Company's DengueCide drug candidate has been designated as an Orphan Drug against Dengue by the US FDA. As a result, plan on actively undertaking its further development towards an IND. In addition, we are optimizing the anti-HSV drug candidates in the HerpeCide drug program. In addition, we are developing a nearly "universal"antiviral drug for the viral infections of the external eye, which will be informed by our EKC and HSV drug development activities. The Company is getting closer to realizing large scale production of our drug candidates as needed for the Tox Package studies of the two FluCide drugs. In addition, the Company is also getting closer to realizing a cGMP capable pilot scale manufacturing facility to enable human clinical drug substance manufacture for any of its nanoviricides drug candidates. Thus, the Company has made a significant level of progress and has achieved significant accomplishments this year.

Requirement for Additional Capital

As of June 30, 2013, we have a cash and cash equivalent balance of $13,923,245 which combined with the approximately $10.3M raised through a registered direct offering after the close of the Company's year-end, will be sufficient to fund our currently budgeted operations for the next twenty four months.

We believe we currently have sufficient funds on hand to take a drug candidate into human clinical trials. We believe we will be pursuing injectable FlucideTM as our first drug candidate for an IND and for initiating human clinical trials. We estimate that we may need approximately an additional $10M to $15M for human clinical development of the oral FluCide and DengueCide drug candidates towards IND filing over the next 36-48 months. The additional funds will also be needed to pay additional personnel, increased subcontract costs related to the expansion and further development of our drug pipeline, and for additional capital and operational expenditures required to file the corresponding IND applications.

Further, we anticipate incurring additional capital costs in the upcoming eighteen months to construct or obtain facilities to support an initial new drug application filing with the FDA in accordance with our business plans. The Company has arranged for enabling cGMP production of its nanoviricides for the upcoming clinical studies without incurring substantial capital costs. A separate privately held company, Inno-Haven, LLC, raised funds privately to acquire a building in Shelton, CT. Inno-Haven has raised additional funds from private sources, and expects to raise the necessary capital to perform total renovation and enable modern laboratory facilities and kg-scale pilot cGMP facility in this space.

We anticipate that we will incur the following additional expenses over the next 24 months.

1. Research and Development of $10,000,000: Planned costs for in-vivo and in-vitro studies for pan-influenza Injectable and Oral FluCide, Eye nanoviricide, HIVCide, HerpeCide, DengueCide, and Ebola/Marburg and Rabies programs, and planned costs for Phase I and Phase IIa human clinical trials of our injectable FlucideTM drug.

2. Corporate overhead of $2,000,000: This amount includes budgeted office salaries, legal, accounting, investor relations, public relations, and other costs expected to be incurred by being a public reporting company.

3. Capital costs of $2,000,000: This is the estimated cost for equipment and laboratory improvements..

4. Staffing costs of $2,000,000: This is the estimated cost of hiring additional scientific staff and consulting firms to assist with FDA compliance, material characterization, pharmaco-kinetic, pharmaco-dynamic and toxicology studies, and other items related to FDA compliance, as required for development of necessary data for filing an Investigational New Drug with the United States Food and Drug Administration.

In March, 2010, the Company filed a Form S-3 Shelf Registration with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") (No. 333-165221), filed for the sale from time to time of up to $40 million of the Company's securities. The registration statement became effective on April 29, 2010. Under this Shelf Registration, as of October 26, 2012, the Company had sold shares of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock, Series C Convertible Preferred Stock and common stock for an aggregate offering price of $22,500,000, leaving a balance of unsold securities with an aggregate offering price of $17,500,000. The Company filed an additional registration statement on Form S-3 on October 26, 2012 (No. 333-184626). The Company amended the Registration Statement on December 3, 2012, to include the unsold securities of the prior registration statement in the amount of $17,500,000, so that the total amount of securities registered was equal to $57,500,000.

Subsequent to the reporting period, pursuant to the registered direct offering dated September 9, 2013, the Company consummated a further draw down of $10.33 corresponding to the shares issued and an additional approximately $15.5M corresponding to the warrants issued. This leaves a balance of unsold securities . . .

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