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RIVR > SEC Filings for RIVR > Form 10-Q on 14-Nov-2012All Recent SEC Filings

Show all filings for RIVER VALLEY BANCORP

Form 10-Q for RIVER VALLEY BANCORP


14-Nov-2012

Quarterly Report


ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Forward Looking Statements

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q ("Form 10-Q") contains statements which constitute forward looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements appear in a number of places in this Form 10-Q and include statements regarding the intent, belief, outlook, estimate or expectations of the Corporation (as defined in the notes to the consolidated condensed financial statements), its directors or its officers primarily with respect to future events and the future financial performance of the Corporation. Readers of this Form 10-Q are cautioned that any such forward looking statements are not guarantees of future events or performance and involve risks and uncertainties, and that actual results may differ materially from those in the forward looking statements as a result of various factors. The accompanying information contained in this Form 10-Q identifies important factors that could cause or contribute to such differences. Some of these factors are discussed herein, but also include, but are not limited to, changes in the economy and interest rates in the nation and the Bank's general market area; loss of deposits and loan demand to other financial institutions; substantial changes in financial markets; changes in real estate values and the real estate market; regulatory changes; or turmoil and governmental intervention in the financial services industry. The forward-looking statements contained herein include those with respect to the effect future changes in interest rates may have on financial condition and results of operations, and management's opinion as to the effect on the Corporation's consolidated financial position and results of operations of recent accounting pronouncements not yet in effect.

Effect of Current Events

The level of turmoil in the financial services industry continues to present unusual risks and challenges for the Corporation, as described below:

The Current Economic Environment. We are operating in a challenging and uncertain economic environment, including generally uncertain national conditions and local conditions in our markets. The capital and credit markets have been experiencing volatility and disruption for a prolonged period. The risks associated with our business become more acute in periods of a slowing economy or slow growth. Financial institutions continue to be affected by sharp declines in the real estate market and constrained financial markets. While we are taking steps to decrease and limit our exposure to problem loans, we nonetheless retain direct exposure to the residential and commercial real estate markets, and we are affected by these events.


Our loan portfolio includes commercial real estate loans, residential mortgage loans, and construction and land development loans. Continued declines in real estate values, home sales volumes and financial stress on borrowers as a result of the uncertain economic environment, including job losses, could have an adverse effect on our borrowers or their customers, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, deterioration in local economic conditions in our markets could drive losses beyond that which is provided for in our allowance for loan losses and result in the following other consequences: increases in loan delinquencies, problem assets and foreclosures may increase; demand for our products and services may decline; deposits may decrease, which would adversely impact our liquidity position; and collateral for our loans, especially real estate, may decline in value, in turn reducing customers' borrowing power, and reducing the value of assets and collateral associated with our existing loans.

Impact of Recent and Future Legislation. Over the last four years, Congress and the Treasury Department have adopted legislation and taken actions to address the disruptions in the financial system, declines in the housing market and the overall regulation of financial institutions and the financial system.

In this regard, the 2010 Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the "Dodd-Frank Act") has made sweeping changes to the United States financial system. The Dodd-Frank Act eliminated the Office of Thrift Supervision (the "OTS") as of July 21, 2011. The Dodd-Frank Act transferred to the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (the "OCC") all functions and all rulemaking authority of the OTS relating to federal savings associations. The Dodd-Frank Act also transferred to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the "Federal Reserve") all functions of the OTS relating to savings and loan holding companies and their non-depository institution subsidiaries. Thus, the Holding Company and all of its subsidiaries other than the Bank are now being supervised by the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve is also to regulate loans to insiders, transactions with affiliates, and tying arrangements. The OCC and the Federal Reserve have already published some regulations that will apply to the entities that they are to regulate for the first time, but otherwise, OTS guidance, orders, interpretations, and policies to which federal savings associations like the Bank and savings and loan holding companies like the Holding Company are subject are to remain in effect until they are suspended.

