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PZZA > SEC Filings for PZZA > Form 10-K/A on 16-Apr-2013All Recent SEC Filings

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Annual Report

Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations


Papa John's International, Inc. (referred to as the "Company," "Papa John's" or in the first person notations of "we," "us" and "our") began operations in 1985 with the opening of the first Papa John's restaurant in Jeffersonville, Indiana. At December 25, 2011, there were 3,883 Papa John's restaurants in operation, consisting of 628 Company-owned and 3,255 franchised restaurants. Our revenues are principally derived from retail sales of pizza and other food and beverage products to the general public by Company-owned restaurants, franchise royalties, sales of franchise and development rights, sales to franchisees of food and paper products, printing and promotional items, risk management services, and information systems and related services used in their operations.

New unit openings in 2011 were 321 as compared to 325 in 2010 and 216 in 2009 and unit closings in 2011 were 84 as compared to 148 in 2010 and 127 in 2009. We expect net unit growth of approximately 240 to 280 units during 2012.

We have continued to produce strong average sales from our domestic Company-owned restaurants even in a very competitive market environment. Our expansion strategy is to cluster restaurants in targeted markets, thereby increasing consumer awareness and enabling us to take advantage of operational, distribution and advertising efficiencies. Average annual Company-owned sales for our most recent comparable restaurant base were $897,000 for 2011, compared to $863,000 for 2010 and $869,000 for 2009. Average sales volumes in new markets are generally lower than in those markets in which we have established a significant market position. The comparable sales for domestic Company-owned restaurants increased 4.1% in 2011, decreased 0.6% in 2010, and decreased 0.5% in 2009. The comparable sales for North America franchised units increased 3.1% in 2011, 0.3% in 2010 and 0.1% in 2009. "Comparable sales" represents sales generated by restaurants open for the entire twelve-month period reported.

We strive to obtain high-quality restaurant sites with good access and visibility, and to enhance the appearance and quality of our restaurants. We believe that these factors improve our image and brand awareness. The average cash investment for the eight domestic Company-owned restaurants opened during 2011 was approximately $260,000, compared to the $250,000 investment for the five units opened in 2010, exclusive of land and any tenant improvement allowances that we received in both years.

Approximately 47% of our revenues for 2011, compared to 45% of our revenues for 2010 and 40% of our revenues for 2009, were derived from the sale to our domestic and international franchisees of food and paper products, printing and promotional items, risk management services and information systems equipment and software and related services by us. We believe that, in addition to supporting both Company and franchised growth, these activities contribute to product quality and consistency and restaurant profitability throughout the Papa John's system.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

The results of operations are based on our consolidated financial statements, which were prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of consolidated financial statements requires management to select accounting policies for critical accounting areas as well as estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements. The Company's significant accounting policies are more fully described in "Note 2" of "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements." Significant changes in assumptions and/or conditions in our critical accounting policies could materially impact the operating results. We have identified the following accounting policies and related judgments as critical to understanding the results of our operations.

Accounting Policies

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts and Notes Receivable

We establish reserves for uncollectible accounts and notes receivable based on overall receivable aging levels and a specific evaluation of accounts and notes for franchisees and other customers with known financial difficulties.

Intangible Assets - Goodwill

In September 2011, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") approved Accounting Standards Update 2011-08, "Testing Goodwill for Impairment," ("ASU 2011-08") which is effective for annual and interim goodwill impairment tests performed for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2011, however, early adoption is permitted. We elected to early adopt the provisions of ASU 2011-08 in 2011.

ASU 2011-08 permits us to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more-likely-than-not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount as a basis for determining whether it is necessary to perform the two-step quantitative goodwill impairment test. Under the two-step quantitative goodwill impairment test, the fair value of the reporting unit is compared to its respective carrying amount including goodwill. If the fair value exceeds the carrying amount, then no impairment exists. If the carrying amount exceeds the fair value, further analysis is performed to assess impairment. Because market prices of our reporting units are not readily available, we make various estimates and assumptions in determining the estimated fair values of our reporting units. The estimated fair value is based on an income approach, with an appropriate risk adjusted discount rate, and a market approach where appropriate. Significant assumptions inherent in the methodologies are employed and include such estimates as discount rates, growth rates and certain market transaction multiples.

In accordance with ASU 2011-08, we evaluate goodwill annually in the fourth quarter or whenever we identify certain triggering events or circumstances that would more-likely-than-not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount. Such tests are completed separately with respect to the goodwill of each of our reporting units. Events or circumstances that might indicate an interim evaluation is warranted include, among other factors, unexpected adverse business conditions, macro and reporting unit specific economic factors (for example, worsening results in comparison to projections, commodity inflation, or loss of key personnel), unanticipated competitive activities, and acts by governments or courts.

