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RIVR > SEC Filings for RIVR > Form 10-K on 19-Mar-2013All Recent SEC Filings

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Form 10-K for RIVER VALLEY BANCORP


19-Mar-2013

Annual Report


ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATION.

General

As discussed previously, the Holding Company was incorporated for the primary purpose of owning all of the outstanding shares of River Valley Financial. As a result, the discussion that follows focuses on River Valley Financial's financial condition and results of operations for the periods presented. The following discussion and analysis of the financial condition as of December 31, 2012, and results of operations for periods prior to that date, should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the Notes thereto, included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

In addition to the historical information contained herein, the following discussion contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements appear in a number of places in this Form 10-K and include statements regarding the intent, belief, outlook, estimate or expectations of the Company, its directors or its officers, primarily with respect to future events and the future financial performance of the Company. Readers are cautioned that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future events or performance and involve risks and uncertainties. The Company's operations and actual results could differ significantly from those discussed in the forward-looking statements. Some of the factors that could cause or contribute to such differences are discussed herein but also include, but are not limited to, changes in the economy and interest rates in the nation and River Valley Financial's general market area; loss of deposits and loan demand to other financial institutions; substantial changes in financial markets; changes in real estate values and the real estate market; regulatory changes; or turmoil and government intervention in the financial services industry. The forward-looking statements contained herein include those with respect to the effect future changes in interest rates may have on financial condition and results of operations, and management's opinion as to the effect on the Company's consolidated financial position and results of operations of recent accounting pronouncements not yet in effect.

Effect of Current Events

The level of turmoil in the financial services industry continues to present unusual risks and challenges for the Company, as described below:

The Current Economic Environment. We continue to operate in a challenging and uncertain economic environment, including generally uncertain national conditions and local conditions in our markets. Overall economic growth continues to be slow and national and regional unemployment rates remain at elevated levels. The risks associated with our business become more acute in periods of a slow economic growth and high unemployment. Many financial institutions continue to be affected by an uncertain real estate market. While we continue to take steps to decrease and limit our exposure to problem loans, we nonetheless retain direct exposure to the residential and commercial real estate markets, and we are affected by these events.

Our loan portfolio includes commercial real estate loans, residential mortgage loans, and construction and land development loans. Declines in real estate values, home sales volumes and financial stress on borrowers as a result of the uncertain economic environment, including job losses, could have an adverse effect on our borrowers or their customers, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, the current level of low economic growth on a national scale, the occurrence of another national recession, or a deterioration in local economic conditions in our markets could drive losses beyond that which is provided for in our allowance for loan losses and result in the following other consequences: increases in loan delinquencies, problem assets and foreclosures may increase; demand for our products and services may decline; deposits may decrease, which would adversely impact our liquidity position; and collateral for our loans, especially real estate, may decline in value, in turn reducing customers' borrowing power, and reducing the value of assets and collateral associated with our existing loans.

Impact of Recent and Future Legislation. Over the last four and one-half years, Congress and the Treasury Department have adopted legislation and taken actions to address the disruptions in the financial system, declines in the housing market and the overall regulation of financial institutions and the financial system. See Part I, Item 1 - Regulation and Supervision - Dodd-Frank Act for a description of recent significant legislation and regulatory actions affecting the financial industry. The Dodd-Frank Act is expected to increase our cost of doing business, it may limit or expand our permissible activities, and it may affect the competitive balance within our industry and market areas. The Company's management continues to actively monitor the implementation of the Dodd-Frank Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder and assess its probable impact on the business, financial condition, and results of operations of the Company. However, the ultimate effect of the Dodd-Frank Act on the financial services industry in general, and the Company in particular, continues to be uncertain.


