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CVI > SEC Filings for CVI > Form 10-Q on 2-Aug-2013All Recent SEC Filings

Show all filings for CVR ENERGY INC

Form 10-Q for CVR ENERGY INC


2-Aug-2013

Quarterly Report


Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes and with the statistical information and financial data appearing in this Report, as well as our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2012 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") on March 14, 2013. Results of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2013 are not necessarily indicative of results to be attained for any other period.

Forward-Looking Statements

This Report, including this Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, contains "forward-looking statements" as defined by the SEC. Such statements are those concerning contemplated transactions and strategic plans, expectations and objectives for future operations. These include, without limitation:


statements, other than statements of historical fact, that address activities, events or developments that we expect, believe or anticipate will or may occur in the future;


statements relating to future financial performance, future capital sources and other matters; and


any other statements preceded by, followed by or that include the words "anticipates," "believes," "expects," "plans," "intends," "estimates," "projects," "could," "should," "may," or similar expressions.

Although we believe that our plans, intentions and expectations reflected in or suggested by the forward-looking statements we make in this Report, including this Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, are reasonable, we can give no assurance that such plans, intentions or expectations will be achieved. These statements are based on assumptions made by us based on our experience and perception of historical trends, current conditions, expected future developments and other factors that we believe are appropriate in the circumstances. Such statements are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control. You are cautioned that any such statements are not guarantees of future performance and actual results or developments may differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including but not limited to those set forth in the summary risks noted below:


change in control;


volatile margins in the refining industry;


exposure to the risks associated with volatile crude oil prices;


the availability of adequate cash and other sources of liquidity for our capital needs;


our ability to forecast our future financial condition or results of operations and our future revenues and expenses;


disruption of our ability to obtain an adequate supply of crude oil;


interruption of the pipelines supplying feedstock and in the distribution of our products;


competition in the petroleum and nitrogen fertilizer businesses;


capital expenditures and potential liabilities arising from environmental laws and regulations;


changes in our credit profile;


the cyclical nature of the nitrogen fertilizer business;


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the seasonal nature of the petroleum business;


the supply and price levels of essential raw materials;


the risk of a material decline in production at our refineries and nitrogen fertilizer plant;


potential operating hazards from accidents, fire, severe weather, floods or other natural disasters;


the risk associated with governmental policies affecting the agricultural industry;


the volatile nature of ammonia, potential liability for accidents involving ammonia that cause interruption to our businesses, severe damage to property and/or injury to the environment and human health and potential increased costs relating to the transport of ammonia;


the dependence of the nitrogen fertilizer operations on a few third-party suppliers, including providers of transportation services and equipment;


new regulations concerning the transportation of hazardous chemicals, risks of terrorism and the security of chemical manufacturing facilities;


our dependence on significant customers;


the potential loss of the nitrogen fertilizer business' transportation cost advantage over its competitors;


our potential inability to successfully implement our business strategies, including the completion of significant capital programs;


our ability to continue to license the technology used in our operations;


our petroleum business' ability to purchase gasoline and diesel RINs on a timely and cost effective basis;


our petroleum business' continued ability to secure environmental and other governmental permits necessary for the operation of our business;


existing and proposed environmental laws and regulations, including those relating to climate change, alternative energy or fuel sources, and existing and future regulations related to the end-use and application of fertilizers;


refinery and nitrogen fertilizer facility operating hazards and interruptions, including unscheduled maintenance or downtime, and the availability of adequate insurance coverage;


instability and volatility in the capital and credit markets; and


potential exposure to underfunded pension obligations of affiliates as a member of the controlled group of Mr. Icahn.

All forward-looking statements contained in this Report speak only as of the date of this document. We undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances that occur after the date of this Report, or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as may be required by law.

Company Overview

We are a diversified holding company primarily engaged in the petroleum refining and nitrogen fertilizer manufacturing industries through our holdings in the Refining Partnership and the Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership. The Refining Partnership is an independent petroleum refiner and marketer of high value transportation fuels. The Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership produces nitrogen fertilizers in the


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form of ammonia and UAN. We own the general partner and a majority of the common units representing limited partner interests in each of the Refining Partnership and the Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership.

