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PKT > SEC Filings for PKT > Form 10-K on 15-Mar-2013All Recent SEC Filings

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Annual Report

Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. We use words such as "may," "will," "expect," "anticipate," "estimate," "intend," "plan," "predict," "potential," "believe," "should" and similar expressions to identify forward-looking statements. These statements appearing throughout our Annual Report on Form 10-K are statements regarding our intent, belief, or current expectations, primarily regarding our operations. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which apply only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements for many reasons, including those set forth under "Business," "Risk Factors" and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


We are a leading provider of Intelligent Policy Enforcement ("IPE") solutions that enable mobile and broadband network operators and entities managing private networks including higher education institutions, businesses and government entities (collectively referred to as network operators) to gain enhanced visibility into, and control of, their networks. Our solutions provide granular network intelligence intended to enable network operators to improve the quality and longevity of their networks, better monetize their network infrastructure investments, control security hazards and create and deploy new services for their users. We believe that the intelligence our products provide about users and their usage enables our network operator customers to make qualified business decisions. Our network operator customers include mobile service providers, broadband service providers, cable multiple system operators ("MSOs"), Internet Service Providers ("ISPs"), educational institutions, enterprises and government agencies. We sell our products directly to network operators; through partners, value added resellers and system integrators; and to other network solution suppliers for incorporation into their network solutions.

Our IPE products are part of the high-growth market for mobile packet and broadband core products. The market for IPE products was expected to reach $601.7 million in 2012 and is expected to grow to $1.8 billion in 2016, a 2011-2016 compounded annual growth rate of 30.4%. Our bundled products deliver a solution that is a key element of the mobile packet and broadband core ecosystems. Our solutions are often integrated with additional elements in the mobile packet and broadband core including Policy Management and Charging functions and are compliant with the widely adopted 3rd Generation Partnership Program ("3GPP") standard. In order to respond to rapidly increasing demand for network capacity due to increasing subscribers and usage, network operators are seeking higher degrees of intelligence, optimization, network management, service creation and delivery in order to differentiate their offerings and deliver a high quality of experience to their subscribers. We believe the need to create more intelligent and innovative mobile and broadband networks will continue to drive demand for our products.

Our products are marketed under the PacketLogic and Network Application Visibility Library brand name. We have a broad spectrum of products delivering IPE at the access, edge and core layers of the network. Our products are designed to offer maximum flexibility to our customers and enable differentiated services and revenue-enhancing applications, all while delivering a high quality of service for subscribers.

We face competition from suppliers of standalone and integrated IPE and deep packet inspection ("DPI") products including Allot Communications Ltd., Tektronix (acquired Arbor Networks), Blue Coat Systems, Brocade Communications Systems, Cisco Systems, Inc., Citrix Systems (acquired Bytemobile), SAIC (acquired Cloudshield Technologies), Ericsson, F5 Networks, Huawei Technologies Company, and Sandvine Corporation. Some of our competitors supply platform products with different degrees of DPI functionality, such as switch/routers, routers, session border controllers and VoIP switches. Some of our competitors are also our customer.

Most of our competitors are larger and more established enterprises with substantially greater financial and other resources. Some competitors may be willing to reduce prices and accept lower profit margins to compete with us. As a result of such competition, we could lose market share and sales, or be forced to reduce our prices to meet competition. However, we do not believe there is a dominant supplier in our market. Based on our belief in the superiority of our technology, we believe that we have an opportunity to increase our market share and benefit from what we believe will be growth in the DPI market.

We were incorporated in 2002 and became a public company in October 2003 following our merger with Zowcom, Inc., a publicly-traded Nevada corporation. In 2006, we completed acquisitions of the Netintact entities and in 2013, we acquired Vineyard Networks, Inc. Our Company is headquartered in Fremont, California and we have key operating entities in Kelowna, Canada and Varberg, Sweden, as well as a geographically dispersed sales force. We sell our products through our direct sales force, resellers, distributors, systems integrators and other equipment manufacturers in the Americas, Asia Pacific and Europe.

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Critical Accounting Policies

Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon financial statements which have been prepared in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate these estimates. We base our estimates on historical experience and on assumptions that are believed to be reasonable. These estimates and assumptions provide a basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions, and these differences may be material. Our significant accounting policies are summarized in Note 2 of our Notes to Financial Statements.

In accordance with Securities and Exchange Commission guidance, those material accounting policies that we believe are the most critical to an investor's understanding of our financial results and condition are discussed below.