The Dodd-Frank Act also established the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the "CFPB") within the Federal Reserve, which has broad authority to regulate consumer financial products and services and entities offering such products and services, including banks. Many of the consumer financial protection functions formerly assigned to the federal banking and other designated agencies are now performed by the CFPB. The CFPB has a large budget and staff, and has broad rulemaking authority over providers of credit, savings, and payment services and products. In this regard, the CFPB has the authority to implement regulations under federal consumer protection laws and enforce those laws against, and examine, financial institutions. State officials also will be authorized to enforce consumer protection rules issued by the CFPB. This bureau also is authorized to collect fines and provide consumer restitution in the event of violations, engage in consumer financial education, track consumer complaints, request data, and promote the availability of financial services to underserved consumers and communities. The CFPB also is directed to prevent "unfair, deceptive or abusive practices" and ensure that all consumers have access to markets for consumer financial products and services, and that such markets are fair, transparent, and competitive.

The CFPB has indicated that mortgage lending is an area of supervisory focus and that it will concentrate its examination and rulemaking efforts on the variety of mortgage-related topics required under the Dodd-Frank Act, including steering consumers to less-favorable products, discrimination, abusive or unfair lending practices, predatory lending, origination disclosures, minimum mortgage underwriting standards, mortgage loan originator compensation, and servicing practices. The CFPB has published proposed regulations on several of these topics, including minimum mortgage underwriting standards. In addition, the Federal Reserve and other federal bank regulatory agencies have issued a proposed rule under the Dodd-Frank Act that would exempt "qualified residential mortgages" from the securitization risk retention requirements of the Dodd-Frank Act. The final definition of what constitutes a "qualified residential mortgage" may impact the pricing and depth of the secondary market into which we may sell mortgages we originate. At this time, we cannot predict the content of final CFPB and other federal agency regulations or the impact they might have on the Corporation's financial results. The CFPB's authority over mortgage lending, and its authority to change regulations adopted in the past by other regulators (i.e., regulations issued under the Truth in Lending Act, for example), or to rescind or ignore past regulatory guidance, could increase the Corporation's compliance costs and litigation exposure.


In addition to the CFPB's authority over mortgage lending, the Dodd-Frank Act includes a series of provisions covering mortgage loan origination standards affecting, among other things, originator compensation, minimum repayment standards, and pre-payments. Moreover, the Dodd-Frank Act requires public companies like the Bancorp to hold shareholder advisory "say-on-pay" votes on executive compensation at least once every three years and submit related proposals to a vote of shareholders. However, the SEC has provided a temporary exemption for smaller reporting companies, such as the Corporation, from the requirement to hold "say-on-pay" votes until the first annual or other shareholder meeting occurring on or after January 21, 2013. The Dodd-Frank Act also provided for unlimited deposit insurance coverage for noninterest-bearing transaction accounts, but this provision is scheduled to expire on December 31, 2012, and so far has not been renewed. The Dodd-Frank Act contains numerous other provisions affecting financial institutions of all types, many of which may have an impact on the operating environment of the Corporation in substantial and unpredictable ways. Consequently, the Dodd-Frank Act is expected to increase our cost of doing business, it may limit or expand our permissible activities, and it may affect the competitive balance within our industry and market areas. The Corporation's management continues to actively monitor the implementation of the Dodd-Frank Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder and assess its probable impact on the business, financial condition, and results of operations of the Corporation. However, the ultimate effect of the Dodd-Frank Act on the financial services industry in general, and the Corporation in particular, continues to be uncertain.

New Proposed Capital Rules. On June 7, 2012, the Federal Reserve approved proposed rules that would substantially amend the regulatory risk-based capital rules applicable to the Corporation and the Bank. The FDIC and the OCC subsequently approved these proposed rules on June 12, 2012. The proposed rules implement the "Basel III" regulatory capital reforms and changes required by the Dodd-Frank Act. "Basel III" refers to two consultative documents released by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision in December 2009, the rules text released in December 2010, and loss absorbency rules issued in January 2011, which include significant changes to bank capital, leverage and liquidity requirements. The proposed rules are subject to a comment period running through October 22, 2012.

