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UGA > SEC Filings for UGA > Form 10-Q on 9-Nov-2012All Recent SEC Filings

Show all filings for UNITED STATES GASOLINE FUND, LP

Form 10-Q for UNITED STATES GASOLINE FUND, LP


9-Nov-2012

Quarterly Report


Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the condensed financial statements and the notes thereto of the United States Gasoline Fund, LP ("UGA") included elsewhere in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q.

Forward-Looking Information

This quarterly report on Form 10-Q, including this "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," contains forward-looking statements regarding the plans and objectives of management for future operations. This information may involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause UGA's actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by any forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements, which involve assumptions and describe UGA's future plans, strategies and expectations, are generally identifiable by use of the words "may," "will," "should," "expect," "anticipate," "estimate," "believe," "intend" or "project," the negative of these words, other variations on these words or comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements are based on assumptions that may be incorrect, and UGA cannot assure investors that the projections included in these forward-looking statements will come to pass. UGA's actual results could differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements as a result of various factors.

UGA has based the forward-looking statements included in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q on information available to it on the date of this quarterly report on Form 10-Q, and UGA assumes no obligation to update any such forward-looking statements. Although UGA undertakes no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, investors are advised to consult any additional disclosures that UGA may make directly to them or through reports that UGA in the future files with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"), including annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K.

Introduction

UGA, a Delaware limited partnership, is a commodity pool that issues units that may be purchased and sold on the NYSE Arca, Inc (the "NYSE Arca"). The investment objective of UGA is for the daily changes in percentage terms of its units' per unit net asset value ("NAV") to reflect the daily changes in percentage terms of the spot price of gasoline, as measured by the daily changes in the price of the futures contract for unleaded gasoline (also known as reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygen blending, or "RBOB", for delivery to the New York harbor), traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange (the "NYMEX") that is the near month contract to expire, except when the near month contract is within two weeks of expiration, in which case it will be measured by the futures contract that is the next month contract to expire (the "Benchmark Futures Contract"), less UGA's expenses. "Near month contract" means the next contract traded on the NYMEX due to expire. "Next month contract" means the first contract traded on the NYMEX due to expire after the near month contract. It is not the intent of UGA to be operated in a fashion such that the per unit NAV will equal, in dollar terms, the spot price of gasoline or any particular futures contract based on gasoline. It is not the intent of UGA to be operated in a fashion such that its per unit NAV will reflect the percentage change of the price of any particular futures contract as measured over a time period greater than one day. The general partner of UGA, United States Commodity Funds LLC ("USCF"), believes that it is not practical to manage the portfolio to achieve such an investment goal when investing in Futures Contracts (as defined below) and Other Gasoline-Related Investments (as defined below).

UGA invests in futures contracts for gasoline, crude oil, natural gas, heating oil and other petroleum-based fuels that are traded on the NYMEX, ICE Futures or other U.S. and foreign exchanges (collectively, "Futures Contracts") and other gasoline-related investments such as cash-settled options on Futures Contracts, forward contracts for gasoline, cleared swap contracts and over-the-counter transactions that are based on the price of gasoline, crude oil and other petroleum-based fuels, Futures Contracts and indices based on the foregoing (collectively, "Other Gasoline-Related Investments"). For convenience and unless otherwise specified, Futures Contracts and Other Gasoline-Related Investments collectively are referred to as "Gasoline Interests" in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q.


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UGA seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing in a combination of Futures Contracts and Other Gasoline-Related Investments such that daily changes in its per unit NAV, measured in percentage terms, will closely track the daily changes in the price of the Benchmark Futures Contract, also measured in percentage terms. USCF believes the daily changes in the price of the Benchmark Futures Contract have historically exhibited a close correlation with the daily changes in the spot price of gasoline. It is not the intent of UGA to be operated in a fashion such that the per unit NAV will equal, in dollar terms, the spot price of gasoline or any particular futures contract based on gasoline. It is not the intent of UGA to be operated in a fashion such that its per unit NAV will reflect the percentage change of the price of any particular futures contract as measured over a time period greater than one day. USCF believes that it is not practical to manage the portfolio to achieve such an investment goal when investing in Futures Contracts and Other Gasoline-Related Investments.