Revenue Recognition

In October 2009, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2009-13, "Multiple-Deliverable Revenue Arrangements" and ASU No. 2009-14, "Certain Revenue Arrangements that Include Software Elements." We adopted the new guidance on a prospective basis for new or materially modified revenue arrangements as of January 1, 2011. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on our financial statements and is not expected to have a material impact in the future.

Our most common sale involves the integration of software and a hardware appliance, where the hardware and software work together to deliver the essential functionality of the product. We recognize product revenue when all of the following have occurred: (1) we have entered into a legally binding arrangement with a customer resulting in the existence of persuasive evidence of an arrangement; (2) delivery has occurred, evidenced when product title transfers to the customer; (3) customer payment is deemed fixed or determinable and free of contingencies and significant uncertainties; and (4) collection is probable.

Product revenue consists of revenue from sales of appliances and software licenses. Product sales include a perpetual license to our software that is essential to the functionality of the hardware, and on occasion include licenses to additional software. Shipping charges billed to customers are included in product revenue and the related shipping costs are included in cost of product revenue. Virtually all sales include post-contract support ("PCS") services (included in support revenue) which consist of software updates and customer support. Software updates provide customers access to a constantly growing library of electronic Internet traffic identifiers (signatures) and rights to non-specific software product upgrades, maintenance releases and patches released during the term of the support period. Support includes Internet access to technical content, telephone and Internet access to technical support personnel and hardware support.

Receipt of a customer purchase order is the primary method of determining that persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists.

Delivery generally occurs when a product is delivered to a common carrier F.O.B. shipping point. However, product revenue based on channel partner purchase orders is recorded based on sell-through to the end user customers until such time as we have established significant experience with the channel partner's ability to complete the sales process, which requires judgment. Additionally, when we introduce new products for which there is no historical evidence of acceptance history, revenue is recognized on the basis of end-user acceptance until such history has been established.

Fees are typically considered to be fixed or determinable at the inception of an arrangement, generally based on specific products and quantities to be delivered. Substantially all of our contracts do not include rights of return or acceptance provisions. To the extent that agreements contain such terms, we recognize revenue once the acceptance provisions or right of return lapses. Payment terms to customers generally range from net 30 to 90 days. In the event payment terms are provided that differ from standard business practices, the fees are deemed to not be fixed or determinable and revenue is recognized when the payments become due, provided the remaining criteria for revenue recognition have been met.

We assess the ability to collect from our customers based on a number of factors, including credit worthiness of the customer and past transaction history of the customer. If the customer is not deemed credit worthy, we defer all of the revenue from the arrangement until payment is received and all other revenue recognition criteria have been met.

Customer orders normally contain multiple items. The initial product delivery consists of the hardware and software elements and these elements have standalone value to the customer. Through the year ended December 31, 2012, in virtually all of our contracts, the only elements that remained undelivered at the time of product delivery were PCS services. Prior to January 1, 2011, the majority of our transactions were within the scope of the software revenue recognition guidance. We accordingly recognized revenue for delivered items using the residual method, after allocating revenue to PCS services based on vendor specific objective evidence of fair value ("VSOE").

Under the revenue recognition guidance discussed in the first paragraph above, we allocate revenue to each element in an arrangement based on relative selling price using a selling price hierarchy. The selling price for a deliverable is based on its VSOE if available, third party evidence ("TPE") if VSOE is not available, or our best estimate of selling price ("ESP") if neither VSOE nor TPE is available. The maximum revenue recognized on a delivered element is limited to the amount that is not contingent upon the delivery of additional items. In arrangements that include non-essential software ("software deliverables"), revenue is allocated to each separate unit of accounting for the non-software deliverables and to the software deliverables as a group using the relative selling prices of each of the deliverables in the arrangement. Revenue allocated to the software deliverables as a group is then allocated first to the PCS services based on VSOE, and then to the software, using the residual method under the software revenue recognition guidance.

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We determine VSOE for PCS based on the rate charged to customers based upon renewal pricing for PCS. Each contract or purchase order entered into includes a stated rate for PCS. The renewal rate is generally equal to the stated rate in the original contract. We have a history of such renewals, the vast majority of which are at the stated renewal rate on a customer by customer basis. PCS revenue is recognized ratably over the life of the contract. A small portion of service revenue is derived from providing training on products and we use the completed-contract method to recognize such revenue.

As our hardware and software products are rarely sold separately, we generally do not have VSOE for these products, and TPE is not available. We determine the ESP for hardware and software deliverables considering internal factors such as discounting and pricing policies and external factors such as market conditions in different geographies and competitive positioning.

In certain contracts, billing terms may be agreed upon based on performance milestones such as the execution of a measurement test, a partial delivery or the completion of a specified service. Payments received before the unconditional acceptance of a specific set of deliverables are recorded as deferred revenue until the conditional acceptance has been waived.

