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OHI > SEC Filings for OHI > Form 10-Q on 7-Nov-2012All Recent SEC Filings

Show all filings for OMEGA HEALTHCARE INVESTORS INC

Form 10-Q for OMEGA HEALTHCARE INVESTORS INC


7-Nov-2012

Quarterly Report


Item 2 - Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Forward-looking Statements, Reimbursement Issues and Other Factors Affecting Future Results

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and notes thereto appearing elsewhere in this document, including statements regarding potential future changes in reimbursement. This document contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws. These statements relate to our expectations, beliefs, intentions, plans, objectives, goals, strategies, future events, performance and underlying assumptions and other statements other than statements of historical facts. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by the use of forward-looking terminology including, but not limited to, terms such as "may," "will," "anticipates," "expects," "believes," "intends," "should" or comparable terms or the negative thereof. These statements are based on information available on the date of this filing and only speak as to the date hereof and no obligation to update such forward-looking statements should be assumed. Our actual results may differ materially from those reflected in the forward-looking statements contained herein as a result of a variety of factors, including, among other things:

(i) those items discussed under "Risk Factors" in Item 1A to our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2011, in Part II, Item IA of our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the three months ended March 31, 2012 and June 30, 2012, and in Part II, Item 1A of this report;

(ii) uncertainties relating to the business operations of the operators of our assets, including those relating to reimbursement by third-party payors, regulatory matters and occupancy levels;

(iii) the ability of any operators in bankruptcy to reject unexpired lease obligations, modify the terms of our mortgages and impede our ability to collect unpaid rent or interest during the process of a bankruptcy proceeding and retain security deposits for the debtors' obligations;

(iv) our ability to sell closed or foreclosed assets on a timely basis and on terms that allow us to realize the carrying value of these assets;

(v) our ability to negotiate appropriate modifications to the terms of our credit facilities;

(vi) our ability to manage, re-lease or sell any owned and operated facilities;

(vii) the availability and cost of capital;

(viii) changes in our credit ratings and the ratings of our debt securities;

(ix) competition in the financing of healthcare facilities;

(x) regulatory and other changes in the healthcare sector;

(xi) the effect of economic and market conditions generally and, particularly, in the healthcare industry;

(xii) changes in the financial position of our operators;

(xiii) changes in interest rates;

(xiv) the amount and yield of any additional investments;

(xv) changes in tax laws and regulations affecting real estate investment trusts; and

(xvi) our ability to maintain our status as a real estate investment trust.

Overview

We have one reportable segment consisting of investments in healthcare related real estate properties. Our core business is to provide financing and capital to the long-term healthcare industry with a particular focus on skilled nursing facilities ("SNFs") located in the United States. Our core portfolio consists of long-term leases and mortgage agreements. All of our leases are "triple-net" leases, which require the tenants to pay all property-related expenses. Our mortgage revenue derives from fixed-rate mortgage loans, which are secured by first mortgage liens on the underlying real estate and personal property of the mortgagor.


Our portfolio of investments at September 30, 2012, consisted of 463 healthcare facilities (including three facilities classified as held for sale), located in 34 states and operated by 47 third-party operators. Our gross investment in these facilities totaled approximately $3.0 billion at September 30, 2012, with 99% of our real estate investments related to long-term healthcare facilities. This portfolio is made up of (i) 403 SNFs, (ii) 14 assisted living facilities ("ALFs"), (iii) 11 specialty facilities, (iv) fixed rate mortgages on 32 SNFs and (v) three SNFs that are held for sale. At September 30, 2012, we also held other investments of approximately $45.8 million, consisting primarily of secured loans to third-party operators of our facilities.

