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Annual Report


The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the accompanying consolidated financial statements of Business Development Corporation of America and the notes thereto, and other financial information included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We are externally managed by our adviser, BDCA Adviser, LLC (the "Adviser"). The following information contains forward looking statements, which are subject to risks and uncertainties. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Please see "Forward-looking Statements" above for a description of these risks and uncertainties.


We are a specialty finance company incorporated in Maryland in May 2010. We are an externally managed, non-diversified closed-end investment company that has elected to be treated as a business development company ("BDC") under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the "1940 Act"). We are therefore required to comply with certain regulatory requirements. We have elected to be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and intend to qualify annually hereafter, as a regulated investment company ("RIC") under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the "Code"). We are managed by BDCA Adviser, LLC (the "Adviser"), a private investment firm that is registered as an investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended (the "Advisers Act"). The Adviser oversees the management of our activities and is responsible for making investment decisions with respect to our portfolio. Our Adviser is controlled by Nicholas S. Schorsch, our chairman and chief executive officer, and William M. Kahane, one of our directors, through their ownership of AR Capital, LLC (formerly known as American Realty Capital II, LLC) (the "Sponsor").

On January 25, 2011, we commenced our initial public offering (the "IPO") on a "reasonable best efforts basis" of up to 150.0 million shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share, at an initial offering price of $10.00 per share, subject to certain volume and other discounts, pursuant to a registration statement on Form N-2 (File No. 333-166636) (the "Registration Statement") filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. We sold 22,222 shares of common stock to our Adviser on July 8, 2010 at $9.00 per share, which represents the initial public offering price of $10.00 per share minus selling commissions of $0.70 per share and dealer manager fees of $0.30 per share. On August 25, 2011, we raised sufficient funds to break escrow on our IPO and commenced operations as of that date. As of December 31, 2012, we had issued 15.0 million shares of common stock for gross proceeds of $152.8 million including the shares purchased by the Sponsor and shares issued under our distribution reinvestment plan ("DRIP"). As of December 31, 2012, we had repurchased 0.03 million shares of common stock for payments of $0.3 million.

On July 13, 2012, we, through a wholly-owned subsidiary, 405 TRS I, LLC ("405 Sub"), entered into a total
return swap agreement ("TRS") with Citibank, N.A. ("Citi"), which was amended on October 17, 2012 and December 7, 2012, to increase the aggregate market value of the portfolio of loans selected by 405 Sub. 405 Sub is included within our consolidated financial statements. As amended, the TRS provides that 405 Sub may select a portfolio of loans with a maximum aggregate value (determined at the time such loans become subject to the TRS) of $150.0 million. The consolidated financial statements include both our accounts and the accounts of 405 Sub. All significant intercompany transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

On July 24, 2012, we, through a newly-formed, wholly-owned special purpose financing subsidiary, BDCA
Funding I, LLC ("Funding I"), entered into a revolving credit facility (the "Credit Facility") with Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as lender, Wells Fargo Securities, as administrative agent (together, "Wells Fargo") and U.S. Bank National Association, as collateral agent, account bank and collateral custodian. The Credit Facility provides for borrowings in an aggregate principal amount of up to $50.0 million on a committed basis, with a term of 48 months. Funding I is included within our consolidated financial statements. The consolidated financial statements include both our accounts and the accounts of Funding I. All significant intercompany transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

We anticipate that during our offering period we will invest largely in first and second lien senior secured loans and mezzanine debt issued by middle market companies. We may also purchase interests in loans through secondary market transactions in the "over-the-counter" market for institutional loans. First and second lien secured loans generally are senior debt instruments that rank ahead of subordinated debt and equity in bankruptcy priority and are generally secured by liens on the operating assets of a borrower which may include inventory, receivables, plant, property and equipment. Mezzanine debt is subordinated to senior loans and is generally unsecured. We define middle market companies as those with annual revenues between $10 million and $1 billion. We expect that our investments will generally range between approximately $1 million and $25 million, although this investment size will vary proportionately with the size of our capital base. As we increase our capital base during our offering period, we will begin investing in, and ultimately intend to have a substantial portion of our assets invested in, customized direct loans to and equity securities of middle market companies. In most cases, companies to whom we provide customized financing solutions will be privately held at the time we invest in them.

Pursuant to the Investment Advisory and Management Services Agreement we have with the Adviser (the "Investment Advisory Agreement"), we pay the Adviser a fee for its services consisting of two components - a management fee and an incentive fee. The management fee will be calculated at an annual rate of 1.5% of our average gross assets and will be payable quarterly in arrears.

