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PACB > SEC Filings for PACB > Form 10-K on 15-Mar-2013All Recent SEC Filings

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Annual Report


You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included in this Form 10-K. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this Form 10-K, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business and related financing, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. You should read the "Risk Factors" section of this Form 10-K for a discussion of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis.


We develop, manufacture and market an integrated platform for high resolution genetic analysis. Combining advances in nanofabrication, biochemistry, molecular biology, surface chemistry and optics, we created a technology platform called single molecule, real-time, or SMRT, technology. Our initial focus is to offer our SMRT technology to the DNA sequencing market where we have developed and commercialized our first product, the PacBio RS, a third generation sequencing platform. The PacBio RS leverages our proprietary consumables, including SMRT Cells and reagent kits, to provide a complete solution to the customer.

From our incorporation in 2000 through the first quarter of 2011 we primarily focused on developing our technology, undertaking engineering activities to develop our products, conducting initial marketing of our products, and pre-production activities associated with the commercial launch of the PacBio RS during April 2011. We have financed our operations primarily through the issuance of common stock and convertible preferred stock resulting in $587.1 million in net proceeds. Since our inception, we have incurred significant net losses and we expect to continue to experience significant losses as we invest in developing and taking advantage of market opportunities for our products, servicing and supporting initial customers, development of enhancements and updates to existing products, development of future products, and sales and administrative infrastructure. As of December 31, 2012, we had an accumulated deficit of $536.0 million. We incurred net losses of $94.5 million, $109.4 million and $140.2 million in 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively.

2012 Business Events and Trends

Economic Environment. During most of 2012, the reduction and anticipated reduction in U.S. government funding for research through the National Institute of Health, or NIH, curtailed demand for sequencing products in the U.S. In addition, government funding for research in Europe declined significantly. This contributed to an overall decline in sales of capital equipment such as our PacBio RS system. During 2012, we recorded bookings for 12 new PacBio RS systems compared to bookings for 26 new PacBio RS systems in 2011.

Backlog Reduction. Before we launched our initial products during the second quarter of 2011, we took orders starting in early 2010, and had built a backlog of instrument orders totaling 44 units. During the second quarter of 2011 through the second quarter of 2012, we installed 66 units while booking 23 new units, which brought our backlog down to one unit by the end of the second quarter of 2012. Revenue recorded for the third quarter of 2012 was $2.8 million and included no instrument revenue, compared with an average revenue of $10 million in the prior five quarters which included revenues from the 66 installed instruments. Starting from the fourth quarter of 2012 and going forward, we expect quarterly revenues to reflect the installation of instruments booked from recent quarters. We generally expect installation of new units to occur one to two quarters after they are booked.

Cash Use. For the year ended December 31, 2012, our balance of cash and investments declined $76.8 million. We plan on reducing our rate of cash usage further by growing revenues and controlling expenses. With $100.6 million in cash and investments at December 31, 2012, we have cash to fund our operations beyond 2013.

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However, we have additionally entered into various financing arrangements and plan to raise additional funds during 2013 as discussed in "Liquidity and Capital Resources" below.

Product Enhancements. During 2012, we introduced a number of product enhancements that improved the performance and reliability of our products. In the first quarter of 2012, we launched our C2 product release, which doubled readlengths to approximately 3,000 bases on average, with 5 percent of those reads above 8,000 bases, increased throughput, defined as mappable data per SMRT cell, reduced input sample requirements, and significantly improved system reliability. During the second quarter, we launched new software which provided customers with the ability to detect base modifications using the kinetic information captured by the PacBio RS system. During the third quarter, we introduced the Automated MagBead Station, which simplifies sample preparation, and enables customers to generate more consistent, high-quality data from lower quality starting samples. The MagBead Station can also further reduce the amount of input sample required. Since the beginning of the year, we have introduced product and method improvements that have cut the sample input required to sequence with the PacBio RS system by approximately 90%. During the fourth quarter, we introduced a follow-on software release that included automated tools for detecting and characterizing methylated bases in bacteria, which enables the study of bacterial methylomes on a large scale. We also introduced our XL chemistry and software release in the fourth quarter, which further increased the readlength and throughput capabilities of our system. With this most recent chemistry and software, our customers can now generate readlengths of 4,500 bases on average, with 5 percent of those reads above 12,000 bases. Finally, during the fourth quarter, we made available an early version of new secondary analysis software on our DevNet site, which enables customers to assemble genomes with 99.999% accuracy at 20x coverage using only standard, PacBio long reads.

