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TFSL > SEC Filings for TFSL > Form 10-K on 29-Nov-2012All Recent SEC Filings

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Form 10-K for TFS FINANCIAL CORP


29-Nov-2012

Annual Report


Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation

Overview
Our business strategy is to operate as a well-capitalized and profitable financial institution dedicated to providing exceptional personal service to our customers. We cannot assure you that we will successfully implement our business strategy.
Since being organized in 1938, we grew to become, at the time of our initial public offering of stock in April 2007, the nation's largest mutually-owned savings and loan association based on total assets. We credit our success to our continued emphasis on our primary values: "Love, Trust, Respect, and a Commitment to Excellence, along with some Fun." Our values are reflected in our pricing of loan and deposit products, and historically, in our Home Today program, as described below. Our values are further reflected in the Broadway Redevelopment Initiative (a long-term revitalization program encompassing the three-mile corridor of the Broadway-Slavic Village neighborhood in Cleveland, Ohio where our main office is located) and the education programs we have established and/or supported. We intend to continue to support our customers. Regionally high unemployment, weak residential real estate values, capital and credit markets that remain at less than robust levels, and a general lack of confidence in the financial service sector of the economy present challenges for us.
Management believes that the following matters are those most critical to our success: (1) controlling our interest rate risk exposure; (2) monitoring and limiting our credit risk; (3) maintaining access to adequate liquidity and alternative funding sources; and (4) monitoring and controlling operating expenses.
Controlling Our Interest Rate Risk Exposure. Although housing and credit quality issues persist in financial headlines and continue to have a negative effect on our operating results and, as described below, are certainly a matter of significant concern for us, historically our greatest risk has been interest rate risk exposure. When we hold long-term, fixed-rate assets, funded by liabilities with shorter re-pricing characteristics, we are exposed to potentially adverse impact from rising interest rates. Generally, and particularly over extended periods of time that encompass full economic cycles, interest rates associated with longer term assets, like fixed rate mortgages, have been higher than interest rates associated with shorter term funding sources, like deposits. This difference has been an important component of our net interest income and is fundamental to our operations. We manage the risk of holding long-term, fixed-rate mortgage assets primarily by moderating the attractiveness of our loan offerings, thereby controlling the level of additions (new originations) to our portfolio, and, prior to September 30, 2010, by periodically selling long-term, fixed-rate mortgage loans in the secondary market to reduce the amount of those assets held in our portfolio. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2012, we sold $11.4 million of long-term, fixed-rate mortgage loans compared to $33.6 million and $1.03 billion during the fiscal years ended September 30, 2011 and 2010, respectively the low volume of loan sales since September 30, 2010 reflects the impact of changes by Fannie Mae, historically the Association's primary loan investor, related to requirements for loans that it accepts and a reduced level of fixed-rate loan originations as described below.
Effective July 1, 2010, Fannie Mae, historically the Association's primary loan investor, implemented certain loan origination requirement changes affecting loan eligibility that, to date, we have not adopted. In reaching our current decision regarding implementation of the changes necessary to comply with Fannie Mae's revised requirements, we considered that since 1991, the Association, employing only non-commissioned loan originators and utilizing a centralized underwriting process, had sold loans to Fannie Mae under a series of proprietary variances, or contract waivers, that were negotiated between us and Fannie Mae during the term of our relationship. These proprietary concessions related to certain loan file documentation and quality control procedures the lack of which, in our opinion, did not diminish in any way the excellent credit quality of the loans that we delivered to Fannie Mae, but facilitated the efficiency and effectiveness of our operations and the quality and value of the loan products that we were able to offer to our borrowers. The credit quality of the loans that we delivered to Fannie Mae was consistently evidenced by the superior delinquency profile of our portfolio in peer performance comparisons prepared by Fannie Mae throughout the term of our relationship. In response to the tumult of the housing crisis that commenced in 2008, and with the objective of improving the credit profile its loan portfolio, Fannie Mae has enacted many credit tightening measures, culminating in the effective elimination of proprietary variances and waivers, accompanied by the imposition of additional file documentation requirements and expanded quality control procedures. In addition to substantively changing Fannie Mae's operating environment, effects of the housing crisis spread throughout the secondary residential mortgage market and resulted in a significantly altered operating framework for all secondary market participants. We believe that this dramatically altered operating framework offers opportunities for business process innovators to create new secondary market solutions especially as such opportunities pertain to high credit quality residential loans similar to those that we have traditionally originated. With the current uncertainty as to how the secondary market might be structured in the future, the Association has concluded that it is premature to incur the costs of the infrastructural changes to our operations (file documentation collection and additional quality control procedures) that would be necessary to fully comply with current Fannie Mae loan eligibility standards. In the near term, the Association expects to continue to monitor secondary market


