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GHDX > SEC Filings for GHDX > Form 10-K on 15-Mar-2013All Recent SEC Filings

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Form 10-K for GENOMIC HEALTH INC


15-Mar-2013

Annual Report


ITEM 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included in Item 8 of this report. Historical results are not necessarily indicative of future results.

Business Overview

We are a global healthcare company that provides actionable genomic information to personalize cancer treatment decisions. We offer our Oncotype DX tests as a clinical laboratory service, where we analyze the expression levels of genes in tumor tissue samples and provide physicians with a quantitative gene expression profile expressed as a single quantitative score, which we call a Recurrence Score for invasive breast cancer and colon cancer, and a DCIS Score for ductal carcinoma in situ, or DCIS.

In January 2004, we launched our first Oncotype DX test, which is used to predict the likelihood of cancer recurrence and the likelihood of chemotherapy benefit in early stage invasive breast cancer patients. In January 2010, we launched our second Oncotype DX test, the first multigene expression test developed to assess risk of recurrence in stage II colon cancer patients. In late December 2011, we made Oncotype DX available for patients with DCIS, a pre-invasive form of breast cancer. In June 2012, we extended our offering of the Oncotype DX colon cancer test to patients with stage III disease treated with oxaliplatin-containing adjuvant therapy. As discussed in greater detail below, we currently intend to launch a test for prostate cancer in 2013. Effective July 1, 2012, the list price of our Oncotype DX breast cancer test increased from $4,175 to $4,290 and the list price of our Oncotype DX colon cancer test increased from $3,280 to $3,640. The majority of our historical revenues have been derived from the sale of Oncotype DX breast cancer tests ordered by physicians in the United States.

For the year ended December 31, 2012, more than 74,520 Oncotype DX test reports were delivered for use in treatment planning, compared to more than 66,600 and 57,270 test reports delivered for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively. All of our tests are conducted at our clinical reference laboratory in Redwood City, California. Our clinical reference laboratory processing capacity is currently approximately 23,000 tests per calendar quarter. As test processing for our Oncotype DX breast and colon cancer tests is essentially the same, except that the tests use different RNA extraction methods and analyze different genes, we believe that we currently have sufficient capacity to process both of our tests. In connection with the planned 2013 launch of our prostate cancer test, we will be expanding our clinical laboratory processing capacity. We expect our initial commercialization efforts of our prostate cancer test will result in increased costs for laboratory testing, including staffing-related costs, incremental sales and marketing staffing to introduce our product to a new group of physicians and costs associated with obtaining reimbursement coverage.

We depend upon third-party payors to provide reimbursement for our tests. Accordingly, we have and expect to continue to focus substantial resources on obtaining reimbursement coverage from third-party payors.


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We have continued to expand our business, both in the United States and internationally. We plan to continue to use essentially the same business model internationally as we use in the United States, however, there are significant differences between countries that need to be considered. For example, different countries may have a public healthcare system, a combination of public and private healthcare system or a cash-based payment system. We have a direct commercial presence with employees and consultants in some countries, including Canada, Germany, Ireland, Japan, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Additionally, we have entered into exclusive distribution agreements for the sale of our tests with approximately 20 distributors covering more than 80 countries outside of the United States.

We expect that international sales of our Oncotype DX tests will be heavily dependent on the availability of reimbursement and sample access. In many countries, governments are primarily responsible for reimbursing diagnostic tests. Governments often have significant discretion in determining whether a test will be reimbursed at all, and if so, how much will be paid. In addition, certain countries, such as China, have prohibitions against exporting tissue samples which will limit our ability to offer our tests in those countries without local facilities or a method of test delivery which does not require samples to be transported to our U.S. facility.

The majority of our international Oncotype DX breast and colon cancer test revenues come from direct payor reimbursement, payments from our distributors, patient self-pay, and clinical collaborations in various countries. We have obtained some coverage for our breast cancer test outside of the United States, including in Canada, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Spain and the United Kingdom. We expect that it will take several years to establish broad coverage and reimbursement for our Oncotype DX breast and colon cancer tests with payors in countries outside of the United States and there can be no assurance that our efforts will be successful.