While such trends are important to understanding and evaluating our financial results, the other transactions, events and trends discussed in "Risk Factors" in Item 1A of this report may also materially impact our business operations and financial results.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations is based upon our Consolidated Financial Statements, which we have prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP"). The preparation of these financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, cost of revenue, and operating expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

An accounting policy is deemed to be critical if it requires an accounting estimate to be made based on assumptions about matters that are highly uncertain at the time the estimate is made, if different estimates reasonably could have been used, or if changes in the estimate that are reasonably likely to occur could materially impact the financial statements.

Revenue Recognition

Our revenue is generated primarily from the sale of products and services. Product revenue consists of sales of our PacBio RS instrument and related consumables, and service and other revenue primarily consists of revenue earned from product maintenance agreements. Grant revenue reflects revenue from government grants that generally provide cost reimbursement for certain types of expenditures in return for research and development activities over a contractually defined period. Revenue from grants is recognized in the period during which the related costs are incurred, provided that the conditions under which the grants were provided have been met.

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We recognize product and service revenue when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, the price is fixed or determinable, and collectability is reasonably assured. In instances where final acceptance of the product or system is required, revenue is deferred until all acceptance criteria have been met. Revenue for product sales is generally recognized upon customer acceptance. Revenue for product maintenance agreements is recognized when earned, which is generally ratably over the service period.

In order to assess whether the price is fixed or determinable, we evaluate whether refund rights exist. If refund rights exist or payment terms are based on future performance, we defer revenue recognition until the price becomes fixed or determinable. We assess collectability based on a number of factors, including customer creditworthiness. If we determine that collection of amounts due is not reasonably assured, revenue recognition is deferred until receipt of payment.

We regularly enter into contracts from which revenue is derived from multiple deliverables including a mix of products and or services. Revenue recognition for contracts with multiple deliverables is based on the individual units of accounting determined to exist in the contract. A delivered item is considered a separate unit of accounting when 1) the delivered item has value to the customer on a stand-alone basis; and 2) when a general right of return exists, the delivery or performance of an undelivered item is considered probable and under our control. Items are considered to have stand-alone value when they are sold separately by any vendor or when the customer could resell the item on a stand-alone basis. Our revenue arrangements generally do not have a general right of return. When a deliverable does not meet the criteria to be considered a separate unit of accounting, we group it with other deliverables that, when combined, meet the criteria, and the appropriate allocation of arrangement consideration and revenue recognition is determined. Consideration is allocated at the inception of the contract to all deliverables based on their relative selling price. In order to determine the relative selling price of a deliverable, we apply, in order, the following hierarchy: 1) vendor-specific objective evidence ("VSOE"); 2) third-party evidence if VSOE is not available; and 3) our best estimate of selling price for the deliverable if neither VSOE nor third-party evidence is available.

In order to establish VSOE, we must regularly sell the product or service on a standalone basis with a substantial majority of sales priced within a relatively narrow range. If an insufficient number of standalone sales exist and VSOE cannot be determined, we then consider whether third party evidence can be used to establish selling price. Due to the lack of similar products and services sold by other companies within our industry, we have not established selling price using third-party evidence. If neither VSOE nor third party evidence of selling price exists, we determine our best estimate of selling price using a combination of prices set by our pricing committee adjusted for applicable discounts and customer orders received to date.

Deferred revenue primarily represents product maintenance agreement revenue that is expected to be recognized over the related service period, generally one to three years.

Cost of Revenue

Cost of revenue reflects the direct cost of product components, third party manufacturing services and our internal manufacturing overhead and customer service infrastructure costs incurred to produce, deliver, maintain and support our instruments, consumables, and services.

Manufacturing overhead, comprised mainly of labor costs, is determined and capitalized into inventory based on management's estimate of normal manufacturing capacity. Normal capacity is the production level expected to be achieved over a number of periods under normal circumstances with available resources. Our current manufacturing volumes are below expected normal capacities, therefore manufacturing overhead incurred during the period exceeds the amounts absorbed into inventory and included in cost of revenue. As excess manufacturing resources are engaged in next generation product research and development, production of product used internally for R&D, and other R&D support activities, manufacturing costs in excess of amounts reflected in inventory and cost of revenue are expensed as a component of research and development expense during the period in which the expenses are incurred.

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Service costs include the direct costs of components used in support, repair and maintenance of customer instruments as well as the cost of personnel, materials and support infrastructure necessary to support the installed customer base. As we remain in the early stages of the commercial launch of our products, the capacity of our existing service infrastructure exceeds the number of installed customer instruments. Therefore, management has estimated the capacity of the existing service infrastructure and recognizes service related cost of revenue based on the installed base. As a result, total service infrastructure costs exceed the costs associated with the support of customer instruments and such excess costs are included as a component of sales, general and administrative expense.