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developments and will continue to assess the merits of implementing the changes required to comply with Fannie Mae's loan eligibility standards.The Association's ability to significantly reduce interest rate risk via our traditional loan sales of newly originated longer-term fixed rate residential loans has been limited and will remain so until either the Association changes its loan origination processes or Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or other market participants revise their loan eligibility standards. In the absence of such changes, future sales of fixed-rate mortgage loans will be predominantly limited to those loans that have established payment histories, strong borrower credit profiles and are supported by adequate collateral values. In that regard, in June 2011, we sold, on a servicing retained basis, $20.3 million of fixed-rate mortgage loans to a private investor. During the three months ended March 31, 2012, we reclassified a pool of high credit quality, fixed-rate, first mortgage loans, with a recorded investment of $245.9 million, from "loans held for investment" to "loans held for sale" and engaged an investment banking representative to offer those loans for sale as non-agency, whole loans in the secondary market to private investors. As a condition to any transaction, the Association will retain the mortgage servicing rights associated with any loans sold. During the three months ended September 30, 2012, $104.7 million of the non-agency, "loans held for sale" portfolio were reclassified to "loans held for investment". During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2012, no loan sales to private investors were completed, nor at September 30, 2012, were any loan sale commitments to private investors outstanding. At September 30, 2012, non-agency, whole loans included as "loans held for sale" had a recorded investment of $114.7 million. During the quarter ended June 30, 2012, the Association implemented procedures necessary for participation in Fannie Mae's HARP II (Home Affordable Refinance Program) initiative. Included in the balance of "loans held for sale" at September 30, 2012, were $9.6 million of agency-compliant HARP II loans. HARP II loan sales during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2012, totaled $11.4 million. At September 30, 2012, outstanding HARP II loan sales commitments totaled $2.8 million.
In response to the agencies' loan eligibility changes, in July 2010 we began marketing an adjustable-rate mortgage loan product that provides us with improved interest rate risk characteristics when compared to a long-term, fixed-rate mortgage. Since its introduction, the "SmartRate" adjustable rate mortgage has offered borrowers an interest rate lower than that of a fixed-rate loan. The rate is locked for three or five years then resets annually after that. It contains a feature to relock the rate an unlimited number of times at our then current rate and fee schedule, for another three or five years (dependent on the original reset period) without having to complete a full refinance transaction. Relock eligibility is subject to satisfactory payment performance history by the borrower (never 60 days late, no 30-day delinquencies during the last twelve months, current at the time of relock, and no foreclosures or bankruptcies since the SmartRate application was taken). In addition to a satisfactory payment history, relock eligibility requires that the property continue to be the borrower's primary residence. The loan term cannot be extended in connection with a relock nor can new funds be advanced. All interest rate caps and floors remain as originated. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2012, adjustable-rate mortgage loan production increased $302.1 million to $1.49 billion from $1.18 billion during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2011. During the same time period, fixed-rate mortgage loan production increased $198.5 million to $1.16 billion from $959.0 million. The amount of origination and refinancing volumes along with the portion of that activity that pertains to loans that we previously sold (but for which we maintained the right to provide mortgage servicing so as to maintain our relationship with our customer) when coupled with the level of loan sales, if any, determines the balance of loans held on our balance sheet. The amount of adjustable-rate loan activity described above resulted in $2.95 billion of long-term adjustable-rate loans in our residential mortgage loans held for investment portfolio at September 30, 2012, as compared to $1.83 billion at September 30, 2011, or an increase of $1.13 billion during the fiscal year. In addition, fixed-rate mortgage loan activity described above resulted in $5.20 billion of long-term fixed rate loans in our residential mortgage loans held for investment portfolio at September 30, 2012, as compared to $5.56 billion at September 30, 2011. The September 30, 2012 measurement excludes $124.5 million of agency and non-agency, long-term, fixed-rate loans reported as "held for sale". At September 30, 2011, we had no loans designated as "held for sale". In the past, we have also managed interest rate risk by promoting home equity lines of credit, which have a variable interest rate. As described below, this product carries an incremental credit risk component and has been adversely impacted by the housing market downturn. Effective June 28, 2010, we suspended the acceptance of new home equity credit applications with the exception of bridge loans and, in accordance with a reduction plan that was accepted by our primary regulator in December 2010, we actively pursued strategies to decrease the outstanding balance of our home equity lending portfolio as well as our exposure to undrawn home equity lines of credit. During the quarter ended June 30, 2011, we achieved the balance and exposure reduction targets included in the reduction plan. Beginning in March 2012, we again offered new home equity lines of credit to qualifying existing home equity customers, subject to certain property and credit performance conditions, which include:
lower combined loan to value ("CLTV") ratios (80% in Ohio/Kentucky and 70% in Florida; prior programs extended to as high as 89.99%);

