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NKSH > SEC Filings for NKSH > Form 10-Q on 8-Aug-2013All Recent SEC Filings

Show all filings for NATIONAL BANKSHARES INC



Quarterly Report

Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

$ in thousands, except per share data

The purpose of this discussion and analysis is to provide information about the financial condition and results of operations of National Bankshares, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries (the "Company"), which are not otherwise apparent from the consolidated financial statements and other information included in this report. Please refer to the financial statements and other information included in this report as well as the 2012 Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for an understanding of the following discussion and analysis.

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

We make forward-looking statements in this Form 10-Q that are subject to significant risks and uncertainties. These forward-looking statements include statements regarding our profitability, liquidity, allowance for loan losses, interest rate sensitivity, market risk, growth strategy, and financial and other goals, and are based upon our management's views and assumptions as of the date of this report. The words "believes," "expects," "may," "will," "should," "projects," "contemplates," "anticipates," "forecasts," "intends," or other similar words or terms are intended to identify forward-looking statements.

These forward-looking statements are based upon or are affected by factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from historical results or from any results expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. These factors include, but are not limited to, changes in:

? interest rates,

? general economic conditions,

? the legislative/regulatory climate,

? monetary and fiscal policies of the U.S. Government, including policies of the U.S. Treasury, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, and the impact of any policies or programs implemented pursuant to the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 ("EESA") the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (the "Dodd-Frank Act") and other financial reform legislation,

? unanticipated increases in the level of unemployment in the Company's trade area,

? the quality or composition of the loan and/or investment portfolios,

? demand for loan products,

? deposit flows,

? competition,

? demand for financial services in the Company's trade area,

? the real estate market in the Company's trade area,

? the Company's technology initiatives,

? threats from technology based frauds and scams,

? loss or retirement of key executives,

? adverse changes in the securities market, and

? applicable accounting principles, policies and guidelines.

These risks and uncertainties should be considered in evaluating the forward-looking statements contained in this report. We caution readers not to place undue reliance on those statements, which speak only as of the date of this report. This discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the description of our "Risk Factors" in Item 1A. of our 2012 Annual Report on Form 10-K/A.

The recession continues to impact the national economy as well as the Company's market. Signs of economic recovery are mixed with continued high unemployment and diminished real estate values. The Company's trade area contains a diverse economy that includes large public colleges and universities, which somewhat insulated the Company's market from the dramatic declines in real estate values seen in some other areas of the country. Real estate values in the Company's market area saw moderate declines in 2009 and 2010 that appeared to stabilize in 2011, 2012 and in the first half of 2013. If the economic recovery wavers or reverses, it is likely that unemployment will continue at higher-than-normal levels or rise in the Company's trade area. Because of the importance to the Company's markets of state-funded universities, cutbacks in the funding provided by the State as a result of the recession could also negatively impact employment. This could lead to an even higher rate of delinquent loans and a greater number of real estate foreclosures. Higher unemployment and the fear of layoffs causes reduced consumer demand for goods and services, which negatively impacts the Company's business and professional customers. A slow economic recovery could have an adverse effect on all financial institutions, including the Company.

Critical Accounting Policies


The Company's financial statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (GAAP). The financial information contained within our statements is, to a significant extent, financial information that is based on measures of the financial effects of transactions and events that have already occurred. A variety of factors could affect the ultimate value that is obtained when earning income, recognizing an expense, recovering an asset or relieving a liability. The Company uses historical loss rates as one factor in determining the inherent loss that may be present in the loan portfolio. Actual losses could differ significantly from one previously acceptable method to another method. Although the economics of the Company's transactions would be the same, the timing of events that would impact the transactions could change.

Allowance for Loan Losses

The allowance for loan losses is an accrual of estimated losses that have been sustained in our loan portfolio. The allowance is reduced by charge-offs of loans and increased by the provision for loan losses and recoveries of previously charged-off loans. The determination of the allowance is based on two accounting principles, Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") Topic 450-20 (Contingencies) which requires that losses be accrued when occurrence is probable and the amount of the loss is reasonably estimable, and ASC Topic 310-10 (Receivables) which requires accrual of losses on impaired loans if the recorded investment exceeds fair value.