Oncotype DX Breast Cancer Test

We expect to continue to focus substantial resources on pursuing global adoption of and reimbursement for our Oncotype DX breast cancer test. We believe increased demand for our Oncotype DX breast cancer test resulted from our ongoing commercial efforts, expanded utility for new breast cancer patient groups, continued publication of peer-reviewed articles on studies we sponsored, conducted or collaborated on that support the use of and reimbursement for the test, clinical presentations at major symposia, and the inclusion of our breast cancer test in clinical practice guidelines for node negative, or N-, estrogen receptor positive, or ER+, invasive disease. However, this increased demand is not necessarily indicative of future growth rates, and we cannot provide assurance that this level of increased demand can be sustained or that publication of articles, future appearances or presentations at medical conferences, increased commercial efforts or expansion of utility to new breast cancer patient groups will have a similar impact on demand for our breast cancer test in the future. Sequential quarterly demand for our breast cancer test may also be impacted by other factors, including the economic environment and continued high unemployment levels, seasonal variations that have historically impacted physician office visits, our shift in commercial focus to our various Oncotype DX cancer tests or any future products we may develop, patient enrollment in Oncotype DX clinical studies and the number of clinical trials in process by cooperative groups or makers of other tests conducting experience studies.

Most national and regional third-party payors in the United States, along with the designated national Medicare contractor for our tests, have issued positive coverage determinations for our Oncotype DX breast cancer test for patients with node negative, or N-, estrogen receptor positive, or ER+, invasive disease through contracts, agreements or policy decisions. The local carrier with jurisdiction for claims submitted by us for Medicare patients also provides coverage for our breast cancer test for ER+ patients with node positive, or N+, disease (up to three positive lymph nodes)and invasive breast cancer patients where a lymph node status is unknown or not accessible due to a prior surgical procedure, or when the test is used to guide a neoadjuvant treatment decision. Additionally, some payors provide policy coverage for the use of our test in ER+ patients with N+ disease, including lymph node micro-metastasis (greater than


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0.2 mm, but not greater than 2.0 mm in size). In July 2011, the American Journal of Managed Care published results of an economic assessment suggesting use of Oncotype DX in breast cancer patients with 1-3 positive nodes may improve health outcomes without adding incremental cost. However, we may not be able to obtain reimbursement coverage from other payors for our test for breast cancer patients with N+, ER+ disease.

In late December 2011, we made Oncotype DX available for patients with DCIS, a pre-invasive form of breast cancer. The launch of Oncotype DX for DCIS patients was based upon presented positive results from a clinical validation study of Oncotype DX breast cancer test in patients with DCIS, conducted by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, or ECOG, a clinical trials cooperative group supported by the National Cancer Institute. The study met its primary endpoint by demonstrating that a pre-specified Oncotype DX DCIS Score derived from the Oncotype DX breast cancer test outperforms traditional clinical and pathologic measures to predict the risk of local recurrence, defined as either the development of a new invasive breast cancer or the recurrence of DCIS in the same breast. We expect that it may take several years to establish coverage with a majority of public and private payors for use of our test in DCIS patients and we may not be able to obtain such coverage.

Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Test

We expect to continue to focus substantial resources on pursuing global adoption of and reimbursement for our Oncotype DX colon cancer test. We believe the key factors that will drive further adoption of this test include results from additional studies we sponsor, conduct or collaborate on that support the use of and increased coverage and reimbursement for the test, clinical presentations at major symposia, publications and our ongoing commercial efforts. In June 2011, at the American Society of Clinical Oncology, or ASCO, Annual Meeting, a second large study confirming that the Oncotype DX colon cancer test independently predicts individualized recurrence risk for stage II colon cancer was presented. In November 2011, positive results from the QUASAR clinical validation study were published online by the Journal of Clinical Oncology. Current or future studies of our colon cancer test may lead to inclusion of the test in clinical guidelines and as standard of care for indicated patients.