The proposed rules include new risk-based capital and leverage ratios, which would be phased in from 2013 to 2019, and would refine the definition of what constitutes "capital" for purposes of calculating those ratios. The proposed new minimum capital level requirements applicable to the Corporation and the Bank under the proposals would be: (i) a new common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of 4.5%; (ii) a Tier 1 capital ratio of 6% (increased from 4%); (iii) a total capital ratio of 8% (unchanged from current rules); and (iv) a Tier 1 leverage ratio of 4% for all institutions. The proposed rules would also establish a "capital conservation buffer" of 2.5% above the new regulatory minimum capital requirements, which must consist entirely of common equity Tier 1 capital and would result in the following minimum ratios: (i) a common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of 7.0%, (ii) a Tier 1 capital ratio of 8.5%, and (iii) a total capital ratio of 10.5%. The new capital conservation buffer requirement would be phased in beginning in January 2016 at 0.625% of risk-weighted assets and would increase by that amount each year until fully implemented in January 2019. An institution would be subject to limitations on paying dividends, engaging in share repurchases, and paying discretionary bonuses if its capital level falls below the buffer amount. These limitations would establish a maximum percentage of eligible retained income that could be utilized for such actions.

Basel III provided discretion for regulators to impose an additional buffer, the "countercyclical buffer," of up to 2.5% of common equity Tier 1 capital to take into account the macro-financial environment and periods of excessive credit growth. However, the proposed rules permit the countercyclical buffer to be applied only to "advanced approach banks" ( i.e. , banks with $250 billion or more in total assets or $10 billion or more in total foreign exposures), which currently excludes the Corporation and the Bank. The proposed rules also implement revisions and clarifications consistent with Basel III regarding the various components of Tier 1 capital, including common equity, unrealized gains and losses, as well as certain instruments that will no longer qualify as Tier 1 capital, some of which would be phased out over time.

The federal bank regulatory agencies also proposed revisions to the prompt corrective action framework, which is designed to place restrictions on insured depository institutions, including the Bank, if their capital levels begin to show signs of weakness. These revisions would take effect January 1, 2015. Under the prompt corrective action requirements, which are designed to complement the capital conservation buffer, insured depository institutions would be required to meet the following increased capital level requirements in order to qualify as "well capitalized:" (i) a new common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of 6.5%;
(ii) a Tier 1 capital ratio of 8% (increased from 6%); (iii) a total capital ratio of 10% (unchanged from current rules); and (iv) a Tier 1 leverage ratio of 5% (increased from 4%).


The proposed rules set forth certain changes for the calculation of risk-weighted assets, which we would be required to utilize beginning January 1, 2015. The standardized approach proposed rule utilizes an increased number of credit risk exposure categories and risk weights, and also addresses: (i) a proposed alternative standard of creditworthiness consistent with Section 939A of the Dodd-Frank Act; (ii) revisions to recognition of credit risk mitigation;
(iii) rules for risk weighting of equity exposures and past due loans; (iv) revised capital treatment for derivatives and repo-style transactions; and (v) disclosure requirements for top-tier banking organizations with $50 billion or more in total assets that are not subject to the "advance approach rules" that apply to banks with greater than $250 billion in consolidated assets.

Based on our current capital composition and levels, we believe that we would be in compliance with the requirements as set forth in the proposed rules if they were presently in effect.

Additional Increases in Insurance Premiums. The FDIC insures the Bank's deposits up to certain limits. Current economic conditions have increased expectations for bank failures. The FDIC takes control of failed banks and ensures payment of deposits up to insured limits using the resources of the Deposit Insurance Fund. The FDIC charges us premiums to maintain the Deposit Insurance Fund. The FDIC has set the Deposit Insurance Fund long-term target reserve ratio at 2% of insured deposits. Due to recent bank failures, the FDIC insurance fund reserve ratio has fallen below the statutory minimum. The FDIC has implemented a restoration plan beginning January 1, 2009, that is intended to return the reserve ratio to an acceptable level. Further increases in premium assessments are also possible and would increase the Company's expenses. Effective with the June 2011 reporting period, the FDIC changed the assessment from a deposit-based assessment to an asset-based assessment, and reevaluated the base rate assessed to financial institutions. As a result of these changes, the Corporation experienced a decrease in premiums. However, increased assessment rates and special assessments could have a material impact on the Corporation's results of operations.