We operate under two business segments: petroleum and nitrogen fertilizer. Throughout the remainder of the document, our business segments are referred to as our "petroleum business" and our "nitrogen fertilizer business," respectively.

Petroleum business. The petroleum business consists of our interest in the Refining Partnership. At June 30, 2013, we owned the general partner and approximately 71% of the common units of the Refining Partnership. The petroleum business consists of a 115,000 bpd complex full coking medium-sour crude oil refinery in Coffeyville, Kansas and a 70,000 bpd medium complexity crude oil unit refinery in Wynnewood, Oklahoma capable of processing 20,000 bpd of light sour crude oil (within its 70,000 bpd capacity). In addition, its supporting businesses include (1) a crude oil gathering system with a gathering capacity of approximately 50,000 bpd serving Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Missouri and Texas,
(2) a rack marketing business supplying refined petroleum product through tanker trucks directly to customers located in close geographic proximity to Coffeyville, Kansas and Wynnewood, Oklahoma and at throughput terminals on Magellan and NuStar's refined petroleum products distribution systems, (3) a 145,000 bpd pipeline system (supported by approximately 350 miles of Company owned and leased pipeline) that transports crude oil to the Coffeyville refinery and associated crude oil storage tanks with a capacity of 1.2 million barrels,
(4) crude oil storage tanks with a capacity of 0.5 million barrels in Wynnewood, Oklahoma, (5) 1.0 million barrels of company owned crude oil storage capacity in Cushing, Oklahoma, (6) an additional 3.3 million barrels of leased crude oil storage capacity located in Cushing and (7) approximately 4.5 million barrels of combined refinery related storage capacity.

The Coffeyville refinery is situated approximately 100 miles northeast of Cushing, Oklahoma, one of the largest crude oil trading and storage hubs in the United States and the Wynnewood refinery is approximately 130 miles southwest of Cushing. Cushing is supplied by numerous pipelines from U.S. domestic locations and Canada. The early June 2012 reversal of the Seaway pipeline that now flows from Cushing, Oklahoma to the U.S. Gulf Coast has eliminated the ability to source foreign waterborne crude oil, as well as deep water U.S. Gulf of Mexico produced sweet and sour crude oil grades. In addition to rack sales (sales which are made at terminals into third-party tanker trucks), Coffeyville makes bulk sales (sales through third-party pipelines) into the mid-continent markets and other destinations utilizing the product pipeline networks owned by Magellan, Enterprise, and NuStar.

Crude oil is supplied to the Coffeyville refinery through the gathering system and by a pipeline owned by Plains that runs from Cushing to its Broome Station tank farm. The petroleum business maintains capacity on the Spearhead and Keystone pipelines from Canada to Cushing. It also maintains leased and owned storage in Cushing to facilitate optimal crude oil purchasing and blending. The Coffeyville refinery blend consists of a combination of crude oil grades, including domestic grades and various Canadian medium and heavy sours and sweet synthetics. Crude oil is supplied to the Wynnewood refinery through two third-party pipelines operated by Sunoco Pipeline and Excel Pipeline and historically has mainly been sourced from Texas and Oklahoma. The Wynnewood refinery is capable of processing a variety of crudes, including WTS, WTI, sweet and sour Canadian and other U.S. domestically produced crude oils. The petroleum business expects to spend approximately $60.0 million on a hydrocracker project that will increase the conversion capability and the ULSD yield of the Wynnewood refinery. The access to a variety of crude oils coupled with the complexity of the refineries allows the petroleum business to purchase crude oil at a discount to WTI. The consumed crude oil cost discount to WTI for the second quarter of 2013 was $(2.90) per barrel compared to $(2.06) per barrel in the second quarter of 2012.


