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IXYS > SEC Filings for IXYS > Form 10-K on 14-Jun-2013All Recent SEC Filings

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Form 10-K for IXYS CORP /DE/


14-Jun-2013

Annual Report


Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

This discussion contains forward-looking statements, which are subject to certain risks and uncertainties, including, without limitation, those described elsewhere in this Form 10-K and, in particular, in Item 1A hereof. Actual results may differ materially from the results discussed in the forward-looking statements. For a discussion of risks that could affect future results, see "Item 1A. Risk Factors." All forward-looking statements included in this document are made as of the date hereof, based on the information available to us as of the date hereof, and we assume no obligation to update any forward-looking statement, except as may be required by law.

Overview

We are a multi-market integrated semiconductor company. Our three principal product groups are: power semiconductors; integrated circuits; and systems and RF power semiconductors.

Our power semiconductors improve system efficiency and reliability by converting electricity at relatively high voltage and current levels into the finely regulated power required by electronic products. We focus on the market for power semiconductors that are capable of processing greater than 200 watts of power.

We also design, manufacture and sell integrated circuits for a variety of applications. Our analog and mixed signal ICs are principally used in telecommunications applications. Our mixed-signal application specific ICs, or ASICs, address the requirements of the medical imaging equipment and display markets. Our power management and control ICs are used in conjunction with our power semiconductors. Our microcontrollers provide application specific, embedded system-on-chip, or SoC, solutions for the industrial and consumer markets.

Our systems include laser diode drivers, high voltage pulse generators and modulators, and high power subsystems, sometimes known as stacks, that are principally based on our high power semiconductor devices. Our RF power semiconductors enable circuitry that amplifies or receives radio frequencies in wireless and other microwave communication applications, medical imaging applications and defense and space applications.

During fiscal 2013, our revenues decreased by 23.9% from fiscal 2012 due to difficult sales environments worldwide, especially in the U.S., in Europe and in China. The reduction in revenues reflected reduced sales in all of our major market segments and in all major product lines. Gross profit margin decreased during fiscal 2013 because of underutilized capacity and a shift in product mix toward lower margin products. In addition, our selling, general and administrative expenses, or SG&A expenses, decreased, mainly because of reduced sales expenses. Similarly, our research, development and engineering expenses, or R&D expenses, decreased as well due to reduced outside testing and service activities. In general, our visibility regarding future performance has


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declined in the face of the uncertain macroeconomic outlook. On May 24, 2013, we signed an agreement to acquire the 4-bit and 8-bit microcontroller business of the System LSI Division of Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. If the transaction closes, we expect our revenues and the related operating expenses, including acquisition expenses such as amortization of acquired intangible assets, to increase substantially.

Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Management Estimates

The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. The preparation of these financial statements requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities. On an ongoing basis, management evaluates the reasonableness of its estimates. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily available from other sources. Actual results may differ materially from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

We believe the following critical accounting policies require that we make significant judgments and estimates in preparing our consolidated financial statements.

Revenue recognition. We sell to distributors and original equipment manufacturers. Approximately 57.4% of our revenues in fiscal 2013, 56.3% of our revenues in fiscal 2012 and 55.3% of our revenues in fiscal 2011 were from distributors. We provide some of our distributors with the following programs:
stock rotation and ship and debit. Ship and debit is a sales incentive program for products previously shipped to distributors. We recognize revenue from product sales upon shipment provided that we have received an executed purchase order, the price is fixed and determinable, the risk of loss has transferred, collection of resulting receivables is reasonably assured, there are no customer acceptance requirements and there are no remaining significant obligations. Our shipping terms are generally FOB shipping point. Reserves for allowances are also recorded at the time of shipment. Our management must make estimates of potential future product returns and so called "ship and debit" transactions related to current period product revenue. Our management analyzes historical returns and ship and debit transactions, current economic trends and changes in customer demand and acceptance of our products when evaluating the adequacy of the sales returns and ship and debit allowances. Significant management judgments and estimates must be made and used in connection with establishing the allowances in any accounting period. We have visibility into inventory held by our distributors to aid in our reserve analysis. Different judgments or estimates would result in material differences in the amount and timing of our revenue for any period.

Accounts receivable from distributors are recognized and inventory is relieved when title to inventories transfer, typically upon shipment from our company, at which point we have a legally enforceable right to collection under normal payment terms. Under certain circumstances, where our management is not able to reasonably and reliably estimate the actual returns, revenues and costs relating to distributor sales are deferred until products are sold by the distributors to their end customers. Deferred amounts are presented net and included under "Accrued expenses and other liabilities".