New Proposed Capital Rules. On June 7, 2012, the Federal Reserve approved proposed rules that would substantially amend the regulatory risk-based capital rules applicable to the Bank. The FDIC and the OCC subsequently approved these proposed rules on June 12, 2012. The proposed rules implement the "Basel III" regulatory capital reforms and changes required by the Dodd-Frank Act. "Basel III" refers to two consultative documents released by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision in December 2009, the rules text released in December 2010, and loss absorbency rules issued in January 2011, which include significant changes to bank capital, leverage and liquidity requirements. The proposed rules received extensive comments during a comment period that ran through October 2012. In November 2012, the federal bank regulatory agencies jointly stated that they do not expect any of the proposed rules to become effective on the original target date of January 1, 2013. Basel III specified that banks should be compliant with the new capital requirements by January 2015, but on January 6, 2013, the restrictions were eased to provide for annual increases that would result in full compliance in 2019.

The proposed rules include new risk-based capital and leverage ratios, which would be phased in from 2013 to 2019, and would refine the definition of what constitutes "capital" for purposes of calculating those ratios. The proposed new minimum capital level requirements applicable to the Bank under the proposals would be: (i) a new common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of 4.5%; (ii) a Tier 1 capital ratio of 6% (increased from 4%); (iii) a total capital ratio of 8% (unchanged from current rules); and (iv) a Tier 1 leverage ratio of 4% for all institutions. The proposed rules would also establish a "capital conservation buffer" of 2.5% above the new regulatory minimum capital requirements, which must consist entirely of common equity Tier 1 capital and would result in the following minimum ratios: (i) a common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of 7.0%, (ii) a Tier 1 capital ratio of 8.5%, and (iii) a total capital ratio of 10.5%. The new capital conservation buffer requirement would be phased in beginning in January 2016 at 0.625% of risk-weighted assets and would increase by that amount each year until fully implemented in January 2019. An institution would be subject to limitations on paying dividends, engaging in share repurchases, and paying discretionary bonuses if its capital level falls below the buffer amount. These limitations would establish a maximum percentage of eligible retained income that could be utilized for such actions.

Basel III provided discretion for regulators to impose an additional buffer, the "countercyclical buffer," of up to 2.5% of common equity Tier 1 capital to take into account the macro-financial environment and periods of excessive credit growth. However, the proposed rules permit the countercyclical buffer to be applied only to "advanced approach banks" ( i.e. , banks with $250 billion or more in total assets or $10 billion or more in total foreign exposures), which currently excludes the Bank. The proposed rules also implement revisions and clarifications consistent with Basel III regarding the various components of Tier 1 capital, including common equity, unrealized gains and losses, as well as certain instruments that will no longer qualify as Tier 1 capital, some of which would be phased out over time.

The federal bank regulatory agencies also proposed revisions to the prompt corrective action framework, which is designed to place restrictions on insured depository institutions, including the Bank, if their capital levels begin to show signs of weakness. These revisions would take effect January 1, 2015. Under the prompt corrective action requirements, which are designed to complement the capital conservation buffer, insured depository institutions would be required to meet the following increased capital level requirements in order to qualify as "well capitalized:" (i) a new common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of 6.5%;
(ii) a Tier 1 capital ratio of 8% (increased from 6%); (iii) a total capital ratio of 10% (unchanged from current rules); and (iv) a Tier 1 leverage ratio of 5% (increased from 4%).

The proposed rules set forth certain changes for the calculation of risk-weighted assets, which we would be required to utilize beginning January 1, 2015. The standardized approach proposed rule utilizes an increased number of credit risk exposure categories and risk weights, and also addresses: (i) a proposed alternative standard of creditworthiness consistent with Section 939A of the Dodd-Frank Act Act; (ii) revisions to recognition of credit risk mitigation; (iii) rules for risk weighting of equity exposures and past due loans; (iv) revised capital treatment for derivatives and repo-style transactions; and (v) disclosure requirements for top-tier banking organizations with $50 billion or more in total assets that are not subject to the "advance approach rules" that apply to banks with greater than $250 billion in consolidated assets.

Based on our current capital composition and levels, we believe that we would be in compliance with the requirements as set forth in the proposed rules if they were presently in effect.