Effective September 18, 2011, the designated national Medicare contractor for our tests established a formal coverage policy for our Oncotype DX colon cancer test for patients with stage II colon cancer. We are working with additional public and private payors and health plans to secure coverage for our colon cancer test based upon clinical evidence showing the utility of the test, and we have obtained reimbursement coverage for our Oncotype DX colon cancer test from certain other third-party payors. As a relatively new test, our colon cancer test may be considered investigational by payors and therefore may not be covered under their reimbursement policies. Consequently, we intend to pursue case-by-case reimbursement and expect that this test will continue to be reviewed on this basis until policy decisions have been made by individual payors. We believe it may take several years to achieve reimbursement with a majority of third-party payors for our colon cancer test. However, we cannot predict whether, at what rate, or under what circumstances, payors will reimburse for this test. Based upon our experience in obtaining adoption of and reimbursement for our Oncotype DX breast cancer test, we do not expect product revenues from our colon cancer test to comprise more than 10% of our total revenues for at least the next year or more.

In June 2012, based on the positive results of the NSABP C-07 validation study, which we presented in September 2012 at the European Society for Medical Oncology Congress, we began offering the Oncotype DX colon cancer test for use in patients with stage III disease treated with oxaliplatin-containing adjuvant therapy.

In an exploratory component of the NSABP C-07 clinical trial, researchers analyzed over 700 new genes and identified 16 genes as being predictive of oxaliplatin benefit when added to adjuvant therapy for


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use in patients with stage III colon cancer. We plan to utilize these results and initiate a validation study in 2013.

Oncotype DX Prostate Cancer Test

In February 2011, at the ASCO Genitourinary Cancer Symposium and the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology meeting, we presented positive full results from our prostate cancer gene identification study. The study, which applied the same reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, or RT-PCR, technology used in our Oncotype DX breast and colon cancer tests, identified 295 genes strongly associated with clinical recurrence of prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy. In June 2012, we presented results of our first development study in prostate tissue obtained from needle biopsies. The study, an analysis of biopsy samples from men with conventionally defined low/intermediate risk prostate cancer, showed that genes and biological pathways associated with clinically-aggressive prostate cancer in radical prostatectomy specimens can be reliably measured by quantitative RT-PCR from fixed prostate needle biopsies. Based on the results of this and multiple prior studies, we initiated a large clinical validation study in early 2012.

In September 2012, we announced positive topline results from this clinical validation study of our biopsy-based prostate cancer test. As a result of this clinical validation study meeting its primary end point, we are completing the necessary work in our clinical reference laboratory in order to proceed with a worldwide commercial launch of our prostate cancer test in 2013.

We expect to incur additional expenses related to the planned commercial launch of our prostate cancer test, such as infrastructure costs, information technology costs, and selling and marketing costs. Based upon our experience in obtaining adoption and reimbursement for our Oncotype DX breast and colon cancer tests, we do not expect product revenues from our prostate cancer test to comprise more than 10% of our total revenues for at least a year or more following our launch.

Product Development Opportunities

In addition to developing products to address new cancer areas, we continually look to expand the clinical utility and addressable patient populations for our existing cancer tests. These developments efforts may lead to a wide variety of possible new products covering various treatment decisions, including:


Risk assessment;


Screening and prevention;


Early disease diagnosis;


Adjuvant disease diagnosis;


Metatastic treatment selection; and


Treatment monitoring.

Future products may address a specific clinical need or guide a targeted therapy decision and may also leverage our NGS capabilities to expand our product opportunities.

Technology

In our Oncotype DX platform we utilize existing technologies, such as RT-PCR, and information technologies and optimize and integrate them into new processes. We are also incorporating new technologies, such as high-throughput "next generation" sequencing, or NGS, in our research and development laboratory. NGS technologies parallelize the sequencing process, producing millions of sequences at once. These technologies are intended to provide DNA and RNA sequence information in greater amounts and at lower cost than standard methods. We have created proprietary methods for NGS


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analysis of fixed paraffin embedded, or FPE, tissue nucleic acids, created bioinformatics programs and infrastructure for data storage and analysis, and plan to rely on NGS as the technological source of new biomarkers in the future. We expect to continue to develop the capabilities of various technologies to create new products.