Stock-Based Compensation

Stock-based compensation expense for all stock-based compensation awards is based on the grant date fair value estimated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. We have limited historical information available to support the underlying estimates of certain assumptions required to value stock options. The expected term of options is estimated based on the simplified method. We do not have sufficient trading history to solely rely on the volatility of our own common stock for establishing expected volatility. Therefore, we based our expected volatility on the historical stock volatilities of our common stock as well as several comparable publicly listed companies over a period equal to the expected term of the options. The risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of grant for the expected term of the stock option. We estimate our forfeiture rate based on an analysis of our actual forfeitures and will continue to evaluate the adequacy of the forfeiture rate based on actual forfeiture experience, analysis of employee turnover behavior and other factors. The impact from a forfeiture rate adjustment will be recognized in full in the period of adjustment, and if the actual number of future forfeitures differs from that estimated, we may be required to record adjustments to stock-based compensation expense in future periods. We recognize compensation expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period. We have elected to use the simplified method to calculate the beginning pool of excess tax benefits.

The assumptions used in calculating the fair value of share-based payment awards represent management's best estimates, but these estimates involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management judgment. As a result, if factors change and we use different assumptions, our stock-based compensation expense could be materially different in the future. In addition, if our actual forfeiture rate is materially different from our estimate, the stock-based compensation expense could be significantly different from what we have recorded in the current period. As of December 31, 2012, $19.4 million of total unrecognized compensation expense related to stock options was expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.9 years. See Note 10 of the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements for a further discussion on stock-based compensation.

Impairment of Long-lived Assets

We assess impairment of long-lived assets, which include property and equipment, on at least an annual basis and when events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amount may not be recoverable. Circumstances which could trigger a review include, but are not limited to, significant decreases in the market price of the asset, significant adverse changes in the business climate or legal factors, accumulation of costs significantly in excess of the amount originally expected for the acquisition or construction of the asset, current period cash flow or operating losses combined with a history of losses or a forecast of continuing losses associated with the use of the asset, or expectations that the asset will more likely than not be sold or disposed of significantly before the end of its estimated useful life. To date we have not recorded any impairment charges.


Inventory is valued at the lower of the standard cost, which approximates actual cost, or market. Cost is determined using the FIFO (first-in, first-out) method. Adjustments to reduce the cost of inventory to its net realizable value, if required, are made for estimated excess or obsolete balances.

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We enter into inventory purchases and commitments so that we can meet future shipment schedules based on forecasted demand for our products. The business environment in which we operate is subject to rapid changes in technology and customer demand. We perform a detailed assessment of inventory each period, which includes a review of, among other factors, demand requirements, product life cycle and development plans, component cost trends, product pricing, product expiration and quality issues. Based on this analysis, we record adjustments to inventory for potentially excess, obsolete or impaired goods, when appropriate, in order to report inventory at net realizable value. These inventory adjustments may be required if actual demand, component costs, supplier arrangements, or product life cycles differ from our estimates. Any such adjustments would result in a charge to our results of operations.


We categorize leases at their inception as either operating or capital leases. On certain of our lease agreements, we received tenant improvement allowances, rent holidays and other incentives. Rent expense is recorded on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. The difference between rent expense accrued and amounts paid under the lease agreement is recorded as lease incentives in the accompanying balance sheets. Leasehold improvements are capitalized at cost and depreciated over the lesser of their expected useful life or the life of the lease. To the extent leasehold improvement allowances are afforded to us by the landlord, we record the tenant improvements as leasehold improvement assets with a corresponding lease incentive liability. We establish assets and liabilities for the construction costs incurred under build-to-suit lease arrangements to the extent we are involved in the construction of structural improvements or take some level of financial or construction risk prior to commencement of a lease. For further information, see "Note 5. Facility Financing and Debt Obligations" in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K.

For build-to-suit lease arrangements, we evaluate the extent of our financial and operational involvement in the tenant improvements to determine whether we are considered the owner of the construction project under GAAP. When we are considered the owner of a project, we record the shell of the facility at its fair value at the date construction commences with a corresponding facility financing obligation. Improvements to the facility during the construction project are capitalized and, to the extent funded by lessor afforded incentives, with corresponding increases to the facility financing obligation. Payments we make under leases in which we are considered the owner of the facility are allocated to land rental expense, based on the relative values of the land and building at the commencement of construction, reductions of the facility financing obligation and interest expense recognized on the outstanding obligation. To the extent gross future payments do not equal the recorded liability, the liability is settled upon return of the facility to the lessor. Any difference between the book value of the assets and remaining facility obligation are recorded in other income (expense), net. For existing arrangements, the differences are expected to be immaterial.