The Soundness of Other Financial Institutions Could Adversely Affect Us. Financial services institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty, or other relationships. We have exposure to many different industries and counterparties, and we routinely execute transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including brokers and dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, mutual and hedge funds, and other institutional clients. Many of these transactions expose us to credit risk in the event of default by our counterparty or client. In addition, our credit risk may be exacerbated when the collateral held by us cannot be realized or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of the loan or derivative exposure due us. There is no assurance that any such losses would not materially and adversely affect our results of operations or earnings.

Future Reduction in Liquidity in the Banking System. The Federal Reserve Bank has been providing vast amounts of liquidity in to the banking system to compensate for weaknesses in short-term borrowing markets and other capital markets. A reduction in the Federal Reserve's activities or capacity could reduce liquidity in the markets, thereby increasing funding costs to the Bank or reducing the availability of funds to the Bank to finance its existing operations.

Difficult Market Conditions Continue toAffect Our Industry. We are particularly exposed to downturns in the U.S. housing market. Dramatic declines in the housing market over the past several years, with falling home prices and increasing foreclosures, unemployment and under-employment, have negatively impacted the credit performance of mortgage loans and securities and resulted in significant write-downs of asset values by financial institutions, including government-sponsored entities, major commercial and investment banks, and regional financial institutions. Reflecting concern about the stability of the financial markets generally and the strength of counterparties, many lenders and institutional investors have reduced or ceased providing funding to borrowers, including to other financial institutions. This market turmoil and tightening of credit have led to an increased level of commercial and consumer delinquencies, lack of consumer confidence, increased market volatility and widespread reduction of business activity generally. The resulting economic pressure on consumers and lack of confidence in the financial markets could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We do not expect that the difficult conditions in the financial markets are likely to improve in the near future. A worsening of these conditions would likely exacerbate the adverse effects of these difficult market conditions on the financial institutions industry. In particular, we may face the following risks in connection with these events:

We expect to face increased regulation of our industry. Compliance with such regulation may increase our costs and limit our ability to pursue business opportunities.

Our ability to assess the creditworthiness of our customers may be impaired if the models and approach we use to select, manage and underwrite our customers become less predictive of future behaviors.


The process we use to estimate losses inherent in our credit exposure requires difficult, subjective and complex judgments, including forecasts of economic conditions and how these economic predictions might impair the ability of our borrowers to repay their loans, which may no longer be capable of accurate estimation which may, in turn, impact the reliability of the process.

Our ability to borrow from other financial institutions on favorable terms or at all could be adversely affected by further disruptions in the capital markets or other events, including actions by rating agencies and deteriorating investor expectations.

Competition in our industry could intensify as a result of the increasing consolidation of financial services companies in connection with current market conditions.

We may be required to pay significantly higher deposit insurance premiums because market developments have significantly depleted the insurance fund of the FDIC and reduced the ratio of reserves to insured deposits.

Concentrations of Real Estate Loans Could Subject the Corporation to Increased Risks in the Event of a Real Estate Recession or Natural Disaster. A significant portion of the Corporation's loan portfolio is secured by real estate. The real estate collateral in each case provides an alternate source of repayment in the event of default by the borrower and may deteriorate in value during the time the credit is extended. A weakening of the real estate market in our primary market area could result in an increase in the number of borrowers who default on their loans and a reduction in the value of the collateral securing their loans, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our profitability and asset quality. If we are required to liquidate the collateral securing a loan to satisfy the debt during a period of reduced real estate values, our earnings and capital could be adversely affected. Historically, Indiana and Kentucky have experienced, on occasion, significant natural disasters, including tornadoes and floods. The availability of insurance for losses for such catastrophes is limited. Our operations could also be interrupted by such natural disasters. Acts of nature, including tornadoes and floods, which may cause uninsured damage and other loss of value to real estate that secures our loans or interruption in our business operations, may also negatively impact our operating results or financial condition.