We state our revenues, net of any taxes collected from customers that are required to be remitted to the various government agencies. The amount of taxes collected from customers and payable to government is included under "Accrued expenses and other liabilities". Shipping and handling costs are included in cost of sales.

Allowance for sales returns. We maintain an allowance for sales returns for estimated product returns by our customers. We estimate our allowance for sales returns based on our historical return experience, current economic trends, changes in customer demand, known returns we have not received and other assumptions. If we were to make different judgments or utilize different estimates, the amount and timing of our revenue could be materially different. Given that our revenues consist of a high volume of relatively similar products, to date our actual returns and allowances have not fluctuated significantly from period to period, and our returns provisions have historically been reasonably accurate. This allowance is included as part of the accounts receivable allowance on the balance sheet and as a reduction of revenues in the statement of operations.


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Allowance for stock rotation. We also provide "stock rotation" to select distributors. The rotation allows distributors to return a percentage of the previous six months' sales in exchange for orders of an equal or greater amount. In the fiscal years ended March 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, approximately $2.4 million, $2.1 million and $916,000, respectively, of products were returned to us under the program. We establish the allowance for all sales to distributors except in cases where the revenue recognition is deferred and recognized upon sale by the distributor of products to the end customer. The allowance, which is management's best estimate of future returns, is based upon the historical experience of returns and inventory levels at the distributors. This allowance is included as part of the accounts receivable allowance on the balance sheet and as a reduction of revenues in the statement of operations. Should distributors increase stock rotations beyond our estimates, our statements would be adversely affected.

Allowance for ship and debit. Ship and debit is a program designed to assist distributors in meeting competitive prices in the marketplace on sales to their end customers. Ship and debit requires a request from the distributor for a pricing adjustment for a specific part for a customer sale to be shipped from the distributor's stock. We have no obligation to accept this request. However, it is our historical practice to allow some companies to obtain pricing adjustments for inventory held. We receive periodic statements regarding our products held by our distributors. Ship and debit authorizations may cover current and future distributor activity for a specific part for sale to a distributor's customer. At the time we record sales to distributors, we provide an allowance for the estimated future distributor activity related to such sales since it is probable that such sales to distributors will result in ship and debit activity. The sales allowance requirement is based on sales during the period, credits issued to distributors, distributor inventory levels, historical trends, market conditions, pricing trends we see in our direct sales activity with original equipment manufacturers and other customers, and input from sales, marketing and other key management. We believe that the analysis of these inputs enable us to make reliable estimates of future credits under the ship and debit program. This analysis requires the exercise of significant judgments. Our actual results to date have approximated our estimates. At the time the distributor ships the part from stock, the distributor debits us for the authorized pricing adjustment. This allowance is included as part of the accounts receivable allowance on the balance sheet and as a reduction of revenues in the statement of operations. If competitive pricing were to decrease sharply and unexpectedly, our estimates might be insufficient, which could significantly adversely affect our operating results.

Additions to the ship and debit allowance are estimates of the amount of expected future ship and debit activity related to sales during the period and reduce revenues and gross profit in the period. The following table sets forth the beginning and ending balances of, additions to and deductions from our allowance for ship and debit during the three years ended March 31, 2013 (in thousands):

                        Balance March 31, 2010   $  1,419
                        Additions                   5,467
                        Deductions                 (5,486 )

                        Balance March 31, 2011      1,400
                        Additions                   5,858
                        Deductions                 (6,157 )

                        Balance March 31, 2012      1,101
                        Additions                   5,842
                        Deductions                 (5,547 )

                        Balance March 31, 2013   $  1,396

Allowance for doubtful accounts. We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts for estimated losses from the inability of our customers to make required payments. We evaluate our allowance for doubtful accounts based on the aging of our accounts receivable, the financial condition of our customers and their payment history, our historical write-off experience and other assumptions. If we were to make different judgments of the financial condition of our customers or the financial condition of our customers were to deteriorate, resulting in an impairment of their ability to make payments, additional allowances may be required. This allowance is reported on the balance sheet as part of the accounts receivable allowance and is included on the statement of


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operations as part of selling, general and administrative expenses. This allowance is based on historical losses and management's estimates of future losses.

Inventories. Inventories are recorded at the lower of standard cost, which approximates actual cost on a first-in-first-out basis, or market value. Our accounting for inventory costing is based on the applicable expenditure incurred, directly or indirectly, in bringing the inventory to its existing condition. Such expenditures include acquisition costs, production costs and other costs incurred to bring the inventory to its use. As it is impractical to track inventory from the time of purchase to the time of sale for the purpose of specifically identifying inventory cost, our inventory is, therefore, valued based on a standard cost, given that the materials purchased are identical and interchangeable at various production processes. We review our standard costs on an as-needed basis but in any event at least once a year, and update them as appropriate to approximate actual costs. The authoritative guidance provided by FASB requires certain abnormal expenditures to be recognized as expenses in the current period instead of capitalized in inventory. It also requires that the amount of fixed production overhead allocated to inventory be based on the normal capacity of the production facilities.