Probable losses are accrued through two calculations, individual evaluation of impaired loans and collective evaluation of the remainder of the portfolio. Impaired loans are larger non-homogeneous loans for which there is a probability that collection will not occur according to the loan terms, as well as loans whose terms have been modified in a troubled debt restructuring. Impaired loans with an estimated impairment loss are placed on nonaccrual status.

Impaired loans

Impaired loans are identified through the Company's credit risk rating process. Estimated loss for an impaired loan is the amount of recorded investment that exceeds the loan's fair value. Fair value of an impaired loan is measured by one of three methods: the fair value of collateral ("collateral method"), the present value of future cash flows ("cash flow method"), or observable market price. The Company applies the collateral method to collateral-dependent loans, loans for which foreclosure is eminent and to loans for which the fair value of collateral is a more reliable estimate of fair value. The cash flow method is applied to loans that are not collateral dependent and for which cash flows may be estimated.

The Company bases collateral method fair valuation upon the "as-is" value of independent appraisals or evaluations. Valuations for impaired loans with outstanding principal balances of $250 or more are based on a current appraisal. Appraisals are also used to value impaired loans with principal balances of $100 or greater and secured by one piece of collateral. Collateral-method impaired loans with principal balances below $100, or if secured by multiple pieces of collateral, below $250, are valued using an internal evaluation.

Appraisals and internal valuations provide an estimate of market value. Appraisals must conform to the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice ("USPAP") and are prepared by an independent third-party appraiser who is certified and licensed and who is approved by the Company. Appraisals incorporate market analysis, comparable sales analysis, cash flow analysis and market data pertinent to the property to determine market value. Internal evaluations are prepared and reviewed by employees of the Company who are independent of the loan origination, operation, management and collection functions. Evaluations provide a property's market value based on the property's current physical condition and characteristics and the economic market conditions that affect the collateral's market value. Evaluations incorporate multiple sources of data to arrive at a property's market value, including physical inspection, tax values, independent third-party automated tools, comparable sales analysis and local market information.

Updated appraisals or evaluations are ordered when the loan becomes impaired if the appraisal or evaluation on file is more than twelve months old. Appraisals and evaluations are reviewed for propriety and reasonableness and may be discounted if the Company determines that the value exceeds reasonable levels. If an updated appraisal or evaluation has been ordered but has not been received by a reporting date, the fair value may be based on the most recent available appraisal or evaluation, discounted for age.

The appraisal or evaluation value for a collateral-dependent loan for which recovery is expected solely from the sale of collateral is reduced by estimated selling costs. Estimated losses on collateral-dependent loans, as well as any other impairment loss considered uncollectible, are charged against the allowance for loan losses. For loans that are not collateral dependent, the impairment loss is accrued in the allowance. Impaired loans with partial charge-offs are maintained as impaired until the remaining balance is satisfied. Smaller homogeneous impaired loans that are not troubled debt restructurings or part of a larger impaired relationship are collectively evaluated.

Troubled debt restructurings are impaired loans and are measured for impairment under the same valuation methods as other impaired loans. Troubled debt restructurings are maintained in nonaccrual status until the loan has demonstrated reasonable assurance of repayment with at least six months of consecutive timely payment performance, unless the impairment measurement indicates a loss. Troubled debt restructurings with impairment losses remain in nonaccrual status.

Collectively-evaluated loans

Non-impaired loans and smaller homogeneous impaired loans that are not troubled debt restructurings and not part of a larger impaired relationship are grouped by portfolio segments that are made up of smaller loan classes. Loans within a segment or class have similar risk characteristics.

Beginning January 1, 2013, the Company segregated certain loans that were included within the classes of the Residential Real Estate segment, including Equity lines, Residential closed-end first liens and Residential closed-end junior liens. The newly-segregated loans are secured by residential real estate collateral that is owned by investors and for which the primary repayment source is rental income. The new class in the Residential Real Estate segment allows the Company to address credit risks characteristic of investor-owned residential real estate. Segregating the investor-owned residential real estate did not have a significant impact on the calculation of the allowance for loan losses. Consistent with accounting guidance, prior periods have not been restated and are shown as originally published using the segments and classes in effect for the period.