As defined in the authoritative guidance, a reporting unit is an operating segment, or one level below an operating segment. During 2011, in connection with a restructuring of our components in our domestic Company-owned restaurant segment, changes were made in the discrete financial information that was made available to the segment manager of our domestic Company-owned restaurant segment, which resulted in the identification of new components in 2011. Additionally, because components meet the aggregation provision of Accounting Standards Codification 280, "Segment Reporting," we now aggregate the components of our domestic Company-owned restaurant segment into one reporting unit. Prior to 2011, the components were treated as individual reporting units.

Under ASU 2011-08, companies can bypass the qualitative assessment and move directly to the quantitative assessment for any reporting unit in any period if management believes that it is more efficient or there is a risk of impairment. All companies can elect to resume performing the qualitative assessment in any subsequent period. We applied the qualitative assessment for our domestic Company-owned restaurants and China reporting units, which is included in our international reporting segment. As a result of our qualitative analysis, we determined that it was more-likely-than-not that the fair value of our domestic Company-owned restaurants and China reporting units was greater than the carrying amounts.

With respect to our PJUK reporting unit (which represents $14.8 million of goodwill as of December 25, 2011), we bypassed the qualitative assessment and performed the two-step quantitative goodwill impairment test, which indicated the fair value exceeded the carrying amount by 7%. The fair value was calculated using an income approach that projected net cash flow over a 10-year discrete period and a terminal value, which were discounted using appropriate rates. The selected discount rate considers the risk and nature of our PJUK reporting unit's cash flow and the rates of return market participants would require to invest their capital in the PJUK reporting unit. We believe our PJUK reporting unit will continue to improve its operating results through ongoing growth initiatives, by increasing Papa John's brand awareness in the United Kingdom, improving sales and profitability for individual franchised restaurants and increasing PJUK franchised net unit openings over the next several years. Future impairment charges could be required if adverse economic events occur in the United Kingdom.

Subsequent to completing our annual qualitative and quantitative goodwill impairment tests, no indications of impairment were identified.

Insurance Reserves

Our insurance programs for workers' compensation, general liability, owned and non-owned automobiles and health insurance coverage provided to our employees are funded by the Company up to certain retention levels. Losses are accrued based upon undiscounted estimates of the aggregate retained liability for claims incurred using certain third-party actuarial projections and our claims loss experience. The estimated insurance claims losses could be significantly affected should the frequency or ultimate cost of claims significantly differ from historical trends used to estimate the insurance reserves recorded by the Company.

Deferred Income Tax Accounts and Tax Reserves

Papa John's is subject to income taxes in the United States and several foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining Papa John's provision for income taxes and the related assets and liabilities. The provision for income taxes includes income taxes paid, currently payable or receivable and those deferred. We use an estimated annual effective rate based on expected annual income to determine our quarterly provision for income taxes. Discrete income tax items are recorded in the quarter in which they occur.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between financial reporting and tax basis of assets and liabilities, and are measured using enacted tax rates and laws that are expected to be in effect when the differences reverse. Deferred tax assets are also recognized for the estimated future effects of tax loss carryforwards. The effect on deferred taxes of changes in tax rates is recognized in the period in which the new tax rate is enacted. As a result, our effective tax rate may fluctuate. Valuation allowances are established when necessary on a jurisdictional basis to reduce deferred tax assets to the amounts we expect to realize. As of December 25, 2011, we had a net deferred income tax asset of $944,000.

Tax authorities periodically audit the Company. We record reserves for identified exposures. We evaluate these issues on a quarterly basis to adjust for events, such as court rulings or audit settlements, which may impact our ultimate payment for such exposures. We recognized reductions of $1.9 million, $550,000 and $1.2 million in our income tax expense associated with the finalization of certain income tax issues in 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively (see "Note 13" of "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements").

Consolidation of BIBP Commodities, Inc. ("BIBP") as a Variable Interest Entity

BIBP was a franchisee-owned corporation that conducted a cheese-purchasing program on behalf of Company-owned and franchised restaurants operating in the United States through February 2011. As the primary beneficiary, we consolidated the operating results of BIBP. BIBP operated at breakeven for the first two months of 2011 and recognized income before income taxes of $21.0 million in 2010 and $22.5 million in 2009. Income before income taxes in 2010 included a reduction in BIBP's cost of sales of $14.2 million associated with PJFS's agreement to pay to BIBP for past cheese purchases an amount equal to its accumulated deficit ("BIBP Settlement"). Accordingly, BIBP recorded a decrease of $14.2 million in cost of sales and PJFS recorded a corresponding increase in cost of sales in 2010. This transaction did not have any impact on the Company's 2010 consolidated income statement results since both PJFS and BIBP are fully consolidated.