Changes in Insurance Premiums. The FDIC insures the Bank's deposits up to certain limits. Current economic conditions have increased expectations for bank failures. The FDIC takes control of failed banks and ensures payment of deposits up to insured limits using the resources of the Deposit Insurance Fund. The FDIC charges us premiums to maintain the Deposit Insurance Fund. The FDIC has set the Deposit Insurance Fund long-term target reserve ratio at 2% of insured deposits. Due to recent bank failures, the FDIC insurance fund reserve ratio has fallen below the statutory minimum. The FDIC has implemented a restoration plan beginning January 1, 2009, that is intended to return the reserve ratio to an acceptable level. Further increases in premium assessments are also possible and would increase the Company's expenses. Effective with the June 2011 reporting period, the FDIC changed the assessment


from a deposit-based assessment to an asset-based assessment, and reevaluated the base rate assessed to financial institutions. As a result of these changes, the Company experienced a decrease in premiums. However, increased assessment rates and special assessments could have a material impact on the Company's results of operations.

The Soundness of Other Financial Institutions Could Adversely Affect Us. Financial services institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty, or other relationships. We have exposure to many different industries and counterparties, and we routinely execute transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including brokers and dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, mutual and hedge funds, and other institutional clients. Many of these transactions expose us to credit risk in the event of default by our counterparty or client. In addition, our credit risk may be exacerbated when the collateral held by us cannot be realized or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of the loan or derivative exposure due us. There is no assurance that any such losses would not materially and adversely affect our results of operations or earnings.

Difficult Market Conditions Have Adversely Affected Our Industry. We are particularly exposed to downturns in the U.S. housing market. Dramatic declines in the housing market over the past five years, with falling home prices and increasing foreclosures, unemployment and under-employment, have negatively impacted the credit performance of mortgage loans and securities and resulted in significant write-downs of asset values by financial institutions, including government-sponsored entities, major commercial and investment banks, and regional financial institutions. Reflecting concern about the stability of the financial markets generally and the strength of counterparties, many lenders and institutional investors have continued to observe tight lending standards, including with respect to other financial institutions, although there have been signs that lending is increasing. These market conditions have led to an increased level of commercial and consumer delinquencies, lack of consumer confidence and increased market volatility. A worsening of these conditions would likely exacerbate the adverse effects of these difficult market conditions on the Company and others in the financial institutions industry. In particular, the Company may face the following risks in connection with these events:

We are experiencing, and expect to continue experiencing increased regulation of our industry, particularly as a result of the Dodd-Frank Act and the CFPB. Compliance with such regulation is expected to increase our costs and may limit our ability to pursue business opportunities

Our ability to assess the creditworthiness of our customers may be impaired if the models and approach we use to select, manage and underwrite our customers become less predictive of future behaviors.

The process we use to estimate losses inherent in our credit exposure requires difficult, subjective and complex judgments, including forecasts of economic conditions and how these economic predictions might impair the ability of our borrowers to repay their loans, which may no longer be capable of accurate estimation which may, in turn, impact the reliability of the process.

Our ability to borrow from other financial institutions on favorable terms or at all could be adversely affected by further disruptions in the capital markets or other events, including actions by rating agencies and deteriorating investor expectations.

Competition in our industry could intensify as a result of the increasing consolidation of financial services companies in connection with current market conditions.

We may be required to pay significantly higher deposit insurance premiums because market developments have significantly depleted the insurance fund of the FDIC and reduced the ratio of reserves to insured deposits.

In addition, the Federal Reserve Bank has been injecting vast amounts of liquidity into the banking system to compensate for weaknesses in short-term borrowing markets and other capital markets. A reduction in the Federal Reserve's activities or capacity could reduce liquidity in the markets, thereby increasing funding costs to the Company or reducing the availability of funds to the Company to finance its existing operations.