We typically plan our production and inventory levels based on internal forecasts of customer demand, which are highly unpredictable and can fluctuate substantially. The value of our inventories is dependent on our estimate of future demand as it relates to historical sales. If our projected demand is overestimated, we may be required to reduce the valuation of our inventories below cost. We regularly review inventory quantities on hand and record an estimated provision for excess inventory based primarily on our historical sales and expectations for future use. We also recognize a reserve based on known technological obsolescence, when appropriate. Actual demand and market conditions may be different from those projected by our management. This could have a material effect on our operating results and financial position. If we were to make different judgments or utilize different estimates, the amount and timing of our write-down of inventories could be materially different. For example, during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2009, we examined our inventory and as a consequence of the dramatic retrenchment in some of our markets, certain of our inventory that normally would not be considered excess was considered as such. Therefore, we booked additional charges of about $14.9 million to recognize this exposure.

Excess inventory frequently remains saleable. When excess inventory is sold, it yields a gross profit margin of up to 100%. Sales of excess inventory have the effect of increasing the gross profit margin beyond that which would otherwise occur, because of previous write-downs. Once we have written down inventory below cost, we do not write it up when it is subsequently sold or scrapped. We do not physically segregate excess inventory nor do we assign unique tracking numbers to it in our accounting systems. Consequently, we cannot isolate the sales prices of excess inventory from the sales prices of non-excess inventory. Therefore, we are unable to report the amount of gross profit resulting from the sale of excess inventory or quantify the favorable impact of such gross profit on our gross profit margin.


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The following table provides information on our excess and obsolete inventory reserve charged against inventory at cost (in thousands):

               Balance at March 31, 2010                  $ 35,574
               Utilization or sale                          (9,618 )
               Scrap                                        (2,230 )
               Additional accrual                            5,288
               Foreign currency translation adjustments        422

               Balance at March 31, 2011                    29,436
               Utilization or sale                          (2,543 )
               Scrap                                        (2,313 )
               Additional accrual                            3,921
               Foreign currency translation adjustments       (363 )

               Balance at March 31, 2012                    28,138
               Utilization or sale                          (2,242 )
               Scrap                                        (3,662 )
               Additional accrual                            3,385
               Foreign currency translation adjustments       (330 )

               Balance at March 31, 2013                  $ 25,289

The practical efficiencies of wafer fabrication require the manufacture of semiconductor wafers in minimum lot sizes. Often, when manufactured, we do not know whether or when all the semiconductors resulting from a lot of wafers will sell. With more than 10,000 different part numbers for semiconductors, excess inventory resulting from the manufacture of some of those semiconductors will be continual and ordinary. Because the cost of storage is minimal when compared to potential value and because our products do not quickly become obsolete, we expect to hold excess inventory for potential future sale for years. Consequently, we have no set time line for the sale or scrapping of excess inventory.

In addition, our inventory is also being written down to the lower of cost or market or net realizable value. We review our inventory listing on a quarterly basis for an indication of losses being sustained for costs that exceed selling prices less direct costs to sell. When it is evident that our selling price is lower than current cost, inventory is marked down accordingly. At March 31, 2013 and 2012, our lower of cost or market reserve was $670,000 and $630,000, respectively.

Furthermore, we perform an annual inventory count and periodic cycle counts for specific parts that have a high turnover. We also periodically identify any inventory that is no longer usable and write it off.

Valuation of Goodwill and Intangible Assets. Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair value of the net assets acquired. The costs of acquired intangible assets are recorded at fair value at acquisition. Intangible assets with finite lives are amortized using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives, normally one to six years, and evaluated for impairment in accordance with the authoritative guidance provided by FASB. In addition, we apply the accelerated amortization method on certain customer relationships based on our estimates of future revenues from these customers.

Goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite lives are carried at fair value and reviewed at least annually for impairment charge during the quarter ending March 31, or more frequently if events and circumstances indicate that the asset might be impaired, in accordance with the authoritative guidance provided by FASB. We adopted an update issued by FASB, which gives entities the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is necessary to perform the two-step fair value-based impairment test described below. If an entity believes that, as a result of its qualitative assessment, it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, the quantitative impairment test is required. Otherwise, no further testing is required.