Regulatory Disclosure

Impact of Accountability Levels, Position Limits and Price Fluctuation Limits. Futures contracts include typical and significant characteristics. Most significantly, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (the "CFTC") and U.S. designated contract markets such as the NYMEX have established accountability levels and position limits on the maximum net long or net short futures contracts in commodity interests that any person or group of persons under common trading control (other than as a hedge, which an investment by UGA is not) may hold, own or control. The net position is the difference between an individual or firm's open long contracts and open short contracts in any one commodity. In addition, most U.S. futures exchanges, such as the NYMEX, limit the daily price fluctuation for futures contracts. Currently, the ICE Futures imposes position and accountability limits that are similar to those imposed by U.S.-based futures exchanges and also limits the maximum daily price fluctuation, while some other non-U.S. futures exchanges have not adopted such limits.

The accountability levels for the Benchmark Futures Contract and other Futures Contracts traded on the NYMEX are not a fixed ceiling, but rather a threshold above which the NYMEX may exercise greater scrutiny and control over an investor's positions. The current accountability level for any one month in the Benchmark Futures Contract is 5,000 contracts. In addition, the NYMEX imposes an accountability level for all months of 7,000 net futures contracts for investments in futures contracts for gasoline. In addition, ICE Futures maintains accountability levels, position limits and monitoring authority for its unleaded gasoline futures contracts. If UGA and the Related Public Funds (as defined below) exceed these accountability levels for investments in the futures contract for gasoline, the NYMEX and ICE Futures will monitor UGA's and the Related Public Funds' exposure and may ask for further information on their activities including the total size of all positions, investment and trading strategy, and the extent of liquidity resources of UGA and the Related Public Funds. If deemed necessary by the NYMEX and/or ICE Futures, UGA could be ordered to reduce its aggregate net position back to the accountability level. As of September 30, 2012, UGA held 545 futures contracts for gasoline traded on the NYMEX. As of September 30, 2012, UGA did not hold any Futures Contracts traded on ICE Futures. For the nine months ended September 30, 2012, UGA did not exceed accountability levels on the NYMEX or ICE Futures.

Position limits differ from accountability levels in that they represent fixed limits on the maximum number of futures contracts that any person may hold and cannot allow such limits to be exceeded without express CFTC authority to do so. In addition to accountability levels, the NYMEX and ICE Futures impose position limits on contracts held in the last few days of trading in the near month contract to expire. It is unlikely that UGA will run up against such position limits because UGA's investment strategy is to close out its positions and "roll" from the near month contract to expire to the next month contract beginning two weeks from expiration of the contract. For the nine months ended September 30, 2012, UGA did not exceed any position limits imposed by the NYMEX and ICE Futures.

The regulation of commodity interests in the United States is subject to ongoing modification by governmental and judicial action. On July 21, 2010, a broad financial regulatory reform bill, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the "Dodd-Frank Act"), was signed into law. All of the Dodd-Frank Act's provisions became effective on July 16, 2011, but the actual implementation of some of the provisions is subject to continuing uncertainty because implementing rules and regulations have not been completely finalized and have been challenged in court. Pending final resolution of all applicable regulatory requirements, some specific examples of how the new Dodd-Frank Act provisions and rules adopted thereunder could impact UGA are discussed below.


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Futures Contracts and Position Limits

Provisions in the Dodd-Frank Act include the requirement that position limits be established on a wide range of commodity interests including energy-based and other commodity futures contracts, certain cleared commodity swaps and certain over-the-counter commodity contracts; new registration, recordkeeping, capital and margin requirements for "swap dealers" and "major swap participants" as determined by the new law and applicable regulations; and the forced use of clearinghouse mechanisms for many swap transactions that are currently entered into in the over-the-counter market. The new law and the rules thereunder may negatively impact UGA's ability to meet its investment objective either through limits or requirements imposed on it or upon its counterparties. Further, increased regulation of, and the imposition of additional costs on, swap transactions under the new legislation and implementing regulations could cause a reduction in the swap market and the overall derivatives markets, which could restrict liquidity and adversely affect UGA. In particular, new position limits imposed on UGA or its counterparties may impact UGA's ability to invest in a manner that most efficiently meets its investment objective, and new requirements, including capital and mandatory clearing, may increase the cost of UGA's investments and doing business, which could adversely impact the ability of UGA to achieve its investment objective.