limited geographic offering (only Ohio, Kentucky and Florida; prior programs were offered nationwide);

borrower income is fully verified (in prior programs income was not always fully verified);


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the borrower is qualified using a principal and interest payment based on the current prime rate plus 2.00%, amortized for 20 years (prior programs qualified using the current prime rate);

the minimum credit score to qualify for the re-introduced home equity line of credit is 720 (our most recent prior home equity line of credit offering required a minimum credit score of 680); and

the term of the new home equity line of credit is a five year draw period, interest only payment, followed by a 20 year repayment period, principal and interest (prior program terms generally offered a 10 year draw period, interest only payment, followed by a 10 year repayment period, principal and interest).

Notwithstanding achievement of the reduction plan target and recent limited offers to extend new revolving lines of credit to qualifying, existing home equity line of credit customers, promotion of this product is not a current, meaningful strategy used to manage our interest rate risk profile.
Should a rapid and substantial increase occur in general market interest rates, it is probable that, prospectively and particularly over a multi-year time horizon, the level of our net interest income would be adversely impacted. Monitoring and Limiting Our Credit Risk. While, historically, we had been successful in limiting our credit risk exposure by generally imposing high credit standards with respect to lending, the confluence of unfavorable regional and macro-economic events since 2008, coupled with our pre-2010 expanded participation in the second lien mortgage lending markets, has significantly refocused our attention with respect to credit risk. In response to the evolving economic landscape, we have continuously revised and updated our quarterly analysis and evaluation procedures, as needed, for each category of our lending with the objective of identifying and recognizing all appropriate credit impairments. At September 30, 2012, 90% of our assets consisted of residential real estate loans (both "held for sale" and "held for investment") and home equity loans and lines of credit, the overwhelming majority of which were originated to borrowers in the states of Ohio and Florida. Our analytic procedures and evaluations include specific reviews of all home equity loans and lines of credit that become 90 or more days past due, as well as specific reviews of all first mortgage loans that become 180 or more days past due. We also expanded our analysis of current performing home equity lines of credit to better mitigate future risk of loss. In accordance with regulatory guidance issued in January 2012, performing home equity lines of credit subordinate to first mortgages delinquent greater than 90 days are transferred to non-accrual status. At September 30, 2012, the recorded investment of such performing home equity lines of credit classified as non-accrual was $8.8 million. Also, the OCC issued guidance in July 2012 which requires loans, where at least one borrower has been discharged of their obligation in Chapter 7 bankruptcy, to be classified as troubled debt restructurings. Also required is the charge off of performing loans to collateral value and non-accrual classification when all borrowers have had their obligations discharged in Chapter 7 bankruptcy, regardless of how long the loans have been performing. At September 30, 2012, troubled debt restructurings increased by $70.9 million of loans in Chapter 7 bankruptcy status. At September 30, 2012, the recorded investment in non-accrual status loans includes $30.6 of performing loans in Chapter 7 bankruptcy status where at least one borrower has been discharged of their obligation. Based on the OCC interpretive guidance, net charge-offs related to those loans increased $15.8 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2012.
In response to market conditions, and in an effort to limit our credit risk exposure and improve the credit performance of new customers, we have tightened our credit criteria in evaluating a borrower's ability to successfully fulfill his or her repayment obligation and we have revised the design of many of our loan products to require higher borrower down-payments, limited the products available for condominiums, and eliminated certain product features (such as interest-only adjustable-rate loans, loans above certain loan-to-value ratios, and prior to March 2012, home equity lending products with the exception of bridge loans).
Prior to its July 21, 2011 merger into the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency ("OCC"), the Office of Thrift Supervision ("OTS") expressed concerns with the risk concentration and other aspects of the Association's home equity loans and lines of credit portfolio and the administration of that portfolio. Under the terms of an August 13, 2010 memorandum of understanding (the "MOU") between the Association and the OTS, management prepared, or obtained, and submitted to the OTS: (1) a third party report on our home equity lending portfolio; (2) a home equity lending reduction plan (the "Reduction Plan");
(3) enhanced home equity lending and credit risk management policies and procedures; and (4) an updated business plan. On December 27, 2010, notice was received from the OTS that it did not object to the Reduction Plan. The Reduction Plan spanned the period from June 30, 2010 through December 31, 2011. As of December 31, 2011, the Reduction Plan's targets (a $1 billion reduction in home equity lending commitments, including a $300 million reduction in outstanding balances) had been met and exceeded as home equity lending commitments had been reduced by $1.31 billion from June 30, 2010 levels, including $506.1 million in outstanding balances, to $3.83 billion. Further reductions occurred during the nine months ended September 30, 2012, and as a result, through September 30, 2012 home equity lending commitments had been reduced by $1.66 billion, including $749.5 million in outstanding balances, to $3.48 billion. Other elements of the Reduction Plan included: a $150 million capital infusion from the Company to the Association, which was completed in October, 2010,