Economic Environment

Continuing concerns over prolonged high unemployment levels, the availability and cost of credit, the U.S. real estate market, Federal budget negotiations, proposed regulatory changes and taxation issues, inflation, deflation, energy costs and geopolitical issues have contributed to increased volatility and uncertain expectations both for the U.S. and global economies. These factors, combined with uncertainties in business and consumer confidence, a volatile stock market, the European sovereign debt crisis, continued concerns regarding the stability of the Euro currency and some European Union member countries and slowing growth in China, have precipitated an economic slowdown and expectations of slower global economic growth and possibly another recession going forward. We periodically evaluate the impact of this environment on our cash management, cash collection activities and volume of tests delivered.

As of the date of this report, we have not experienced a loss of principal on any of our investments, and we expect that we will continue to be able to access or liquidate these investments as needed to support our business activities. We periodically monitor the financial position of our significant third-party payors, which include Medicare and managed care companies. As of the date of this report, we do not expect the current economic environment to have a material negative impact on our ability to collect payments from third-party payors in the foreseeable future. The economic environment continued to impact growth in tests delivered and revenue generated during the year ended December 31, 2012. We intend to continue to assess the impact of the economic environment on our business activities. If the economic environment does not improve or deteriorates, our business including our patient population, government and third-party payors and our distributors and suppliers could be negatively affected, resulting in a negative impact on our product revenues.

U.S. Healthcare Environment

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Affordability Reconciliation Act, or, collectively, the PPACA, enacted in March 2010, makes changes that are expected to significantly impact the pharmaceutical and medical device industries and clinical laboratories. The PPACA contains a number of provisions designed to generate the revenues necessary to fund expanded health insurance coverage, including new fees or taxes on certain health related industries, including medical device manufacturers. Beginning in 2013, each medical device manufacturer will have to pay sales tax in an amount equal to 2.3% of the price for which such manufacturer sells its medical devices that are listed with the FDA. Although the Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, has contended that clinical laboratory tests that are developed and validated by a laboratory for its own use, referred to as LDTs, such as our Oncotype DX breast and colon cancer tests, are medical devices, none of our products are currently listed with the FDA. We cannot assure you that the tax will not be extended to services such as ours in the future.

The PPACA also mandates a reduction in payments for clinical laboratory services paid under the Medicare Clinical Laboratory Fee Schedule, or CLFS, of 1.75% through 2015 and a productivity adjustment to the CLFS. In addition, the PPACA establishes a board that is charged with reducing the per capita rate of growth in Medicare spending. We are monitoring the impact of the PPACA in order to enable us to determine the trends and changes that may be necessitated by the legislation that may potentially impact on our business over time.


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In February 2012, Congress passed the "Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012" which in part reduced the potential future cost-based increases to the Medicare CLFS by 2%. Overall, the total fee cut to the CLFS for 2013 is 2.95% not including a further reduction of 2% anticipated from implementation of the automatic expense reductions (sequester) under the Budget Control Act of 2011 which will go into effect for dates of service on or after April 1, 2013 unless Congress acts to modify the automatic cuts.

The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, CMS, sought public input through the notice and comment period for the proposed Medicare Physician Fee Schedule, on whether all new AMA Molecular Diagnostic codes be placed on either the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule, which would likely require a 20% patient co-payment for such services, or remain on the CLFS. On November 1, 2012, CMS issued a final rule on the Physican Fee Schedule which stated that these new codes would be placed on the CLFS. On August 31, 2012, CMS also issued a preliminary determination for the 2013 CLFS which proposed not to recognize Multi-Analyte codes with Algorithmic Analyses, or MAAA, and questioned whether algorithm-based tests are covered benefits for Medicare beneficiaries. However, in its final determination released on November 6, 2012, CMS deleted the statement about not covering algorithmic analysis, and stated that laboratories performing MAAA tests for Medicare beneficiaries should continue to bill for these tests in 2013 as they are currently billed under the CLFS. CMS intends to consider its payment policy for MAAAs again in 2013 and may issue a determination to pay or not pay for these tests beginning in 2014. Our current Medicare reimbursement determination was set by a local coverage decision and not set nationally by CMS. These or any future changes in covered benefit determination, proposed fees or mandated reductions in payments may apply to some or all of our clinical laboratory tests delivered to Medicare beneficiaries.