In late 2011, the CFTC adopted regulations implementing position limits and limit formulas for 28 core physical commodity futures contracts, including the Futures Contracts and options on Futures Contracts executed pursuant to the rules of designated contract markets (i.e., certain regulated exchanges) and commodity swaps that are economically equivalent to such futures and options contracts (collectively, "Referenced Contracts"). These regulations would have required, among other things, aggregation of position limits that would apply across different trading venues to contracts based on the same underlying commodity. However, the regulations would have required aggregation of Referenced Contracts held by separate Related Public Funds (as defined below) only if such Related Public Funds had "identical trading strategies." USCF does not believe any of the Related Public Funds should be viewed as having identical trading strategies for purposes of the CFTC's aggregation rules.

The position limit rules were to be implemented in two phases, the first of which was to be effective October 12, 2012. However, on September 28, 2012, the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia issued a memorandum opinion and order vacating the final regulations. The court issued that ruling in response to a lawsuit filed by two industry organizations challenging certain aspects of the regulations. There is no way of knowing whether the CFTC will ultimately be successful in adopting position limit rules, how those rules might differ from existing position limits imposed by applicable designated contracts markets, and, accordingly, whether any such rules would negatively impact the ability of UGA to achieve its objectives.

"Swap" Transactions

The Dodd-Frank Act imposes new regulatory requirements on certain "swap" transactions that UGA is authorized to engage in that may ultimately impact the ability of UGA to meet its investment objective. On August 13, 2012, the CFTC and the SEC published joint final rules defining the terms "swap" and "security-based swap." The term "swap" is broadly defined to include various types of over-the-counter derivatives, including swaps and options. The effective date of these final rules was October 12, 2012.

The Dodd-Frank Act requires that certain transactions ultimately falling within the definition of "swap" be executed on organized exchanges or "swap execution facilities" and cleared through regulated clearing organizations (which are referred to in the Dodd-Frank Act as "derivative clearing organizations" ("DCOs")), if the CFTC mandates the central clearing of a particular contract. However, the CFTC has not issued any mandatory clearing determinations and, therefore, it is currently unknown which swaps will be subject to such trading and clearing requirements. If a swap is required to be cleared, the initial margin will be set by the clearing organization, subject to certain regulatory requirements and guidelines. Initial and variation margin requirements for swap dealers and major swap participants who enter into uncleared swaps and capital requirements for swap dealers and major swap participants who enter into both cleared and uncleared trades will be set by the CFTC, the SEC or the applicable "Prudential Regulator." On May 23, 2012, the CFTC published final regulations, which became effective as of July 23, 2012, to determine which entities will be regulated as "swap dealers" and "major swap participants" and thus have to comply with these capital and margin requirements (as well as a multitude of other requirements under the Dodd-Frank Act). Most of the requirements became effective on October 12, 2012 when additional final rules defining the terms "swap," "security-based swap" and "mixed swap" became effective. However, on October 11, 2012 and October 12, 2012, the CFTC issued several no-action letters and interpretive guidance which delayed much of the implementation of these requirements from October 12, 2012 until December 31, 2012. Increased regulation of, and the imposition of additional costs on, swap transactions could have an adverse effect on UGA by, for example, reducing the size of and therefore liquidity in the derivatives market, increasing transaction costs and decreasing the ability to customize derivative transactions.


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The majority of the Dodd-Frank Act regulations affecting the swap market will not become effective until later in calendar year 2012 or the beginning of 2013 at the earliest.

On February 7, 2012, the CFTC published a rule requiring each futures commission merchant ("FCM") and DCO to segregate cleared swaps and related collateral posted by a customer of the FCM from the assets of the FCM or DCO, although such property can be commingled with the property of other cleared swaps customers of the FCM or DCO. This rule addresses losses incurred by a DCO in a so-called "double default" scenario in which a customer of an FCM defaults in its obligations to the FCM and the FCM, in turn, defaults in its obligations to the DCO. Under this scenario, the DCO can only access the collateral attributable to other customers of the DCO whose cleared swap positions are in a loss position following the primary customer's default. This rule is scheduled to become effective on November 8, 2012. Some market participants have expressed concern that the requirements of this segregation rule may result in higher initial margins or higher fees. UGA does not anticipate any impact to its operations in order to meet the requirements of the new rule.