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and implementation of expanded line management, account management and collection processes regarding home equity lending. These process changes are all now substantially complete. Further, the ratio of the Association's home equity loans and lines of credit portfolio and open commitments relative to Tier 1 Capital, plus the allowance for loan losses, was reduced to 214% at September 30, 2012 from 237% at December 31, 2011. The December 31, 2011 targeted ratio as contained in the Reduction Plan was 261%. Effective February 7, 2011, the MOU was terminated and replaced by new memorandums of understanding (the "New MOU") covering the Association, Third Federal Savings, MHC and the Company. The New MOU addressed the ongoing monitoring of issues raised in the original MOU. In addition, the New MOU required the following actions, all of which we have performed: (1) an independent assessment of the Association's interest rate risk management policy and a plan to address any deficiencies (the assessment was submitted to the OTS on February 14, 2011); (2) an independent review of management compensation (the review was submitted to the OTS on June 30, 2011); (3) the submittal of an independent enterprise risk management study and a plan to address any deficiencies (the study and plan to address deficiencies were submitted to the OTS on February 11, 2011); (4) the submittal for OTS non-objection 45 days in advance of any plans for new debt, dividends or stock repurchases; (5) formal management and director succession plans (these plans were submitted to the OTS on March 30, 2011 and April 29, 2011, respectively); and (6) revisions to various operational policies (each of which has been completed). In a self-initiated effort, and prior to receipt of the New MOU, in September 2010, we engaged a third party to conduct an independent assessment of our interest rate risk management policy and our enterprise risk management approach. As indicated above, just days after receipt of the New MOU, the assessments were submitted to the OTS. Pursuant to recommendations of the assessments, we installed a new interest rate risk model that provides more customized analysis and we have established new board and management level committees to govern and oversee risk management and compliance. As indicated above, we believe that to date, we have complied with all of the stipulations of the MOU and New MOU. The requirements of the MOU and New MOU carry costs to complete that will continue to increase our non-interest expense in amounts that are not expected to, but may, be material to our results of operations. The Company does not intend to declare or pay a cash dividend, or to repurchase any of its outstanding common stock until the concerns of our regulators are resolved. The requirements of the New MOU will remain in effect until our primary regulator decides to terminate, suspend or modify them.
One aspect of our credit risk concern relates to the high percentage of our loans that are secured by residential real estate in the states of Ohio and Florida, particularly in light of the difficulties that have arisen with respect to the real estate markets in those states. At September 30, 2012, approximately 76.8% and 17.4% of the combined total of our residential, non-Home Today and construction loans held for investment were secured by properties in Ohio and Florida, respectively. Our 30 or more days delinquency ratios on those loans in Ohio and Florida at September 30, 2012 were 1.0% and 2.6%, respectively. Our 30 or more days delinquency ratio for the non-Home Today portfolio as a whole was 1.3%. Also, at September 30, 2012, approximately 38.9% and 29.2% of our home equity loans and lines of credit were secured by properties in Ohio and Florida, respectively. Our 30 days or more delinquency ratios on those loans in Ohio and Florida at September 30, 2012 were 1.3% and 1.6%, respectively. Our 30 or more days delinquency ratio for the home equity loans and lines of credit portfolio as a whole was 1.3%. While we focus our attention on, and are concerned with respect to the resolution of, all loan delinquencies, as these ratios illustrate, our highest concern is centered on loans that are secured by properties in Florida. The "Allowance for Loan Losses" portion of the preceding PART I, Item 1, Business section provides extensive details regarding our loan portfolio composition, delinquency statistics, our methodology in evaluating our loan loss provisions and the adequacy of our allowance for loan losses. As long as unemployment levels remain high, particularly in Ohio and Florida, and housing values remain depressed, due to prior overbuilding and speculation which has resulted in considerable inventory on the market, we expect that we will continue to experience elevated levels of delinquencies and risk of loss. Our residential Home Today loans are another area of credit risk concern. Although the recorded investment in these loans totaled $204.9 million at September 30, 2012, and constituted only 2.0% of our total "held for investment" loan portfolio balance, these loans comprised 23.1% and 25.0% of our 90 days or greater delinquencies and our total delinquencies, respectively. At September 30, 2012, approximately 95.7% and 4.1% of our residential, Home Today loans were secured by properties in Ohio and Florida, respectively. At September 30, 2012, the percentages of those loans delinquent 30 days or more in Ohio and Florida were 21.2% and 17.2%, respectively. The disparity between the portfolio composition ratio and delinquency composition ratio reflects the nature of the Home Today loans. We do not offer, and have not offered, loan products frequently considered to be designed to target sub-prime borrowers containing features such as higher fees or higher rates, negative amortization, or low initial payment features with adjustable interest rates. Our Home Today loan products, which prior to March 27, 2009 were made to borrowers with credit profiles who would not have otherwise qualified for our loan products and might have been described as sub-prime borrowers, generally contained the same features as loans offered to our non-Home Today borrowers. The overriding objective of our Home Today lending, just as it is with our non-Home Today lending, was to create successful homeowners. We have attempted to manage our Home Today credit risk by requiring that borrowers attend pre- and post-borrowing financial management education and counseling and that the borrowers be referred to us by a sponsoring organization with which we have partnered. Further, to manage the credit aspect of these loans, inasmuch as