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Nitrogen fertilizer business. The nitrogen fertilizer business consists of our interest in the Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership. At June 30, 2013, we owned the general partner and approximately 53% of the common units of the Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership. The nitrogen fertilizer business consists of a nitrogen fertilizer manufacturing facility that is the only operation in North America that utilizes a petroleum coke, or pet coke, gasification process to produce nitrogen fertilizer. The facility includes a 1,225 ton-per-day ammonia unit, a 3,000 ton-per-day UAN unit and a gasifier complex having a capacity of 84 million standard cubic feet per day of hydrogen. The gasifier is a dual-train facility, with each gasifier able to function independently of the other, thereby providing redundancy and improving reliability. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2013, the nitrogen fertilizer business produced 91,318 and 202,670 tons of ammonia, respectively, of which approximately 100% and 86% was upgraded into 225,166 and 421,323 tons of UAN, respectively.

The Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership will continue to expand the nitrogen fertilizer business' existing asset base to execute its growth strategy. The Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership's growth strategy includes expanding production of UAN and acquiring additional infrastructure and production assets. The Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership recently completed a significant two-year plant expansion designed to increase its UAN production capacity by 400,000 tons, or approximately 50%, per year. The UAN expansion was completed in February 2013 and was at full rates prior to the end of the first quarter. The Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership now upgrades substantially all of the ammonia it produces into higher margin UAN fertilizer.

The primary raw material feedstock utilized in the nitrogen fertilizer production process is pet coke, which is produced during the crude oil refining process. In contrast, substantially all of the nitrogen fertilizer businesses' competitors use natural gas as their primary raw material feedstock. Historically, pet coke has been less expensive than natural gas on a per ton of fertilizer produced basis and pet coke prices have been more stable when compared to natural gas prices. The nitrogen fertilizer business currently purchases most of its pet coke from the Refining Partnership pursuant to a long-term agreement having an initial term that ends in 2027, subject to renewal. During 2012, the Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership entered into a pet coke supply agreement with HollyFrontier Corporation. The initial term ends in December 2013 and is subject to renewal. On average, during the past five years, over 70% of the pet coke utilized by the nitrogen fertilizer plant was produced and supplied by the Refining Partnership's crude oil refinery in Coffeyville.

Transaction Agreement

On April 18, 2012, CVR Energy entered into a Transaction Agreement (the "Transaction Agreement") with IEP Energy LLC and certain of its affiliates (collectively "IEP"). Pursuant to the Transaction Agreement, IEP offered (the "Offer") to purchase all of the issued and outstanding shares of CVR Energy's common stock for a price of $30.00 per share in cash, without interest, less any applicable withholding taxes, plus one non-transferable contingent cash payment ("CCP") right for each share, which represents the contractual right to receive an additional cash payment per share if a definitive agreement for the sale of CVR Energy is executed on or before August 18, 2013 and such transaction closes.

In May 2012, IEP acquired a majority of the common stock of CVR Energy through the Offer. As of June 30, 2013, IEP owned approximately 82% of CVR Energy's outstanding common stock.

Refining Partnership Initial Public Offering

On January 23, 2013, the Refining Partnership completed the Refining Partnership IPO. The Refining Partnership sold 24,000,000 common units to the public at a price of $25.00 per common unit, resulting in gross proceeds of $600.0 million. Additionally, on January 30, 2013, the Refining Partnership sold an additional 3,600,000 common units to the public at a price of $25.00 per common


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unit in connection with the exercise of the underwriters' option to purchase additional common units, resulting in gross proceeds of $90.0 million. The common units, which are listed on the NYSE, began trading on January 17, 2013 under the symbol "CVRR."

Prior to the Refining Partnership IPO, CVR owned 100% of the Refining Partnership and net income earned during this period was fully attributable to the Company. Following the Refining Partnership IPO and through May 19, 2013, CVR Energy indirectly owned approximately 81% of the Refining Partnership's outstanding common units and 100% of the Refining Partnership's general partner, which holds a non-economic general partner interest.

Refining Partnership Underwritten Offering

On May 20, 2013, the Refining Partnership completed the Underwritten Offering by selling 12,000,000 common units to the public at a price of $30.75 per unit. American Entertainment Properties Corporation ("AEPC"), an affiliate of Icahn Enterprises LP, also purchased an additional 2,000,000 common units at the public offering price in a privately negotiated transaction with a subsidiary of CVR Energy, which was completed on May 29, 2013. In connection with the Underwritten Offering, on June 10, 2013, the Refining Partnership sold an additional 1,209,236 common units to the public at a price of $30.75 per unit in connection with the exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional common units. The transactions described in this paragraph are collectively referred to as the "Transactions."