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Under the quantitative approach, there are two steps in the determination of the impairment of goodwill. The first step compares the carrying amount of the net assets to the fair value of the reporting unit. The second step, if necessary, recognizes an impairment loss to the extent the carrying value of the reporting unit's net assets exceed the implied fair value of goodwill. An impairment loss would be recognized to the extent that the carrying amount exceeds the fair value of the reporting unit. During our annual impairment analysis in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2012, we concluded that the goodwill associated with the acquisition of the Zilog businesses were completely impaired. As a result, we recorded an impairment charge of $6.4 million to write off all the outstanding goodwill associated with the Zilog reporting unit. See Note 6, "Goodwill and Intangible Assets" for a further discussion of the impairment analysis of goodwill and the related charges recorded.

We perform the impairment test on finite-lived intangible assets by determining whether the estimated undiscounted cash flows attributable to the assets in question are less than their carrying values. Impairment losses, if any, are measured as the amount by which the carrying values of the assets exceed their fair value and are recognized in operating results. If a useful life is determined to be shorter than originally estimated, we accelerate the rate of amortization and amortize the remaining carrying value over the new shorter useful life.

Income tax. As part of the process of preparing our consolidated financial statements, we are required to estimate our income taxes in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate. This process involves estimating our actual current tax exposure together with assessing temporary differences resulting from differing treatment of items for tax and accounting purposes. These differences result in deferred tax assets and liabilities, which are included within our consolidated balance sheet. We then assess the likelihood that our deferred tax assets will be recovered from future taxable income and, to the extent we believe that recovery is not likely, we establish a valuation allowance. A valuation allowance reduces our deferred tax assets to the amount that management estimates is more likely than not to be realized. In determining the amount of the valuation allowance, we consider income over recent years, estimated future taxable income, feasible tax planning strategies, and other factors, in each taxing jurisdiction in which we operate. If we determine that it is more likely than not that we will not realize all or a portion of our remaining deferred tax assets, then we will increase our valuation allowance with a charge to income tax expense. Conversely, if we determine that it is likely that we will ultimately be able to utilize all or a portion of the deferred tax assets for which a valuation allowance has been provided, then the related portion of the valuation allowance will reduce income tax expense. Significant management judgment is required in determining our provision for income taxes and potential tax exposures, our deferred tax assets and liabilities and any valuation allowance recorded against our net deferred tax assets. In the event that actual results differ from these estimates or we adjust these estimates in future periods, we may need to establish a valuation allowance, which could materially impact our financial position and results of operations. Our ability to utilize our deferred tax assets and the need for a related valuation allowance are monitored on an ongoing basis.

Furthermore, computation of our tax liabilities involves examining uncertainties in the application of complex tax regulations. We recognize liabilities for uncertain tax positions based on the two-step process as prescribed by the authoritative guidance provided by FASB. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if there is sufficient available evidence to indicate if it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained on audit, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes. The second step requires us to measure and determine the approximate amount of the tax benefit at the largest amount that is more than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement with the tax authorities. It is inherently difficult and requires significant judgment to estimate such amounts, as this requires us to determine the probability of various possible outcomes. We reexamine these uncertain tax positions on a quarterly basis. This reassessment is based on various factors during the period including, but not limited to, changes in worldwide tax laws and treaties, changes in facts or circumstances, effectively settled issues under audit and any new audit activity. A change in recognition or measurement would result in the recognition of a tax benefit or an additional charge to the tax provision in the period.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements and Accounting Changes

For a description of accounting changes and recent accounting pronouncements, including the expected dates of adoption and estimated effects, if any, on our consolidated financial statements, see Note 2, "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


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Results of Operations

The following table sets forth selected consolidated statements of operations data for the fiscal years indicated and the percentage change in such data from year to year:

                                                            Years Ended March 31,
                                    2013          % change          2012          % change          2011
                                    (000)                           (000)                           (000)
Net revenues                      $ 280,014           (23.9 )     $ 368,004             1.3       $ 363,273
Cost of goods sold                  195,134           (21.6 )       248,760             3.0         241,526

Gross profit                      $  84,880           (28.8 )     $ 119,244            (2.1 )     $ 121,747

Operating expenses:
Research, development and
engineering                       $  28,022            (2.9 )     $  28,847             2.4       $  28,177
Selling, general and
administrative                       39,287            (6.6 )        42,063             0.4          41,880
Amortization of
acquisition-related
intangible assets                     2,244           (11.1 )         2,524           (63.6 )         6,937
Restructuring charges                     -              nm               -          (100.0 )           759
Impairment charges                        -          (100.0 )         6,448           818.5             702

Total operating expenses          $  69,553           (12.9 )     $  79,882             1.8       $  78,455

nm - not meaningful

The following table sets forth selected statement of operations data as a percentage of net revenues for the fiscal years indicated. These historical operating results may not be indicative of the results for any future period.

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