Concentrations of Real Estate Loans Could Subject the Company to Increased Risks in the Event of a Real Estate Recession or Natural Disaster. A significant portion of the Company's loan portfolio is secured by real estate. The real estate collateral in each case provides an alternate source of repayment in the event of default by the borrower and may deteriorate in value during the time the credit is extended. A weakening of the real estate market in our primary market area could result in an increase in the number of borrowers who default on their loans and a reduction in the value of the collateral securing their loans, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our profitability and asset quality. If we are required to liquidate the collateral securing a loan to satisfy the debt during a period of reduced real estate values, our earnings and capital could be adversely affected. Historically, Indiana and Kentucky have experienced, on occasion, significant natural disasters, including tornadoes and floods. The availability of insurance for losses for such catastrophes is limited. Our operations could also be interrupted by such natural disasters. Acts of nature, including tornadoes and floods, which may cause uninsured damage and other loss of value


to real estate that secures our loans or interruption in our business operations, may also negatively impact our operating results or financial condition.

We are subject to cybersecurity risks and may incur increasing costs in an effort to minimize those risks. Our business employs systems and a website that allow for the secure storage and transmission of customers' proprietary information. Security breaches could expose us to a risk of loss or misuse of this information, litigation and potential liability. We may not have the resources or technical sophistication to anticipate or prevent rapidly evolving types of cyber attacks. Any compromise of our security could result in a violation of applicable privacy and other laws, significant legal and financial exposure, damage to our reputation, and a loss of confidence in our security measures, which could harm our business.

Critical Accounting Policies

Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements contains a summary of the
Company's significant accounting policies for the year ended December 31, 2012. Certain of these policies are important to the portrayal of the Company's financial condition, since they require management to make difficult, complex or subjective judgments, some of which may relate to matters that are inherently uncertain. Management believes that its critical accounting policies include determining the allowance for loan losses, analysis of other-than-temporary impairment on available-for-sale investments, and the valuation of mortgage servicing rights.

Allowance For Loan Losses

The allowance for loan losses is a significant estimate that can and does change based on management's assumptions about specific borrowers and current economic and business conditions, among other factors. Management reviews the adequacy of the allowance for loan losses on at least a quarterly basis. The evaluation by management includes consideration of past loss experience, changes in the composition of the loan portfolio, the current economic condition, the amount of loans outstanding, identified problem loans, and the probability of collecting all amounts due.

The allowance for loan losses represents management's estimate of probable losses inherent in the Company's loan portfolios. In determining the appropriate amount of the allowance for loan losses, management makes numerous assumptions, estimates and assessments.

The Company's strategy for credit risk management includes conservative, centralized credit policies, and uniform underwriting criteria for all loans as well as an overall credit limit for each customer significantly below legal lending limits. The strategy also emphasizes diversification on a geographic, industry and customer level, regular credit quality reviews and quarterly management reviews of large credit exposures and loans experiencing deterioration of credit quality.

The Company's allowance consists of three components: probable losses estimated from individual reviews of specific loans, probable losses estimated from historical loss rates, and probable losses resulting from economic or other deterioration above and beyond what is reflected in the first two components of the allowance.

Larger commercial loans that exhibit probable or observed credit weaknesses are subject to individual review. Where appropriate, reserves are allocated to individual loans based on management's estimate of the borrower's ability to repay the loan given the availability of collateral, other sources of cash flow and legal options available to the Company. Included in the review of individual loans are those that are considered impaired. A loan is considered impaired when, based on current information and events, it is probable that the Company will be unable to collect the scheduled payments of principal or interest when due according to the contractual terms of the loan agreement. Factors considered by management in determining impairment include payment status, collateral value and the probability of collecting scheduled principal and interest payments when due. Loans that experience insignificant payment delays and payment shortfalls generally are not classified as impaired. Management determines the significance of payment delays and payment shortfalls on a case-by-case basis, taking into consideration all of the circumstances surrounding the loan and the borrower, including the length of the delay, the reasons for the delay, the borrower's prior payment record and the amount of the shortfall in relation to the principal and interest owed.

Impairment is measured on a loan-by-loan basis for commercial and construction loans by either the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the loan's effective interest rate, the loan's obtainable market price or the fair value of the collateral if the loan is collateral dependent. Any allowances for impaired loans are measured based on the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the loan's effective interest rate or fair value of the underlying collateral. The Company evaluates the collectibility of both principal and interest when assessing the need for a loss accrual. Historical loss rates are applied to other commercial loans not subject to specific reserve allocations.