Our consolidated financial statements include the accounts of (i) Omega, (ii) all direct and indirect wholly owned subsidiaries of Omega and (iii) TC Healthcare, an entity and interim operator created in 2008 to temporarily operate the 15 facilities we assumed as a result of the bankruptcy of one of our former tenants/operators. We consolidate the financial results of TC Healthcare into our financial statements based on the applicable consolidation accounting literature. We include the operating results, assets and liabilities of these facilities for the period of time that TC Healthcare was responsible for the operations of the facilities. Thirteen of these facilities were transitioned from TC Healthcare to a new tenant/operator on September 1, 2008. The two remaining facilities were transitioned to the new tenant/operator on June 1, 2010 upon approval by state regulators of the operating license transfer. The operating revenues and expenses and related operating assets and liabilities of the two facilities are shown on a gross basis in our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Consolidated Balance Sheets, respectively. TC Healthcare is responsible for the collection of the accounts receivable earned and the liabilities incurred prior to the date of the transition to the new tenant/operator. All inter-company accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation of the financial statements.

Taxation

We have elected to be taxed as a Real Estate Investment Trust ("REIT"), under Sections 856 through 860 of the Internal Revenue Code (the "Code"), beginning with our taxable year ended December 31, 1992. We believe that we have been organized and operated in such a manner as to qualify for taxation as a REIT. We intend to continue to operate in a manner that will maintain our qualification as a REIT, but no assurance can be given that we have operated or will be able to continue to operate in a manner so as to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT. Under the Code, we generally are not subject to federal income tax on taxable income distributed to stockholders if certain distribution, income, asset and stockholder tests are met, including a requirement that we must generally distribute at least 90% of our annual taxable income, excluding any net capital gain, to stockholders. If we fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, we may be subject to federal income taxes on our taxable income for that year and for the four years following the year during which qualification is lost, unless the Internal Revenue Service grants us relief under certain statutory provisions. Such an event could materially adversely affect our net income and net cash available for distribution to our stockholders. For further information, see "Taxation" in Item 1 of our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2011.

Government Regulation and Reimbursement

The following is a description of certain of the laws and regulations and reimbursement policies and programs affecting our business and the businesses conducted by our operators. The following description should be read in conjunction with the risk factors described under "Item 1A - Risk Factors."

Healthcare Reform. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and accompanying Healthcare and Education Affordability and Reconciliation Act of 2010 (the "Healthcare Reform Law") were signed into law in March 2010. This legislation represents the most comprehensive change to healthcare benefits since the inception of the Medicare program in 1965 and will affect reimbursement for governmental programs, private insurance and employee welfare benefit plans in various ways. Some changes under the Healthcare Reform Law have already occurred, such as changes to pre-existing condition requirements and coverage of dependents. Other changes, including taxes on so-called "Cadillac" health plans, will be implemented over time. There has already been significant rule making and regulation promulgation under the Healthcare Reform Law, and we expect significant additional rules and regulations.


The attorneys general for several states, as well as other individuals and organizations, challenged the constitutionality of certain provisions of the Healthcare Reform Law, including the requirement that each individual carry health insurance. On June 28, 2012, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld all of the Healthcare Reform Law except for the requirement that states expand Medicaid beginning in 2014. However, various Congressional leaders have indicated a desire to revisit some or all of the Healthcare Reform Law and the U.S. House of Representatives voted to repeal the Healthcare Reform Law following the Supreme Court's decision. While the U.S. Senate voted against repealing the entire Healthcare Reform Law prior to the Supreme Court's decision, a number of bills and budget proposals seek to repeal, change or defund certain provisions of the law. For example, the 2011 budget eliminated two programs funded under the Healthcare Reform Law: the Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) and the Free Choice Voucher programs. Further, a number of states have passed legislation intended to block various requirements of the Healthcare Reform Law. Because of these challenges, we cannot predict whether any or all of the legislation will be implemented as enacted, overturned, repealed or modified.