Consolidation accounting required the net impact from the consolidation of BIBP to be reflected primarily in three separate components of our statement of income. The first component was the portion of BIBP operating income or loss attributable to the amount of cheese purchased by Company-owned restaurants during the period. This portion of BIBP operating income was reflected as a reduction in the "Domestic Company-owned restaurant expenses - cost of sales" line item. This approach effectively reported cost of sales for Company-owned restaurants as if the purchasing agreement with BIBP did not exist and such restaurants were purchasing cheese at the spot market prices (i.e., the impact of BIBP is eliminated in consolidation).

The second component of the net impact from the consolidation of BIBP was reflected in the caption "Loss (income) from the franchise cheese-purchasing program, net of noncontrolling interest." This line item represented BIBP's income or loss from purchasing cheese at the spot market price and selling to franchised restaurants at a fixed monthly price, net of any income or loss attributable to the noncontrolling interest BIBP shareholders. The amount of income or loss attributable to the BIBP shareholders depended on its cumulative shareholders' equity balance and the change in such balance during the reporting period. The third component was reflected as interest expense, when BIBP was in a net borrowing position during the reporting period.

In February 2011, we terminated the purchasing arrangement with BIBP and BIBP no longer has operating activities. Over 99% of our domestic franchisees have entered into a cheese purchasing agreement with PJFS. The cheese purchasing agreement requires participating domestic franchisees to purchase cheese through PJFS, or to pay the franchisee's portion of any accumulated cheese liability upon ceasing to purchase cheese from PJFS when a liability exists. The cheese purchasing agreement specifies that PJFS will charge the franchisees a predetermined price for cheese on a monthly basis. Any difference between the amount charged to franchisees and the actual price paid by PJFS for cheese will be recorded as a receivable from or a payable to the franchisees, to be repaid based upon a predetermined formula outlined in the agreement.

Restatement of Previously Issued Financial Statements

In connection with the evaluation of the accounting for newly formed joint ventures, we reviewed our accounting for our previously existing joint venture arrangements. As a result of our review, we determined an error occurred in the accounting for one joint venture agreement, which contained a mandatorily redeemable feature added through a contract amendment in the third quarter of 2009. This provision contained in the 2009 contract amendment was not previously considered in determining the classification and measurement of the noncontrolling interest. In addition, we determined an additional redeemable noncontrolling interest was incorrectly classified in shareholders' equity and should be classified as temporary equity, which impacted the consolidated balance sheets and statements of stockholders' equity. As such, we are restating our previously issued consolidated financial statements for the fiscal years 2011, 2010, and 2009. The correction of the error related to the mandatorily redeemable noncontrolling interest had an impact on our Consolidated Statements of Income, interest expense, income tax expense, and net income. The restatements resulted in decreases in diluted earnings per share of $0.04 and $0.13 for the fiscal years ended December 25, 2011 and December 27, 2009, respectively, and an increase in diluted earnings per share of $0.03 for the fiscal year ended December 26, 2010. The corrections were recorded to our "Unallocated Corporate Expenses" segment. The corrections had no impact on total revenues, operating income, or operating cash flows and had no impact on our compliance with debt covenants in any periods presented. See "Note 1" and "Note 2" of "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements" for additional information.

Non-GAAP Measures

The financial measures we present in this report excluding the impact of the consolidation of BIBP are not measures defined within accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("GAAP"). These non-GAAP measures should not be construed as a substitute for or a better indicator of the Company's performance than the Company's GAAP measures. We believe the financial information excluding the impact of the consolidation of BIBP is important for purposes of comparison to prior periods and development of future projections and earnings growth prospects. We analyze our business performance and trends excluding the impact of the consolidation of BIBP because the results of BIBP are not indicative of the principal operating activities of the Company. In addition, annual cash bonuses and certain long-term incentive programs for various levels of management were based on financial measures that exclude BIBP. The presentation of the non-GAAP measures in this report is made alongside the most directly comparable GAAP measures.

In addition, we present free cash flow in this report, which is not a term defined by GAAP. Free cash flow is defined as net cash provided by operating activities (from the consolidated statements of cash flows) excluding the impact of BIBP, less the purchases of property and equipment. We view free cash flow as an important measure because it is one factor that management uses in determining the amount of cash available for discretionary investment. Free cash flow is not a term defined by GAAP and as a result our measure of free cash flow might not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies. Free cash flow should not be construed as a substitute for or a better indicator of our performance than the Company's GAAP measures.

Segment Reporting Change

In 2011, we realigned management responsibility and financial reporting for Hawaii, Alaska and Canada from our international business segment to our domestic franchising segment in order to better leverage existing infrastructure and systems. As a result, we renamed the domestic franchising segment "North America franchising" in the first quarter of 2011. Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified in our consolidated statements of income, segment information, and restaurant unit progression to conform to the current year presentation.