Homogenous loans, such as consumer installment and residential mortgage loans, are not individually risk graded. Rather, standard credit scoring systems are used to assess credit risks. Reserves are established for each pool of loans based on the expected net charge-offs for one year. Loss rates are based on the average net charge-off history by loan category.

Historical loss rates for loans may be adjusted for significant factors that, in management's judgment, reflect the impact of any current conditions on loss recognition. Factors which management considers in the analysis include the effects of the national and local economies, trends in the nature and volume of loans (delinquencies, charge-offs and nonaccrual loans), changes in mix, asset quality trends, risk management and loan administration, changes in the internal lending policies and credit standards, collection practices and examination results from bank regulatory agencies and the Company's internal loan review. The portion of the allowance that is related to certain qualitative factors not specifically related to any one loan type is considered the unallocated portion of the reserve.

Allowances on individual loans and historical loss rates are reviewed quarterly and adjusted as necessary based on changing borrower and/or collateral conditions and actual collection and charge-off experience.

The Company's primary market area for lending has been comprised of Clark, Floyd and Jefferson Counties in southeastern Indiana and portions of northeastern Kentucky adjacent to that market. With the acquisition of Dupont, the Company's market area will include Jackson and Jennings Counties in Indiana. When evaluating the adequacy of the allowance, consideration is given to this regional geographic concentration and the closely associated effect changing economic conditions have on the Company's customers.

Other-Than-Temporary Impairment

The Company evaluates all securities on a quarterly basis, and more frequently when economic conditions warrant additional evaluations, for determining if an other-than-temporary impairment (OTTI) exists pursuant to guidelines established by the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC"), in ASC 320. In evaluating the possible impairment of securities, consideration is given to the length of time and the extent to which the fair value has been less than cost, the financial conditions and near-term prospects of the issuer, and the ability and intent of the Company to retain its investment in the issuer for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in fair value. In analyzing an issuer's financial condition, the Company may consider whether the securities are issued by the federal government or its agencies or government-sponsored agencies, whether downgrades by bond rating agencies have occurred, and the results of review of the issuer's financial condition.

If management determines that an investment experienced an OTTI, management must then determine the amount of the OTTI to be recognized in earnings. The Company's consolidated statement of income would reflect the full impairment (that is, the difference between the security's amortized cost basis and fair value) on debt securities that the Company intends to sell or would more likely than not be required to sell before the expected recovery of the amortized cost basis. For securities that management has no intent to sell, and it is not more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell prior to recovery, only the credit loss component of the impairment would be recognized in earnings, while the noncredit loss would be recognized in accumulated other comprehensive income. The credit loss component recognized in earnings is identified as the amount of principal cash flows not expected to be received over the remaining term of the security as projected based on cash flow projections. The Company did not record any other-than-temporary impairment during the year ended December 31, 2012.

Valuation of Mortgage Servicing Rights

The Company recognizes the rights to service mortgage loans as separate assets in the consolidated balance sheet. Under the servicing assets and liabilities accounting guidance (ASC 860-50), servicing rights resulting from the sale or securitization of loans originated by the Company are initially measured at fair value at the date of transfer. Mortgage servicing rights are subsequently carried at the lower of the initial carrying value, adjusted for amortization, or fair value. Mortgage servicing rights are evaluated for impairment based on the fair value of those rights. Factors included in the calculation of fair value of the mortgage servicing rights include estimating the present value of future net cash flows, market loan prepayment speeds for similar loans, discount rates, servicing costs, and other economic factors. Servicing rights are amortized over the estimated period of net servicing revenue. It is likely that these economic factors will change over the life of the mortgage servicing rights, resulting in different valuations of the mortgage servicing rights. The differing valuations will affect the carrying value of the mortgage servicing rights on the consolidated balance sheet as well as the income recorded from loan servicing in the consolidated income statement. As of December 31, 2012, mortgage servicing rights had a carrying value of $679,000.

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