Given the multitude of factors involved in the Healthcare Reform Law and the substantial requirements for regulation thereunder, we cannot predict the impact of the Healthcare Reform Law on our operators or their ability to meet their obligations to us. The Healthcare Reform Law could result in decreases in payments to our operators or otherwise adversely affect the financial condition of our operators, thereby negatively impacting our financial condition. We cannot predict whether our operators will have the ability to modify certain aspects of their operations to lessen the impact of any increased costs or other adverse effects resulting from changes in governmental programs, private insurance and/or employee welfare benefit plans. The impact of the Healthcare Reform Law on each of our operators will vary depending on payor mix, resident conditions and a variety of other factors. In addition to the provisions relating to reimbursement, other provisions of the Healthcare Reform Law may impact our operators as employers (e.g., requirements related to providing health insurance for employees), which could negatively impact the financial condition of our operators. We anticipate that many of the provisions in the Healthcare Reform Law may be subject to further clarification and modification during the rule making process.

The Healthcare Reform Law requires private health insurers that sell policies to individuals and small businesses to provide, starting in 2014, a set of "essential health benefits" in 10 categories, including prescription drugs, rehabilitative and habilitative services, and chronic disease management. As required under the law, states define the essential health benefits. States are now submitting their essential health benefit packages to the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). How these benefits are established will affect payments for long term care facilities.

The Healthcare Reform Law requires SNFs to implement, by March 23, 2013, a compliance and ethics program that is effective in preventing and detecting criminal, civil and administrative violations and in promoting quality of care. HHS has not yet issued the proposed regulations to implement this law that were due in March 2012. It is unclear whether this provision of the law will be enforced until the regulations are issued.

SNFs will be required to provide additional information for the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Nursing Home Compare website regarding staffing as well as summary information regarding the number of criminal violations by a facility or its employees committed within the facility, and specification of those that were crimes of abuse, neglect, criminal sexual abuse or other violations or crimes resulting in serious bodily injury, and, in addition, the number of civil monetary penalties imposed on the facility, its employees, contractors and other agents, to further the ability of consumers to compare nursing homes.


Reimbursement. A significant portion of our operators' revenue is derived from governmentally-funded reimbursement programs, primarily Medicare and Medicaid. The federal government and many state governments are currently focusing on reducing expenditures under Medicare and Medicaid programs, resulting in significant cost-cutting at both the federal and state levels. These cost-cutting measures, together with the implementation of changes in reimbursement rates under the Healthcare Reform Law, could result in a significant reduction of reimbursement rates to our operators under both the Medicare and Medicaid programs. We currently believe that our operator coverage ratios are adequate and that our operators can absorb moderate reimbursement rate reductions and still meet their obligations to us. However, significant limits on the scopes of services reimbursed and on reimbursement rates could have a material adverse effect on our operators' results of operations and financial condition, which could adversely affect our operators' ability to meet their obligations to us.

For the federal fiscal year 2013, CMS has announced that it will increase SNF payment rates by 1.8% (2.5% market basket update minus 0.7% productivity adjustment), which amounts to an estimated $670 million increase in payments to SNFs beginning October 1, 2012.

The Sequestration Transparency Act of 2012 requires President Obama to submit to Congress a report on the potential sequestration triggered by the failure of the Joint Selective Committee on Deficit Reduction to propose, and Congress to enact, a plan to reduce the deficit by $1.2 trillion, as required by the Budget Control Act of 2011. Under the sequestration, automatic spending cuts would become effective beginning January 2, 2013. This would result in cuts of 2% ($11.1 billion) to Medicare. However, Medicaid is exempt from the automatic spending cuts.

We cannot predict whether Congress will take any action to change the automatic spending cuts. Further, we cannot predict how states will react to any changes that occur at the federal level.

Medicaid. State budgetary concerns, coupled with the implementation of rules under the Healthcare Reform Law, may result in significant changes in healthcare spending at the state level.

Many states are currently focusing on the reduction of expenditures under their state Medicaid programs, which may result in a reduction in reimbursement rates for our operators. The need to control Medicaid expenditures may be exacerbated by the potential for increased enrollment in Medicaid due to unemployment and declines in family incomes. Since our operators' profit margins on Medicaid patients are generally relatively low, more than modest reductions in Medicaid reimbursement or an increase in the number of Medicaid patients could adversely affect our operators' results of operations and financial conditions, which in turn could negatively impact us.