Following the closing of the Transactions and as of June 30, 2013, public security holders held 42,809,236 units representing approximately 29% of all outstanding Refining Partnership common units (including 6,000,000 units held by affiliates of Icahn Enterprises, representing approximately 4% of all outstanding Refining Partnership common units) and CVR Refining Holdings held 104,790,764 units representing approximately 71% of all outstanding Refining Partnership common units in addition to owning 100% of CVR Refining GP, LLC, the general partner.

The Refining Partnership utilized proceeds of approximately $394.0 million from the Underwritten Offering (including the underwriters' option) to redeem 13,209,236 common units from CVR Refining Holdings. The net proceeds to a subsidiary of CVR Energy from the sale of 2,000,000 common units to AEPC were approximately $61.5 million. The Refining Partnership did not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of common units by CVR Energy to AEPC. In connection with the Underwritten Offering, the Refining Partnership incurred approximately $0.4 million of offering expenses.

Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership Secondary Offering

On May 28, 2013, Coffeyville Resources, LLC ("CRLLC"), a wholly-owned subsidiary of CVR Energy, completed the Secondary Offering in which it sold 12,000,000 Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership common units to the public at a price of $25.15 per unit. Additionally, the underwriters were granted an option to purchase 1,800,000 common units at the public offering price, which expired unexercised at the end of the option period. The net proceeds to CRLLC from the Secondary Offering were approximately $292.6 million, after deducting approximately $9.2 million in underwriting discounts and commissions. The Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership did not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of common units by CRLLC. In connection with the Secondary Offering, the Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership incurred approximately $0.5 million of offering expenses.

Following the closing of the Secondary Offering and as of June 30, 2013, public security holders held 34,154,945 units representing approximately 47% of all outstanding Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership common units and CRLLC held 38,920,000 units representing approximately 53% of all outstanding Nitrogen Fertilizer Partnership common units in addition to owning 100% of CVR GP, LLC, the general partner.


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Major Influences on Results of Operations

Petroleum Business

The earnings and cash flows of the petroleum business are primarily affected by the relationship between refined product prices and the prices for crude oil and other feedstocks that are processed and blended into refined products. The cost to acquire crude oil and other feedstocks and the price for which refined products are ultimately sold depend on factors beyond its control, including the supply of and demand for crude oil, as well as gasoline and other refined products which, in turn, depend on, among other factors, changes in domestic and foreign economies, weather conditions, domestic and foreign political affairs, production levels, the availability of imports, the marketing of competitive fuels and the extent of government regulation. Because the petroleum business applies first-in, first-out ("FIFO") accounting to value its inventory, crude oil price movements may impact net income in the short term because of changes in the value of its unhedged on-hand inventory. The effect of changes in crude oil prices on our results of operations is influenced by the rate at which the prices of refined products adjust to reflect these changes.

The prices of crude oil and other feedstocks and refined product prices are also affected by other factors, such as product pipeline capacity, local market conditions and the operating levels of competing refineries. Crude oil costs and the prices of refined products have historically been subject to wide fluctuations. Widespread expansion or upgrades of competitors' facilities, price volatility, international political and economic developments and other factors are likely to continue to play an important role in refining industry economics. These factors can impact, among other things, the level of inventories in the market, resulting in price volatility and a reduction in product margins. Moreover, the refining industry typically experiences seasonal fluctuations in demand for refined products, such as increases in the demand for gasoline during the summer driving season and for home heating oil during the winter, primarily in the Northeast. In addition to current market conditions, there are long-term factors that may impact the demand for refined products. These factors include mandated renewable fuels standards, proposed climate change laws and regulations, and increased mileage standards for vehicles. The petroleum business is also subject to the EPA's Renewable Fuel Standard ("RFS"), which requires it to blend "renewable fuels" in with its transportation fuels or purchase renewable energy credits, known as renewable identification numbers ("RINs"), in lieu of blending.