Probable loss is determined by applying historical net charge-off rates as well as additional percentages for trends and current levels of quantitative and qualitative factors. Loss rates are calculated for and applied to individual classes and encompass losses for the current year and the previous year. The Company utilizes a two-year "look-back period", by averaging loss rates from the current year and the previous year to apply to current collectively-evaluated classes. Calculations made for quarterly reporting use the annualized current-year loss rate averaged with the loss rate from the previous year. The look-back period is the same for all classes and segments, and for all periods reported.

Beginning with the first quarter of 2013, two loss rates for each class are calculated: total net charge-offs for the class as a percentage of average class loan balance ("class loss rate"), and total net charge-offs for the class as a percentage of average classified loans in the class ("classified loss rate"). Classified loans are those with risk ratings of "substandard" or higher. Net charge-offs in both calculations include charge-offs and recoveries of classified and non-classified loans as well as those associated with impaired loans. Class historical loss rates are applied to non-classified loan balances at the reporting date, and classified historical loss rates are applied to classified balances at the reporting date.

Trends and current levels of qualitative factors are evaluated and allocations are applied to each class. Delinquency rates, loan quality and concentrations are evaluated for individual classes, while factors for loan officers' experience, changes in lending policies and changes in the loan review process are evaluated on a general level. Economic factors such as unemployment rates, bankruptcy rates and others are also evaluated, with standard allocations applied consistently to relevant classes.

The Company accrues additional estimated loss for criticized loans within each class and for loans designated high risk. High risk loans are defined as junior lien mortgages, loans with high loan-to-value ratios and loans with terms that require only interest payments. Both criticized loans and high risk loans are included in the base risk analysis for each class and are allocated additional reserves.

Estimation of the allowance for loan losses

The estimation of the allowance involves analysis of internal and external variables, methodologies, assumptions and our judgment and experience. Key judgments used in determining the allowance for loan losses include internal risk rating determinations, market and collateral values, discount rates, loss rates, and our view of current economic conditions. These judgments are inherently subjective and our actual losses could be greater or less than the estimate. Future estimates of the allowance could increase or decrease based on changes in the financial condition of individual borrowers, concentrations of various types of loans, economic conditions or the markets in which collateral may be sold. The estimate of the allowance accrual determines the amount of provision expense and directly affects our financial results.

The estimate of the allowance for June 30, 2013 considered market and portfolio conditions during the first six months of 2013 as well as the elevated levels of delinquencies and net charge-offs in 2012. Given the continued economic difficulties, the ultimate amount of loss could vary from that estimate. For additional discussion of the allowance, see Note 4 to the financial statements and "Asset Quality," and "Provision and Allowance for Loan Losses."

Goodwill and Core Deposit Intangibles

Goodwill is subject to at least an annual assessment for impairment by applying a fair value based test. The Company performs impairment testing in the fourth quarter of each year. The Company's most recent impairment test was performed in the fourth quarter of 2012. Accounting guidance provides the option of performing preliminary assessment of qualitative factors before performing more substantial testing for impairment. The Company opted not to perform the preliminary assessment. The Company's goodwill impairment analysis considered three valuation techniques appropriate to the measurement. The first technique uses the Company's market capitalization as an estimate of fair value; the second technique estimates fair value using current market pricing multiples for companies comparable to the Company; while the third technique uses current market pricing multiples for change-of-control transactions involving companies comparable to the Company. Each measure indicated that the Company's fair value exceeded its book value, validating that goodwill is not impaired.

Certain key judgments were used in the valuation measurement. Goodwill is held by the Company's bank subsidiary. The bank subsidiary is 100% owned by the Company, and no market capitalization is available. Because most of the Company's assets are comprised of the subsidiary bank's equity, the Company's market capitalization was used to estimate the Bank's market capitalization. Other judgments include the assumption that the companies and transactions used as comparables for the second and third technique were appropriate to the estimate of the Company's fair value, and that the comparable multiples are appropriate indicators of fair value, and compliant with accounting guidance.