Changes in Medicare Administrative Contractor (MAC) services

On a five year rotational basis, Medicare requests bids for its regional MAC services. In 2008, we were notified of the transition from our initial MAC to Palmetto GBA as a result of this bidding process. Palmetto GBA has issued coverage and payment determinations on our Oncotype DX tests since that transition. In September 2012, Medicare notified us that the next successor MAC for our region will be Noridian Administrative Services. We have been informed that a transition will not take place before June 2013 but we have not been advised of the specific timing of the transition. A change in the MAC processing Medicare claims for our Oncotype DX tests could impact the coverage or payment rates for our current tests and our ability to obtain Medicare coverage for products for which we do not yet have coverage or any products we may launch in the future.

Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates

This discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of these financial statements requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. We evaluate our estimates and judgments on an ongoing basis. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other factors we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results could therefore differ materially from those estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

We believe the following critical accounting policies reflect our more significant estimates and assumptions used in the preparation of our financial statements.


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Revenue Recognition

We determine whether revenue is recognized on an accrual basis when test results are delivered or on a cash basis when cash is received from the payor. Our revenues for tests performed are recognized on an accrual basis when the following criteria are met: (1) persuasive evidence that an arrangement exists;
(2) delivery has occurred or services have been rendered; (3) the fee is fixed or determinable; and (4) collectability is reasonably assured. We assess whether the fee is fixed or determinable based on the nature of the fee charged for the products or services delivered and existing contractual arrangements. When evaluating collectability, we consider whether we have sufficient history to reliably estimate a payor's individual payment patterns. Based upon at least several months of payment history, we review the number of tests paid against the number of tests billed and the payor's outstanding balance for unpaid tests to determine whether payments are being made at a consistently high percentage of tests billed and at appropriate amounts given the contracted payment amount. To the extent all criteria set forth above are not met, including where there is no evidence of payment history at the time test results are delivered, product revenues are recognized on a cash basis when cash is received from the payor.

We enter into exclusive distribution agreements for the sale of one or more of our Oncotype DX tests with distributors outside of the United States. In these countries, the distributor generally provides us with certain marketing and administrative services within its territory. As a condition of these agreements, the distributor generally pays us an agreed upon fee per test and we process the tests. The same revenue recognition criteria described above generally apply to tests received through distributors. To the extent all criteria set forth above are not met when test results are delivered, product revenues are generally recognized when cash is received from the distributor.

Test revenue recognized on an accrual basis is recorded upon delivery of each test performed, net of any contractual discount at the amount that we expect to collect. We determine the amount we expect to collect on a per payor, per contract or arrangement basis, based on our analysis of historical average payments. This average amount is typically lower than the agreed upon amount due to several factors, such as the amount of patient co-payments, the existence of secondary payors and claim denials. We typically review our analysis annually, or at the time a contractual price change is implemented or when information comes to our attention that leads us to believe an adjustment may be warranted.

As of December 31, 2012, amounts outstanding for tests delivered, net of write-downs and adjustments, which were not recognized as revenue upon delivery because our accrual revenue recognition criteria were not met and which had not been collected, totaled approximately $38 million. We cannot provide any assurance as to when, if ever, and to what extent these amounts will be collected.

From time to time, we receive requests for refunds of payments, generally due to overpayments made by third-party payors. Upon becoming aware of a refund request, we establish an accrued liability for tests covered by the refund request until such time as we determine whether or not a refund is due. If we . . .

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