As a BDC, we are required to comply with certain regulatory requirements. For instance, we have to invest at least 70% of our total assets in "qualifying assets," including securities of U.S. operating companies whose securities are not listed on a national securities exchange, U.S. operating companies with listed securities that have equity market capitalizations of less than $250 million, cash, cash equivalents, U.S. government securities and high-quality debt investments that mature in one year or less. In addition, we are only allowed to borrow money such that our asset coverage, which, as defined in the 1940 Act, measures the ratio of total assets less total liabilities (excluding borrowings) to total borrowings, equals at least 200% after such borrowing, with certain limited exceptions.

Investment Advisory and Administration Agreement

The incentive fee consists of two parts. The first part, which we refer to as the subordinated incentive fee on income, will be calculated and payable quarterly in arrears based on our pre-incentive fee net investment income for the immediately preceding quarter. The payment of the subordinated incentive fee on income will be subject to payment of a preferred return to investors each quarter, expressed as a quarterly rate of return on adjusted capital at the beginning of the most recently completed calendar quarter, of 1.75% (7.00% annualized), subject to a "catch up" feature.

The second part of the incentive fee, referred to as the incentive fee on capital gains, shall be an incentive fee on capital gains earned on liquidated investments from the portfolio and shall be determined and payable in arrears as of the end of each calendar year (or upon termination of the Investment Advisory Agreement). This fee shall equal 20.0% of our incentive fee capital gains, which shall equal our realized capital gains on a cumulative basis from inception, calculated as of the end of each calendar year, computed net of all realized capital losses and unrealized capital depreciation on a cumulative basis, less the aggregate amount of any previously paid capital gain incentive fees.

We have entered into a fund administration servicing agreement and a fund accounting servicing agreement with US Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (the "Administrator"). The Administrator provides services, such as accounting, financial reporting, legal and compliance support and investor relations support, necessary to operate. On August 13, 2012, we entered into a custody agreement with U.S. Bank National Association ("US Bank"). Under the custody agreement, US Bank will hold all of our portfolio securities and cash for certain of our subsidiaries, and will transfer such securities or cash pursuant to our instructions. The custody agreement is terminable by either party, without penalty, on not less than ninety days prior notice to the other party. Realty Capital Securities, LLC (the "Dealer Manager"), an affiliate of the Sponsor, serves as the dealer manager of the IPO. The Adviser and the Dealer Manager are related parties and will receive compensation and fees for services related to the IPO and for the investment and management of our assets. The Adviser will receive fees during the offering, operational and liquidation stages while the Dealer Manager will receive fees during the offering stage. The Adviser will pay to the Administrator a portion of the fees payable to the Adviser for the performance of these support services.

Significant Accounting Estimates and Critical Accounting Policies

Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("U.S. GAAP"), which requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Critical accounting policies are those that require the application of management's most difficult, subjective, or complex judgments, often because of the need to make estimates about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain and that may change in subsequent periods. In preparing the consolidated financial statements, management has made estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. In preparing the consolidated financial statements, management has utilized available information, including our past history, industry standards and the current economic environment, among other factors, in forming its estimates and judgments, giving due consideration to materiality. Actual results may differ from these estimates. In addition, other companies may utilize different estimates, which may impact the comparability of our results of operations to those of companies in similar businesses. As our expected operating plans occur we will describe additional critical accounting policies in the notes to our consolidated financial statements in addition to those discussed below.

Set forth below is a summary of the significant accounting estimates and critical accounting policies that management believes are important to the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. Certain of our accounting estimates are particularly important for an understanding of our financial position and results of operations and require the application of significant judgment by our management. As a result, these estimates are subject to a degree of uncertainty. These significant accounting estimates include:

Valuation of Portfolio Investments

Portfolio investments are reported on the balance sheet at fair value. On a quarterly basis we perform an analysis of each investment to determine fair value as follows:

Securities for which market quotations are readily available on an exchange are valued at the reported closing price on the valuation date. We may also obtain quotes with respect to certain of our investments from pricing services or brokers or dealers in order to value assets. When doing so, we determine whether the quote obtained is sufficient according to GAAP to determine the fair value of the security. If determined adequate, we use the quote obtained.