Acquired intangible assets (such as core deposit intangibles) are recognized separately from goodwill if the benefit of the asset can be sold, transferred, licensed, rented, or exchanged, and amortized over its useful life. The Company amortizes intangible assets arising from branch transactions over their useful life. Core deposit intangibles are subject to a recoverability test based on undiscounted cash flows, and to the impairment recognition and measurement provisions required for other long-lived assets held and used. The impairment testing showed that the expected cash flows of the intangible assets exceeded the carrying value.


National Bankshares, Inc. ("NBI") is a financial holding company incorporated under the laws of Virginia. Located in southwest Virginia, NBI has two wholly-owned subsidiaries, the National Bank of Blacksburg ("NBB" or "the Bank") and National Bankshares Financial Services, Inc. ("NBFS"). NBB, which does business as National Bank from twenty-five office locations, is a community bank. NBB is the source of nearly all of the Company's revenue. NBFS does business as National Bankshares Investment Services and National Bankshares Insurance Services. Income from NBFS is not significant at this time, nor is it expected to be so in the near future.

NBI common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Capital Market and is traded under the symbol "NKSH." National Bankshares, Inc. has been included in the Russell Investments Russell 3000 and Russell 2000 Indexes since June 29, 2009.


NBB is community-oriented and offers a full range of retail and commercial banking services to individuals, small and mid-sized businesses, non-profits and local governments. Loan types include commercial and agricultural, commercial real estate, construction for commercial and residential properties, residential real estate, home equity and various consumer loan products. Of primary consideration in the Bank's decision to extend credit is the repayment ability of the borrowers and (if secured) the collateral value in relation to the principal balance. Collateral value lowers risk and may be used as a secondary source of repayment. The credit decision is supported by documentation appropriate to the type of loan, including current financial information, income verification or cash flow analysis, tax returns, credit reports, collateral information, guarantor verification, title reports, appraisals (where appropriate), and other documents. A discussion of underwriting policies and procedures specific to the major loan products follows.

Commercial and agricultural loans primarily finance equipment acquisition, expansion, working capital, and other general business purposes. Because these loans have a higher degree of risk, the Bank generally obtains collateral such as inventories, accounts receivables or equipment, and personal guarantees from the borrowing entity's principal owners. The Bank's policy limits lending to 60% of the appraised value for inventory and equipment and up to 70% for accounts receivables less than 90 days old. Credit decisions are based upon an assessment of the financial capacity of the applicant, including the primary borrower's ability to repay within proposed terms, a risk assessment, financial strength of guarantors and adequacy of collateral. Credit agency reports of individual owners' credit history supplement the analysis.

Commercial mortgages and construction loans are offered to investors, developers and builders, primarily within the Bank's market area in southwest Virginia. These loans are secured by first mortgages on real estate. The loan amount is generally limited to 80% of the collateral value, and is individually determined based on the property type, quality, location and sponsorship. Commercial properties include retail centers, apartments, and industrial properties.

Underwriting decisions are based upon an analysis of the economic viability of the collateral and creditworthiness of the borrower. The Bank obtains appraisals from qualified certified independent appraisers to establish the value of collateral properties. The property's projected net cash flows compared to the debt service requirement (the "debt service coverage ratio" or "DSC" ratio) is required to be 110% or greater, and is computed after deduction for a vacancy factor and property expenses, as appropriate. Borrower cash flow may be supplemented by a personal guarantee from the principal(s) of the borrower, and guarantees from other parties. The Bank requires title insurance, fire, and extended coverage casualty insurance, and flood insurance, if appropriate, in order to protect the security interest in the underlying property. In addition, the Bank may employ stress testing techniques on higher balance loans to determine repayment ability in a changing rate environment before granting loan approval.