Additionally, the CFTC published rules on February 17, 2012 and April 3, 2012 that require "swap dealers" and "major swap participants" to: 1) adhere to business conduct standards, 2) implement policies and procedures to ensure compliance with the Commodity Exchange Act and 3) maintain records of such compliance. These new requirements may impact the documentation requirements for both cleared and non-cleared swaps and cause swap dealers and major swap participants to face increased compliance costs that, in turn, may be passed along to counterparties (such as UGA) in the form of higher fees and expenses that related to trading swaps.

On February 24, 2012, the CFTC amended certain disclosure obligations to require that the operator of a commodity pool that invests in swaps include standardized swap risk disclosures in the pool's disclosure documents by December 31, 2012.

The CFTC issued a final rule on May 23, 2012 interpreting the definition of "eligible contract participant," as amended by the Dodd-Frank Act, in such a manner that UGA may be limited as to the counterparties with which it may enter into forward contracts. Additionally, UGA may under certain circumstances related to the amount of assets under management no longer qualify as an eligible contract participant. UGA's ability to maintain a certain minimum level of assets and to qualify as an eligible contract participant allows UGA to enter into swaps on swap execution facilities as well as on a bilateral, off-exchange basis. The loss of status as an eligible contract participant and the resulting loss of eligible counterparties and investment options could impact UGA's ability to achieve its investment objective.

The effect of the future regulatory change on UGA is impossible to predict, but it could be substantial and adverse.

USCF, which is registered as a commodity pool operator ("CPO") with the CFTC, is authorized by the Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of UGA (the "LP Agreement") to manage UGA. USCF is authorized by UGA in its sole judgment to employ and establish the terms of employment for, and termination of, commodity trading advisors or FCMs.

Price Movements

Gasoline futures prices were volatile during the nine months ended September 30, 2012 and exhibited a general upward trend throughout the quarter. The price of the Benchmark Futures Contract started the period at $2.6574 per gallon. Prices rose sharply over the course of the period and hit a peak on March 26, 2012 of $3.3987 per gallon. The low for the period was on June 21, 2012, when the prices dropped to $2.4520 per gallon. The period ended with the Benchmark Futures Contract at $2.9201 per gallon, up approximately 9.89% over the period (investors are cautioned that these represent prices for gasoline on a wholesale basis and should not be directly compared to retail prices at a gasoline service station). UGA's per unit NAV rose during the period from a starting level of $48.37 to a high of $61.56 on September 11, 2012. UGA's per unit NAV reached its low for the period on June 21, 2012 at $45.25. UGA's per unit NAV on September 30, 2012 was $60.73, up approximately 25.55% over the period. The Benchmark Futures Contract prices listed above began with the February 2012 contract and ended with the November 2012 contract. The increase of approximately 9.89% on the Benchmark Futures Contract listed above is a hypothetical return only and could not actually be achieved by an investor holding Futures Contracts. An investment in Futures Contracts would need to be rolled forward during the time period described in order to simulate such a result. Furthermore, the change in the nominal price of these differing Futures Contracts, measured from the start of the period to the end of the period, does not represent the actual benchmark results that UGA seeks to track, which are more fully described below in the section titled "Tracking UGA's Benchmark."


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During the nine months ended September 30, 2012, the gasoline futures market exhibited periods of both contango and backwardation. During periods of contango, the price of the near month gasoline Futures Contract was typically lower than the price of the next month gasoline Futures Contract, or contracts further away from expiration. On days when the market was in backwardation, the price of the near month gasoline Futures Contract was typically higher than the price of the next month gasoline Futures Contract, or contracts further away from expiration. For a discussion of the impact of backwardation and contango on total returns, see "Term Structure of Gasoline Prices and the Impact on Total Returns" below.

Valuation of Futures Contracts and the Computation of the Per Unit NAV

The per unit NAV of UGA's units is calculated once each NYSE Arca trading day. The per unit NAV for a particular trading day is released after 4:00 p.m. New York time. Trading during the core trading session on the NYSE Arca typically closes at 4:00 p.m. New York time. UGA's administrator uses the NYMEX closing price (determined at the earlier of the close of the NYMEX or 2:30 p.m. New York time) for the contracts held on the NYMEX, but calculates or determines the value of all other UGA investments, including ICE Futures contracts or other futures contracts, as of the earlier of the close of the NYSE Arca or 4:00 p.m. New York time.