Income Taxes

We are subject to income taxes in the U.S. and certain states in which we operate, and we use estimates in determining our provisions for income taxes. Significant management judgment is required in determining our provision for income taxes, deferred tax assets and liabilities and any valuation allowance recorded against net deferred tax assets in accordance with U.S. GAAP. These estimates and judgments occur in the calculation of tax credits, benefits, and deductions, and in the calculation of certain tax assets and liabilities, which arise from differences in the timing of recognition of revenue and expense for tax and financial statement purposes, as well as the interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions. Significant changes to these estimates may result in an increase or decrease to our tax provision in the current or subsequent period.

We recognize a valuation allowance against our net deferred tax assets if it is more likely than not that some portion of the deferred tax assets will not be fully realizable. This assessment requires judgment as to the likelihood and amounts of future taxable income by tax jurisdiction. At December 31, 2012, we maintained a full valuation allowance against all of our deferred tax assets which totaled $214.3 million, including net operating loss carryforwards and research and development tax credits of $186.9 million and $18.9 million, respectively.

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As of December 31, 2012, we had federal and state net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $476.4 million and $434.9 million, respectively, available to reduce future taxable income, if any. The federal net operating loss carryforward begins expiring in 2024, and the state net operating loss carryforward begins expiring in 2014.

We also had federal and California state research and development credit carryforwards of approximately $15.3 million and $18.0 million, respectively, as of December 31, 2012. The federal research and development credits begin expiring in 2024 if not utilized. The California tax research and development credits can be carried forward indefinitely.

We assess all material positions taken in any income tax return, including all significant uncertain positions, in all tax years that are still subject to assessment or challenge by relevant taxing authorities. Assessing an uncertain tax position begins with the initial determination of the position's sustainability and is measured at the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. As of each balance sheet date, unresolved uncertain tax positions must be reassessed, and we will determine whether the factors underlying the sustainability assertion have changed and the amount of the recognized tax benefit is still appropriate. As of December 31, 2012, 2011, and 2010, our total unrecognized tax benefits were $10.0 million, $9.3 million and $6.4 million, respectively, of which none of the tax benefits, if recognized, would affect the effective income tax rate due to the valuation allowance that currently offsets deferred tax assets. We do not anticipate the total amount of unrecognized income tax benefits to significantly increase or decrease in the next 12 months.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

See "Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for a full description of recent accounting pronouncements including the respective expected dates of adoption and effects on our results of operations and financial condition.

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Results of Operations

Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2012 and 2011

                                                                         Increase/         % Increase/
                                       Years Ended December 31,          (Decrease)        (Decrease)
(in thousands, except percentages)       2012              2011
                                            (in thousands)
Product revenue                      $     20,089       $   31,486      $    (11,397 )              (36 %)
Service and other revenue                   4,959            1,487             3,472                233 %
Grant revenue                                 935              890                45                  5 %

Total revenue                              25,983           33,863            (7,880 )              (23 %)

Cost of Revenue:
Cost of product revenue                    18,796           18,725                71                  0 %
Cost of service and other revenue           6,247            2,104             4,143                197 %

Total cost of revenue                      25,043           20,829             4,214                 20 %

Gross profit                                  940           13,034           (12,094 )              (93 %)

Operating Expense:
Research and development                   47,623           76,080           (28,457 )              (37 %)
Sales, general and administrative          47,655           46,710               945                  2 %

Total operating expense                    95,278          122,790           (27,512 )              (22 %)

Operating loss                            (94,338 )       (109,756 )          15,418                 14 %
Other income (expense), net                  (127 )            368              (495 )             (135 %)

Net loss                             $    (94,465 )     $ (109,388 )    $     14,923                 14 %


Revenue for the year ended December 31, 2012 totaled $26.0 million compared to $33.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2011. We began commercial shipments of our PacBio RS during the second quarter of 2011. Product revenue for the year ended December 31, 2012 consisted of $15.5 million from sales of our PacBio RS instruments and $4.6 million from sales of consumables compared to $30.2 million from sales of our PacBio RS instruments and $1.3 million from sales of consumables for the year ended December 31, 2011. The decrease in instrument revenue was primarily due to a 52% decrease in the number of instrument deliveries from 48 during 2011 to 23 during 2012.

Service and other revenue primarily consists of revenue derived from product maintenance agreements, while grant revenue represents amounts earned under . . .

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