Fiscal Year

The Company follows a fiscal year ending on the last Sunday of December, generally consisting of 52 weeks made up of four 13-week quarters. The 13-week quarters consist of two four-week periods followed by one five-week period.

Percentage Relationships and Restaurant Data and Unit Progression

The following tables set forth the percentage relationship to total revenues,
unless otherwise indicated, of certain income statement data, and certain
restaurant data for the years indicated:

                                                                         Year Ended (1)
                                                         Dec. 25,           Dec. 26,           Dec. 27,
                                                           2011               2010               2009
                                                      (As Restated)      (As Restated)      (As Restated)

Income Statement Data:
North America revenues:
Domestic Company-owned restaurant sales                        43.2 %             44.7 %             46.7 %
Franchise royalties                                             6.1                6.2                5.8
Franchise and development fees                                  0.1                0.0                0.1
Domestic commissary sales                                      41.7               40.4               38.7
Other sales                                                     4.2                4.6                5.0
International revenues:
Royalties and franchise and development fees                    1.3                1.2                1.1
Restaurant and commissary sales                                 3.4                2.9                2.6
Total revenues                                                100.0              100.0              100.0
Costs and expenses:
Domestic Company-owned restaurant cost of sales
(2)                                                            24.1               22.1               20.0
Domestic Company-owned restaurant operating
expenses (2)                                                   56.9               57.7               58.2
Domestic commissary and other expenses (3)                     92.2               91.4               90.2
Income from the franchise cheese purchasing
  program, net of minority interest (4)                         0.0               (0.5 )             (1.7 )
International operating expenses (5)                           84.5               88.7               86.3
General and administrative expenses                             9.2                9.8               10.3
Other general expenses                                          0.8                0.8                1.3
Depreciation and amortization                                   2.7                2.9                2.9
Total costs and expenses                                       92.9               92.3               91.2
Operating income                                                7.1                7.7                8.8
Net interest expense                                           (0.1 )             (0.3 )             (1.0 )
Income before income taxes                                      7.0                7.4                7.8
Income tax expense                                              2.2                2.4                2.5
Net income, including redeemable noncontrolling
interests                                                       4.8                5.0                5.3
Income attributable to redeemable noncontrolling
interests                                                      (0.3 )             (0.3 )             (0.3 )
Net income, net of redeemable noncontrolling
interests                                                       4.5 %              4.7 %              5.0 %

                                                                     Year Ended (1)
                                                         Dec. 25,       Dec. 26,       Dec. 27,
                                                           2011           2010           2009

Restaurant Data:
Percentage increase (decrease) in comparable domestic
Company-owned restaurant sales (6)                            4.1 %        (0.6 %)        (0.5 %)
Number of Company-owned restaurants included in the
most recent full year's comparable restaurant base            582           578            559
Average sales for Company-owned restaurants included
in the most recent comparable restaurant base           $ 897,000     $ 863,000      $ 869,000

Papa John's Restaurant Progression:
North America Company-owned:
Beginning of period                                           591           588            592
Opened                                                          8             5              5
Closed                                                         (1 )          (2 )           (8 )
Acquired from franchisees                                       -             -             11
Sold to franchisees                                             -             -            (12 )
End of period                                                 598           591            588
International Company-owned:
Beginning of period                                            21            26             23
Opened                                                          9             8              4
Closed                                                          -            (2 )           (1 )
Acquired from franchisees                                       -             1              -
Sold to franchisees                                             -           (12 )            -
End of period                                                  30            21             26
North America franchised (7):
Beginning of period                                         2,346         2,246          2,243
Opened                                                        166           182             93
Closed                                                        (49 )         (82 )          (91 )
Acquired from Company                                           -             -             12
Sold to Company                                                 -             -            (11 )
End of period                                               2,463         2,346          2,246
International franchised (7):
Beginning of period                                           688           609            522
Opened                                                        138           130            114
Closed                                                        (34 )         (62 )          (27 )
Acquired from Company                                           -            12              -
Sold to Company                                                 -            (1 )            -
End of period                                                 792           688            609
Total Papa John's restaurants - end of period               3,883         3,646          3,469

(1) We operate on a fiscal year ending on the last Sunday of December of each year.

(2) As a percentage of domestic Company-owned restaurant sales.

(3) As a percentage of domestic commissary sales and other sales on a combined basis.

(4) As a percentage of total Company revenues; the income is a result of the consolidation of BIBP, a VIE. The sales reported by BIBP are eliminated in consolidation.

(5) As a percentage of international restaurant and commissary sales.

(6) Includes only Company-owned restaurants open throughout the periods being compared.

(7) Restaurant unit data for 2010 and 2009 has been adjusted to reflect the reclassification of restaurants operating in Hawaii, Alaska and Canada from international franchised to North America franchised in order to conform to the current year presentation.

Results of Operations

2011 Compared to 2010

Discussion of Revenues

. . .

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