Valuation of Long-Lived Assets and Goodwill

We review our long-lived assets including property and equipment and purchased intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. Such events or circumstances that could trigger an impairment review include a significant disposal of a portion of such assets, an adverse change in the market involving the business employing the related asset, a significant decrease in the benefits realized from an acquired business, difficulties or delays in integrating the business or a significant change in the operations of an acquired business.

An impairment test involves a comparison of undiscounted cash flows from the use of the asset to the carrying value of the asset. Measurement of an impairment loss is based on the amount that the carrying value of the asset exceeds its fair value. No impairment losses were incurred in the periods presented.

We review our goodwill for impairment annually during the fourth quarter of the year or more frequently if an event or circumstance indicates that an impairment loss has occurred. The identification and measurement of goodwill impairment involves the estimation of fair value at a reporting unit level. We operate in one segment, which is considered to be the sole reporting unit, and therefore, we test our goodwill at the enterprise level.

Goodwill impairment is determined using a two-step process. The first step of the goodwill impairment test is used to identify potential impairment by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the fair value of a reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, goodwill of the reporting unit is considered not impaired and the second step of the impairment test is unnecessary. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the second step of the goodwill impairment test is performed to measure the amount of impairment loss, if any.

The second step of the goodwill impairment test compares the implied fair value of the reporting unit's goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit's goodwill exceeds the implied fair value of that goodwill, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. The implied fair value of goodwill is determined in the same manner as the amount of goodwill recognized in a business combination. That is, the fair value of the reporting unit is allocated to all of the assets and liabilities of that unit (including any unrecognized intangible assets) as if the reporting unit had been acquired in a business combination and the fair value of the reporting unit was the purchase price paid to acquire the reporting unit.

As of December 31, 2012, we completed the first step of our annual impairment test which did not indicate impairment of goodwill. Therefore, the second step of the impairment test was not necessary.

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

The allowance for doubtful accounts reduces trade receivables to the amount that is ultimately believed to be collectible. When evaluating the adequacy of the allowance for doubtful accounts, we consider factors such as historical experience, credit quality, age of the accounts receivable balances, geographic or country-specific risks and economic conditions that may affect a customer's ability to pay. The allowance for doubtful accounts is reviewed regularly and adjusted if necessary based on our assessment of a customer's ability to pay. Individual accounts receivable are written off when all collection efforts have been exhausted.

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Stock-Based Compensation

We apply the provisions of FASB Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") Topic 718, which requires the measurement and recognition of compensation expense for all share-based payment awards made to employees and non-employee directors based on estimated fair values. Under the fair value recognition provisions of this statement, our stock-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the award and is recognized as an expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, which is the vesting period. We calculate the fair value of stock options using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The determination of the fair value of stock-based payment awards using an option-pricing model is affected by our stock price as well as assumptions regarding a number of complex and subjective variables. These variables include our expected stock price volatility over the term of the awards, actual and projected employee stock option exercise behaviors, risk-free interest rate and expected dividends.

We estimate the expected volatility of our common stock-based on its historical volatility over a period equivalent to the expected term of the option. We estimate the expected term of stock options using historical exercise data. We use the exact number of days between the grant and the exercise dates to calculate a weighted average of the holding periods for all awards (i.e., the average interval between the grant and exercise or post-vesting cancellation dates), adjusted as appropriate. We determine the risk-free interest rate for a period equivalent to the expected term of the option by extrapolating from the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of the grant. We have never paid cash dividends and do not anticipate paying cash dividends in the foreseeable future. We estimate forfeitures based on our historical experience.

Accounting for Income Taxes

We record a tax provision for the anticipated tax consequences of the reported results of operations. In accordance with ASC Topic 740, the provision for income taxes is computed using the asset and liability method, under which deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities, and for the operating losses and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the currently enacted tax rates that apply to taxable income in effect for the years in which those assets are expected to be realized or settled. We record a valuation allowance to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount that is believed more likely than not to be realized. Management believes that sufficient uncertainty exists regarding the future realization of deferred tax assets and, accordingly, a full valuation allowance has been provided against net deferred tax assets. Tax expense has taken into account any change in the valuation allowance for deferred tax assets where the realization of various deferred tax assets is subject to uncertainty.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In February 2013, the FASB issued ASU No. 2013-02, "Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reporting of Amounts Reclassified Out of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income," ("ASU 2013-02"). ASU 2013-02 finalizes the requirements of ASU 2011-05 that ASU 2011-12 deferred, clarifying how to report the effect of significant reclassifications out of accumulated other comprehensive income. ASU 2013-02 is to be applied prospectively. We do not anticipate that the adoption of this ASU will materially change the presentation of our consolidated financial statements.