Construction loans are underwritten against projected cash flows from rental income, business and/or personal income from an owner-occupant or the sale of the property to an end-user. Associated risks may be mitigated by requiring fixed-price construction contracts, performance and payment bonding, controlled disbursements, and pre-sale contracts or pre-lease agreements.

The Bank offers a variety of first mortgage and junior lien loans secured by 1-4 family residences to individuals within our markets. Credit decisions are primarily based on loan-to-value ("LTV") ratios, debt-to-income ("DTI") ratios, liquidity, net worth, and DSC ratios. Income and financial information is obtained from personal tax returns, personal financial statements and employment documentation. A maximum LTV ratio of 80% is generally required, although higher levels are permitted with mortgage insurance. The debt-to-income ratio is limited to 40% of gross income.

Consumer real estate mortgages may have fixed interest rates for the entire term of the loan or variable interest rates subject to change yearly after the first, third, or fifth year. Variable rates are based on the weekly average yield of United States Treasury Securities and are underwritten at fully-indexed rates. We do not offer consumer real estate interest-only loans, sub-prime loans, or any variation on sub-prime lending including hybrid loans and payment option ARMs, or any product with negative amortization. Sub-prime loans involve extending credit to borrowers who exhibit characteristics indicating a significantly higher risk of default than traditional bank lending customers. Hybrid loans are loans that start out as a fixed rate mortgage but after a set number of years automatically adjust to an adjustable rate mortgage. Payment option ARMs usually have adjustable rates, for which borrowers choose their monthly payment of either a full payment, interest only, or a minimum payment which may be lower than the payment required to reduce the balance of the loan in accordance with the originally underwritten amortization.

Home equity loans are secured primarily by second mortgages on residential property. The underwriting policy for home equity loans generally permits aggregate (the total of all liens secured by the collateral property) borrowing availability up to 80% of the appraised value of the collateral. We offer variable rate home equity loans, with variable rate loans underwritten at fully-indexed rates. Decisions are primarily based on LTV ratios, DTI ratios and liquidity. We do not offer home equity loan products with reduced documentation.

Automobile loans include loans secured by new or used automobiles. Automobile loans are originated either on a direct basis or on an indirect basis through selected dealerships. We require borrowers to maintain collision insurance on automobiles securing consumer loans. Our procedures for underwriting automobile loans include an assessment of an applicant's overall financial capacity, including credit history and the ability to meet existing obligations and payments on the proposed loan. Although an applicant's creditworthiness is the primary consideration, the underwriting process also includes a comparison of the value of the collateral security to the proposed loan amount.

Performance Summary

The following table presents the Company's key performance ratios for the six months ended June 30, 2013 and the year ended December 31, 2012. The measures for June 30, 2013 are annualized, except for basic earnings per share and fully diluted earnings per share.

                                    June 30,      December 31,
                                     2013             2012
Return on average assets                 1.59 %            1.64 %
Return on average equity                11.42 %           12.01 %
Basic earnings per share           $     1.25     $        2.56
Fully diluted earnings per share   $     1.24     $        2.55
Net interest margin (1)                  4.27 %            4.38 %
Noninterest margin (2)                   1.44 %            1.36 %

(1) Net interest margin: Year-to-date tax-equivalent net interest income divided by year-to-date average earning assets.

(2) Noninterest margin: Noninterest expense (excluding the provision for bad debts and income taxes) less noninterest income (excluding securities gains and losses) divided by average year-to-date assets.

The annualized return on average assets declined 5 basis points for the six months ended June 30, 2013 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2012, due primarily to growth in average assets. The annualized return on average equity declined 59 basis points for the same period.

The annualized net interest margin was 4.27% for the first half of 2013, down 11 basis points from the 4.38% reported for the year ended December 31, 2012. The primary factor driving the decrease in the net interest margin was the declining yield on earning assets offset by a smaller decline in the cost to fund earning assets.

The annualized noninterest margin increased 8 basis points from the year ended December 31, 2012 primarily because of a decrease in noninterest income. Please refer to the discussion under noninterest expense for further information.


NBI's key growth indicators are shown in the following table.

                             June 30, 2013       December 31, 2012      Percent Change
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