Investments without a readily determined market value are primarily valued using a market approach, an income approach, or both approaches, as appropriate. The market approach uses prices and other relevant information generated by market transactions involving identical or comparable assets or liabilities (including a business). The income approach uses valuation techniques to convert future amounts (for example, cash flows or earnings) to a single present amount (discounted). The measurement is based on the value indicated by current market expectations about those future amounts. In following these approaches, the types of factors that we may take into account in fair value pricing our investments include, as relevant: available current market data, including relevant and applicable market trading and transaction comparables, applicable market yields and multiples, security covenants, call protection provisions, information rights, the nature and realizable value of any collateral, the portfolio company's ability to make payments, its earnings and discounted cash flows, the markets in which the portfolio company does business, comparisons of financial ratios of peer companies that are public, M&A comparables, and enterprise values, among other factors. When available, broker quotations and/or quotations provided by pricing services are considered as an input in the valuation process.

For an investment in an investment fund that does not have a readily determinable fair value, we measure the fair value of our investment predominately based on the net asset value per share of the investment fund if the net asset value of the investment fund is calculated in a manner consistent with the measurement principles of the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB"), Accounting Standards Codification, ("ASC"), Topic 946, Financial Services-Investment Companies, as of our measurement date. However, in determining the fair value of our investment, we may make adjustments to the net asset value per share in certain circumstances, based on our analysis of any restrictions on redemption of our shares of our investment as of the measurement date. The value of our TRS is primarily based on the increase or decrease in the value of the loans underlying the TRS, as determined by Citi based upon indicative pricing by an independent third-party pricing service.

As part of our quarterly valuation process our Adviser may be assisted by an independent valuation firm engaged by our board of directors. The audit committee of our board of directors reviews each preliminary valuation and our Adviser and an independent valuation firm (if applicable) will supplement the preliminary valuation to reflect any comments provided by the audit committee. Our board of directors then discusses the valuations and determines the fair value of each investment, in good faith, based on the input of our Adviser, the independent valuation firm (to the extent applicable) and the audit committee of our board of directors.

Determination of fair values involves subjective judgments and estimates. Accordingly, the notes to our consolidated financial statements refer to the uncertainty with respect to the possible effect of such valuations, and any change in such valuations on our consolidated financial statements.

Income Taxes

We have elected to be treated for federal income tax purposes, and intend to qualify thereafter, as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code. Generally, a RIC is exempt from federal income taxes if it distributes at least 90% of its ''investment company taxable income,'' as defined in the Code, each year. Distributions paid up to one year after the current tax year can be carried back to the prior tax year for determining the distributions paid in such tax year. We intend to distribute sufficient distributions to maintain our RIC status each year. We are also subject to nondeductible federal excise taxes if we do not distribute at least 98% of net ordinary income each calendar year and 98.2% of capital gain net income for the one year period ending on October 31 of such calendar year, if any, and any recognized and undistributed income from prior years for which we paid no federal income taxes. We will generally endeavor each year to avoid any federal excise taxes.

New Accounting Pronouncements

In December 2011, the FASB, issued guidance regarding disclosures about offsetting assets and liabilities, which requires entities to disclose information about offsetting and related arrangements to enable users of its financial statements to understand the effect of those arrangements on its financial position. The guidance is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning on or after January 1, 2013 with retrospective application for all comparative periods presented. The adoption of this guidance, which is related to disclosure only, is not expected to have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

In May 2011, the FASB issued guidance that expands the existing disclosure requirements for fair value measurements, primarily for Level 3 measurements, which are measurements based on unobservable inputs such as our own data. This guidance is largely consistent with current fair value measurement principles with few exceptions that do not result in a change in general practice. The guidance became effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2012 and, accordingly, the Company has presented the required disclosures (see Note 3). The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial position or results of operations as the guidance relates only to disclosure requirements.

Net Realized Gains or Losses and Net Change in Unrealized Appreciation or Depreciation

We measure realized gains or losses by the difference between the net proceeds from the repayment or sale and the amortized cost basis of the investment, without regard to unrealized appreciation or depreciation previously recognized, but considering unamortized upfront fees and prepayment penalties. Net change in unrealized appreciation or depreciation reflects the change in portfolio investment values during the reporting period, including any reversal of previously recorded unrealized appreciation or depreciation, when gains or losses are realized.

Portfolio and Investment Activity

During the year ended December 31, 2012, we made $254.7 million of investments in new portfolio companies and had $135.7 million in aggregate amount of exits and repayments, resulting in net investments of $119.0 million for the period.