Results of Operations and the Gasoline Market

Results of Operations. On February 26, 2008, UGA listed its units on the American Stock Exchange (the "AMEX") under the ticker symbol "UGA." On that day, UGA established its initial offering price at $50.00 per unit and issued 300,000 units to the initial authorized purchaser, Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Group, in exchange for $15,000,000 in cash. As a result of the acquisition of the AMEX by NYSE Euronext, UGA's units no longer trade on the AMEX and commenced trading on the NYSE Arca on November 25, 2008.

Since its initial offering of 30,000,000 units, UGA has registered one subsequent offering of its units: 50,000,000 units which were registered with the SEC on April 30, 2010. Units offered by UGA in the subsequent offering were sold by it for cash at the units' per unit NAV as described in the applicable prospectus. As of September 30, 2012, UGA had issued 8,650,000 units, 1,100,000 of which were outstanding. As of September 30, 2012, there were 71,350,000 units registered but not yet issued.

More units may have been issued by UGA than are outstanding due to the redemption of units. Unlike funds that are registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, units that have been redeemed by UGA cannot be resold by UGA. As a result, UGA contemplates that additional offerings of its units will be registered with the SEC in the future in anticipation of additional issuances and redemptions.

As of September 30, 2012, UGA had the following authorized purchasers: Citadel Securities LLC, Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Credit Suisse Securities USA LLC, Deutsche Bank Securities Inc., JP Morgan Securities Inc., Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp., Morgan Stanley & Company Inc., NewEdge USA LLC, Nomura Securities International Inc., RBC Capital Markets Corporation, SG Americas Securities LLC, Virtu Financial BD LLC and Virtu Financial Capital Markets.

For the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2012 Compared to the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2011

As of September 30, 2012, the total unrealized loss on Futures Contracts owned or held on that day was $260,946 and UGA established cash deposits and investments in short-term obligations of the United States of two years or less ("Treasuries") and money market funds that were equal to $72,961,165. UGA held 83.53% of its cash assets in overnight deposits and money market funds at its custodian bank, while 16.47% of the cash balance was held as investments in Treasuries and margin deposits for the Futures Contracts purchased. The ending per unit NAV on September 30, 2012 was $60.73.

By comparison, as of September 30, 2011, the total unrealized loss on Futures Contracts owned or held on that day was $7,588,199 and UGA established cash deposits and investments in money market funds that were equal to $108,638,949. UGA held 79.73% of its cash assets in overnight deposits and money market funds at its custodian bank, while 20.27% of the cash balance was held as margin deposits for the Futures Contracts purchased. The decrease in cash assets in overnight deposits and investments in Treasuries and money market funds for September 30, 2012, as compared to September 30, 2011, was the result of UGA's smaller size in the current period as measured by total net assets. The ending per unit NAV on September 30, 2011 was $45.93. The increase in the per unit NAV for September 30, 2012, as compared to September 30, 2011, was primarily due to the increase in the price of the Benchmark Futures Contract between the nine months ended September 30, 2011 and the nine months ended September 30, 2012.


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Portfolio Expenses. UGA's expenses consist of investment management fees, brokerage fees and commissions, certain offering costs, licensing fees, the fees and expenses of the independent directors of USCF and expenses relating to tax accounting and reporting requirements. The management fee that UGA pays to USCF is calculated as a percentage of the total net assets of UGA. UGA pays USCF a management fee of 0.60% of its average daily total net assets. The fee is accrued daily and paid monthly.

During the nine months ended September 30, 2012, the average daily total net assets of UGA were $100,813,057. The management fee incurred by UGA during the period amounted to $452,832. By comparison, during the nine months ended September 30, 2011, the average daily total net assets of UGA were $124,427,456. The management fee paid by UGA during the period amounted to $558,389.

In addition to the management fee, UGA pays all brokerage fees and other expenses, including tax reporting costs, licensing fees for the use of intellectual property, ongoing registration or other fees paid to the SEC, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority ("FINRA") and any other regulatory agency in connection with offers and sales of its units subsequent to the initial offering and all legal, accounting, printing and other expenses . . .

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