We are subject to cybersecurity risks and may incur increasing costs in an effort to minimize those risks. Our business employs systems and a website that allow for the secure storage and transmission of customers' proprietary information. Security breaches could expose us to a risk of loss or misuse of this information, litigation and potential liability. We may not have the resources or technical sophistication to anticipate or prevent rapidly evolving types of cyber attacks. Any compromise of our security could result in a violation of applicable privacy and other laws, significant legal and financial exposure, damage to our reputation, and a loss of confidence in our security measures, which could harm our business.

Critical Accounting Policies

Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements presented on pages 57 through 61
of the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2011 contains a summary of the Corporation's significant accounting policies. Certain of these policies are important to the portrayal of the Corporation's financial condition, since they require management to make difficult, complex or subjective judgments, some of which may relate to matters that are inherently uncertain. Management believes that its critical accounting policies include determining the allowance for loan losses, analysis of other-than-temporary impairment on available-for-sale investments, and the valuation of mortgage servicing rights.

Allowance for Loan Losses

The allowance for loan losses is a significant estimate that can and does change based on management's assumptions about specific borrowers and current economic and business conditions, among other factors. Management reviews the adequacy of the allowance for loan losses on at least a quarterly basis. The evaluation by management includes consideration of past loss experience, changes in the composition of the loan portfolio, the current economic condition, the amount of loans outstanding, identified problem loans, and the probability of collecting all amounts due.

The allowance for loan losses represents management's estimate of probable losses inherent in the Corporation's loan portfolios. In determining the appropriate amount of the allowance for loan losses, management makes numerous assumptions, estimates and assessments.


The Corporation's strategy for credit risk management includes conservative, centralized credit policies, and uniform underwriting criteria for all loans as well as an overall credit limit for each customer significantly below legal lending limits. The strategy also emphasizes diversification on a geographic, industry and customer level, regular credit quality reviews and quarterly management reviews of large credit exposures and loans experiencing deterioration of credit quality.

The Corporation's allowance consists of three components: probable losses estimated from individual reviews of specific loans, probable losses estimated from historical loss rates, and probable losses resulting from economic or other deterioration above and beyond what is reflected in the first two components of the allowance.

Larger commercial loans that exhibit probable or observed credit weaknesses are subject to individual review. Where appropriate, reserves are allocated to individual loans based on management's estimate of the borrower's ability to repay the loan given the availability of collateral, other sources of cash flow and legal options available to the Corporation. Included in the review of individual loans are those that are considered impaired. A loan is considered impaired when, based on current information and events, it is probable that the Corporation will be unable to collect the scheduled payments of principal or interest when due according to the contractual terms of the loan agreement. Factors considered by management in determining impairment include payment status, collateral value and the probability of collecting scheduled principal and interest payments when due. Loans that experience insignificant payment delays and payment shortfalls generally are not classified as impaired. Management determines the significance of payment delays and payment shortfalls on a case-by-case basis, taking into consideration all of the circumstances surrounding the loan and the borrower, including the length of the delay, the reasons for the delay, the borrower's prior payment record and the amount of the shortfall in relation to the principal and interest owed.

Impairment is measured on a loan-by-loan basis for commercial and construction loans by either the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the loan's effective interest rate, the loan's obtainable market price or the fair value of the collateral if the loan is collateral dependent. Any allowances for impaired loans are measured based on the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the loan's effective interest rate or fair value of the underlying collateral. The Corporation evaluates the collectibility of both principal and interest when assessing the need for a loss accrual. Historical loss rates are applied to other commercial loans not subject to specific reserve allocations.

Homogenous loans, such as consumer installment and residential mortgage loans are not individually risk graded. Rather, standard credit scoring systems are used to assess credit risks. Reserves are established for each pool of loans based on the expected net charge-offs for one year. Loss rates are based on the average net charge-off history by loan category.

Historical loss rates for loans may be adjusted for significant factors that, in management's judgment, reflect the impact of any current conditions on loss recognition. Factors which management considers in the analysis include the effects of the national and local economies, trends in the nature and volume of loans (delinquencies, charge-offs and nonaccrual loans), changes in mix, asset . . .

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