Our portfolio composition, based on fair value, including the value of the TRS underlying loans, at December 31, 2012 was as follows:

                                                 At December 31, 2012
                                       Weighted                                        Percentage       Weighted
                                       Average                           Weighted       of Total     Average Current
                                       Current                           Average        Portfolio    Yield for Total
                                      Yield for                       Current Yield     Including       Portfolio
                                        Total       Percentage of        for TRS           TRS        Including TRS
                    Percentage of     Portfolio     TRS Underlying      Underlying     Underlying      Underlying
                   Total Portfolio       (1)            Loans             Loans           Loans         Loans (1)
Senior Secured
First Lien Debt            61.9 %          8.4 %       100.0 %               8.1 %          75.1 %            8.3 %
Senior Secured
Second Lien Debt           24.5           12.0             -                   -            16.0             12.0
Subordinated Debt           2.9           14.0             -                   -             1.9             14.0
Securities (2)              6.3           25.9             -                   -             4.1             25.9
Equity/Other                4.4            N/A             -                 N/A             2.9              N/A
Total                     100.0 %         10.6 %       100.0 %               8.1 %         100.0 %            9.7 %

(1) Excludes the effect of the amortization or accretion of loan premiums or discounts. Including the effect of the amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts, the weighted average effective yield was 11.25% for the total portfolio at December 31, 2012 and 10.13% for the total portfolio including the TRS underlying loans at December 31, 2012.

(2) Weighted average current yield for collateralized securities is based on interest income received for the year ended December 31, 2012. For the year ended December 31, 2012, we received $1.0 million of interest income on the collateralized securities.

During the year ended December 31, 2011, we made $14.4 million of investments in new portfolio companies and had
$0.1 million in aggregate amount of exits and repayments, resulting in net investments of $14.3 million for the period.

Our portfolio composition based on fair value at December 31, 2011 was as follows:

                                                     At December 31, 2011
                                                                   Weighted Average
                                                                  Current Yield for
                                              Percentage of        Total Portfolio
                                            Total Portfolio              (1)
Senior Secured First Lien Debt                         64.0 %                  9.4 %
Senior Secured Second Lien Debt                        21.0                   10.5
Senior Unsecured Debt                                   9.6                   10.5
Subordinated Debt                                       1.6                   12.0
Equity/Other                                            3.8                    N/A
Total                                                 100.0 %                  9.4 %

We did not have a TRS prior to July 13, 2012.

The following table shows the portfolio composition by industry grouping, including the TRS underlying loans, based on fair value at December 31, 2012 (dollars in thousands):

                                                                          At December 31, 2012
                                                                                                                   Total         of Total
                                                                                                              Investments at     Portfolio
                                                                                                                Fair Value       Including
                                                                                                               including the     the value
                                                                         Value of TRS       Percentage of      value of TRS       of TRS
                                Investments at       Percentage of     Underlying Loans     TRS Underlying      Underlying      Underlying
                                  Fair Value        Total Portfolio           (1)               Loans              Loans           Loans
Services: Business            $         24,553              18.0 %     $        13,679          19.0 %        $      38,232          18.4 %
Healthcare & Pharmaceuticals            19,090              14.0                15,064          20.9                 34,154          16.4
Hotel, Gaming & Leisure                 17,093              12.6                13,869          19.2                 30,962          14.9
Energy: Oil & Gas                       17,592              12.9                     -             -                 17,592           8.5
Banking, Finance, Insurance &
Real Estate                             14,422              10.6                     -             -                 14,422           6.9
Beverage, Food & Tobacco                 4,162               3.1                 8,008          11.1                 12,170           5.8
High Tech Industries                    10,895               8.0                     -             -                 10,895           5.2
Chemicals, Plastics & Rubber             3,400               2.6                 6,374           8.8                  9,774           4.7
Environmental Industries                 3,915               2.9                 4,893           6.8                  8,808           4.2
Metals & Mining                          3,840               2.8                 4,800           6.7                  8,640           4.1
Capital Equipment                        4,005               2.9                 3,504           4.9                  7,509           3.6
Telecommunications                       7,378               5.4                     -             -                  7,378           3.5
Media: Advertising, Printing
& Publishing                             1,960               1.4                 1,931           2.6                  3,891           1.9
Construction & Building                  3,866               2.8                     -             -                  3,866           1.9
Total                         $        136,171             100.0 %     $        72,122         100.0 %        $     208,293         100.0 %

(1) The TRS underlying loans are held by our counterparty to the TRS, Citi. The values of the TRS underlying loans shown are based primarily on the indicative bid prices provided by an independent third-party pricing service to Citi.

The following table shows the portfolio composition by industry grouping based on fair value at December 31, 2011 (dollars in thousands):

                                                   At December 31, 2011
                                            Investments at        Percentage of
                                              Fair Value         Total Portfolio
Automobile                                $      1,542                   10.8 %
Media: Diversified & Production                  1,315                    9.2
Capital Equipment                                1,226                    8.6
. . .
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