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the majority of these buyers do not have sufficient funds for required down payments, many loans include private mortgage insurance. At September 30, 2012, 54.2% of Home Today loans included private mortgage insurance coverage. From a peak recorded investment of $306.6 million at December 31, 2007, the total recorded investment of the Home Today portfolio has declined to $204.9 million at September 30, 2012. This trend generally reflects the evolving conditions in the mortgage real estate market and the tightening of standards imposed by issuers of private mortgage insurance. As part of our effort to manage credit risk, effective March 27, 2009, the Home Today underwriting guidelines were revised to be substantially the same as our traditional mortgage product. At September 30, 2012, the recorded investment in Home Today loans originated subsequent to March 27, 2009 was $2.2 million. Unless and until lending standards and private mortgage insurance requirements loosen, we expect the Home Today portfolio to continue to decline in balance.
Maintaining Access to Adequate Liquidity and Alternative Funding Sources. For most insured depositories, customer and community confidence are critical to their ability to maintain access to adequate liquidity and to conduct business in an orderly fashion. The Company believes that maintaining high levels of capital is one of the most important factors in nurturing customer and community confidence. Accordingly, we have managed the pace of our growth in a manner that reflects our emphasis on high capital levels. At September 30, 2012, the Association's ratio of core capital to adjusted tangible assets (a basic industry measure under which 5.00% is deemed to represent a "well capitalized" status) was 13.31%. We expect to continue to maintain high capital ratios. In managing its level of liquidity, the Company monitors available funding sources, which include attracting new deposits, borrowing from others, the conversion of assets to cash and the generation of funds through profitable operations. The Company has traditionally relied on retail deposits as its primary means in meeting its funding needs. At September 30, 2012, deposits totaled $8.98 billion, while borrowings totaled $488.2 million and borrowers' advances and servicing escrows totaled $195.4 million, combined. In evaluating funding sources, we consider many factors, including cost, duration, current availability, expected sustainability, impact on operations and capital levels. To attract deposits, we offer our customers attractive rates of return on our deposit products. Our deposit products typically offer rates that are highly competitive with the rates on similar products offered by other financial . . .

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