In May 2011, the FASB issued ASU No. 2011-04, "Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Amendments to Achieve Common Fair Value Measurement and Disclosure Requirements in U.S. GAAP and International Financial Reporting Standards ("IFRS")." The amendments in this ASU generally represent clarification of Topic 820, but also include instances where a particular principle or requirement for measuring fair value or disclosing information about fair value measurements has changed. This update results in common principles and requirements for measuring fair value and for disclosing information about fair value measurements in accordance with GAAP and IFRS. The amendments are effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2011 and are to be applied prospectively. Early application is not permitted. The adoption of ASU 2011-04 did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

In June 2011, the FASB issued ASU 2011-05, "Comprehensive Income (Topic 220):
Presentation of Comprehensive Income." Specifically, the new guidance allows an entity to present components of net income or other comprehensive income in one continuous statement, referred to as the statement of comprehensive income, or in two separate, but consecutive statements. The new guidance eliminates the current option to report other comprehensive income and its components in the statement of changes in equity. While the new guidance changes the presentation of comprehensive income, there are no changes to the components that are recognized in net income or other comprehensive income under current accounting guidance. The new guidance is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2011 and is to be applied retrospectively. The adoption of ASU 2011-05 did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

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Results of Operations


                                  Year Ended December 31,                              Year Ended December 31,
                                                        Increase                                            Increase
                        2012          2011             (Decrease)             2011         2010            (Decrease)
                         ($ in thousands)                                     ($ in thousands)

Net product revenue   $ 47,723     $   37,450     $ 10,273          27  %   $ 37,450     $ 15,825     $ 21,625         137 %
Net support revenue     11,904          6,954        4,950          71  %      6,954        4,498        2,456          55 %
Total revenue         $ 59,627     $   44,404     $ 15,223          34  %   $ 44,404     $ 20,323     $ 24,081         118 %

Our revenue is derived from two sources: 1) product revenue, which includes sales of our hardware appliances bundled with software licenses, separate software licenses or software upgrades; and 2) service revenue, which consists primarily of software maintenance and customer support revenue and secondarily of professional services. Maintenance and customer support revenue is recognized over the support period, which is typically twelve months.

Total revenue in 2012 was $59.6 million, an increase of 34% compared with $44.4 million in 2011, and reflected a 27% increase in product revenue and a 71% increase in support revenue. The increase in product revenue in 2012 compared to 2011 reflected revenue from network operator customer relationships and follow-on orders from existing customers. During the year, we added a number of new large network operator customers, including mobile service providers, fixed line service providers, and cable multiple system operators; and we continued to add new higher education customers. In part, new network operator customers reflected our geographic sales expansion in Japan and the Middle East. Product revenue reflected increased sales of our mid-range PL8000 series products and PacketLogic Subscriber Management software, as well as initial sales of our high-end PL20000 series products. The increase in support revenue in 2012 reflected the continued expansion of the installed base of our product to which we have sold ongoing support services and an increase in professional services revenue. In 2012, revenue from one customer, Shaw Communications, Inc., represented 16% of net revenues.

Total revenue in 2011 was $44.4 million, an increase of 118% compared with $20.3 million in 2010, and reflected a 137% increase in product revenue and a 55% increase in support revenue. The increase in product revenue in 2011 compared to 2010 reflected revenue from new service provider relationships and follow-on orders from existing customers. During 2011, we added a number of new large network operator customers, including mobile service providers, fixed line service providers, and cable multiple system operators, and we also added new higher education customers. Product revenue reflected increased sales of our mid-range PL8000 series and high-end PL10000 series products. The increase in support revenue in 2011 reflected the expansion of the installed base of our product to which we have sold ongoing support services. In 2011, revenue from two customers, Shaw Communications, Inc. and Jet Infosystems, represented 27% and 12% of net revenues, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2010, revenue from one customer, Cox Communications, Inc., represented 11% of net revenues.

Sales to customers located in the United States as a percentage of total revenues were 49%, 51% and 59% for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively.

For the year ending December 31, 2013, we expect total revenue to increase between 25% and 30% compared with total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2012.

Cost of Sales

Cost of sales includes: (i) material costs and direct labor for products sold,
(ii) costs expected to be incurred for warranty, (iii) adjustments to inventory
values, including the write-down of slow moving or obsolete inventory and (iv)
costs for support and professional service personnel.

The following table presents the breakdown of cost of sales by category for the
years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011:

                                Year Ended December 31,                        Year Ended December 31,
. . .
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