The EPA is required to determine and publish the applicable annual renewable fuel percentage standards for each compliance year by November 30 for the forthcoming year. The percentage standards represent the ratio of renewable fuel volume to gasoline and diesel volume. The EPA has not yet finalized the 2013 renewable fuel percentage standard, but has proposed to raise it to approximately 9.6%. In 2013, the Wynnewood refinery became subject to the RFS for the first time, and the cost of RINs became extremely volatile and significantly higher than the cost during the comparable 2012 period. The cost of RINs for the year ended December 31, 2012 was approximately $21.0 million. The cost of RINs for the three and six months ended June 30, 2012 was approximately $6.0 million and $9.3 million, respectively, and the cost of RINs for the three and six months ended June 30, 2013 was approximately $65.5 million and $97.6 million, respectively. The petroleum business expects that the cost of RINs will continue to be substantially higher in 2013 as compared to 2012. The ultimate cost of RINs for the petroleum business in 2013 is difficult to estimate. In particular, the cost of RINs is dependent upon a variety of factors, which include the price at which RINs can be purchased, transportation fuel production levels, the mix of the petroleum business' petroleum products, as well as the fuel blending performed at its refineries, all of which can vary significantly from quarter to quarter. Based upon recent market prices of RINs and current estimates related to the other variable factors, the petroleum business estimates that the total cost of RINs will be approximately $200.0 million to $240.0 million for the year ending December 31, 2013.


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When the 2013 volume mandate is finalized by the EPA, if sufficient RINs are unavailable for purchase at times when the petroleum business seeks to purchase RINs, or if the petroleum business has to pay a significantly higher price for RINs or if the petroleum business is subject to penalties as a result of delays in its ability to timely deliver RINs to the EPA, its business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. Many petroleum refiners blend renewable fuel into their transportation fuels and do not have to pass on the costs of compliance through the purchase of RINs to their customers. Therefore, it may be significantly harder for the petroleum business to pass on the costs of compliance with RFS to its customers.

Because the cost of purchasing RINs has been extremely volatile and has significantly increased over the last year, the Wynnewood refinery will be petitioning the EPA as a "small refinery" for hardship relief from the RFS2 requirements in 2013 and 2014.

In order to assess the operating performance of the petroleum business, we compare net sales, less cost of product sold (exclusive of depreciation and amortization), or the refining margin, against an industry refining margin benchmark. The industry refining margin benchmark is calculated by assuming that two barrels of benchmark light sweet crude oil is converted into one barrel of conventional gasoline and one barrel of distillate. This benchmark is referred to as the 2-1-1 crack spread. Because we calculate the benchmark margin using the market value of NYMEX gasoline and heating oil against the market value of NYMEX WTI, we refer to the benchmark as the NYMEX 2-1-1 crack spread, or simply, the 2-1-1 crack spread. The 2-1-1 crack spread is expressed in dollars per barrel and is a proxy for the per barrel margin that a sweet crude oil refinery would earn assuming it produced and sold the benchmark production of gasoline and distillate.

Although the 2-1-1 crack spread is a benchmark for the refinery margin, because the refineries have certain feedstock costs and logistical advantages as compared to a benchmark refinery and their product yield is less than total refinery throughput, the crack spread does not account for all the factors that affect refinery margin. The Coffeyville refinery is able to process a blend of crude oil that includes quantities of heavy and medium sour crude oil that has historically cost less than WTI. The Wynnewood refinery has the capability to process blends of a variety of crude oil ranging from medium sour to light sweet crude oil, although isobutene, gasoline components, and normal butane are also typically used. We measure the cost advantage of the crude oil slate by calculating the spread between the price of the delivered crude oil and the price of WTI. The spread is referred to as the consumed crude oil differential. The refinery margin can be impacted significantly by the consumed crude oil differential. The consumed crude oil differential will move directionally with changes in the WTS differential to WTI and the WCS differential to WTI as both these differentials indicate the relative price of heavier, more sour, slate to WTI. The correlation between the consumed crude oil differential and published differentials will vary depending on the volume of light medium sour crude oil and heavy sour crude oil the petroleum business purchases as a percent of our total crude oil volume and will correlate more closely with such published differentials the heavier and more sour the crude oil slate.

The petroleum business produces a high volume of high value products, such . . .

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