Under the Healthcare Reform Law, Medicaid coverage will be expanded to all individuals under age 65 with incomes up to 133% of the federal poverty level, beginning January 1, 2014. The federal government will pay the entire cost for Medicaid coverage for newly eligible beneficiaries for 3 years (2014 through 2016). In 2017, the federal share declines to 95%; in 2018, to 94%; in 2019, to 93%; and in 2020 and subsequent years, to 90%. States may delay Medicaid expansion after 2014 but the federal payment rates will be less. However, on June 28, 2012, the Supreme Court issued its opinion in National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebellius, which stated that states could not be required to expand Medicaid or risk losing federal funding of their existing Medicaid programs. Thus, it is unknown which states will expand their Medicaid programs.

Although states are currently required by law to maintain current Medicaid eligibility standards until at least 2014, at least one state has filed a lawsuit challenging the constitutionality of the "maintenance of effort" (MOE) provision based on the Supreme Court's decision.

Medicare. In 2009, the CMS finalized a revised case-mix classification system, the RUG-IV, and planned implementation for fiscal year 2010. However, the Healthcare Reform Law delayed implementation of RUG-IV to October 1, 2011. The Medicare and Medicaid Extenders Act of 2010 repealed the delay in implementation under the Healthcare Reform Law and provided that RUG-IV would be implemented immediately and applied retroactively to October 1, 2010. According to the CMS, this change in case-mix classification methodology resulted in a significant increase in Medicare expenditures for fiscal year 2011.


In response to this increase, on July 29, 2011, the CMS announced the final rule for SNF funding for fiscal year 2012. The final rule includes a recalibration of the case-mix indexes that form the RUG-IV and will result in a reduction of aggregate Medicare reimbursement to SNFs of $4.47 billion or 12.6%. However, the reduction is partially offset by an update that reflects a 2.7% increase in the prices of a "market basket" of goods and services reduced by a 1.0% multi-factor productivity adjustment mandated by the Healthcare Reform Law. The combination of the recalibration and the update will yield a net reduction of aggregate Medicare reimbursement to SNFs of $3.87 billion or 11.1%. We believe that the implementation of RUG-IV in 2010 had a positive effect on the cash flow and rent coverage ratios of our operators. This funding cut has reduced operator coverage ratios; however, we currently believe that our operator coverage ratios are adequate and that our operators can absorb the fiscal year 2012 reimbursement rate reductions and still meet their obligations to us.

The Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act of 2008 ("MIPPA") became law on July 15, 2008, and made a variety of changes to Medicare, some of which affected SNFs. For instance, MIPPA extended the therapy cap exceptions process through December 31, 2009. A number of other laws have further extended the therapy cap exceptions process, with the current expiration set to occur on December 31, 2012. The therapy caps limit the physical therapy, speech-language therapy and occupational therapy services that a Medicare beneficiary can receive during a calendar year. These caps do not apply to therapy services covered under Medicare Part A for SNFs, although the caps apply in most other instances involving patients in SNFs or long-term care facilities who receive therapy services covered under Medicare Part B. Congress implemented a temporary therapy cap exceptions process, which permits medically necessary therapy services to exceed the payment limits. Expiration of the therapy cap exceptions process in the future could have a material adverse effect on our operators' financial condition and operations, which could adversely impact their ability to meet their obligations to us.

Quality of Care Initiatives. The CMS has implemented a number of initiatives focused on the quality of care provided by nursing homes that could affect our operators. For instance, in December 2008, the CMS released quality ratings for all of the nursing homes that participate in Medicare or Medicaid. Facility rankings, ranging from five stars ("much above average") to one star ("much below average") are updated on a monthly basis. In March 2012, the Government Accountability Office released a report that recommended that the CMS use strategic planning in its efforts to evaluate and improve the rating system. While CMS agreed with the GAO's recommendations, we cannot predict what changes, if any, it will make to the rating system. It is possible that this or any other ranking system could lead to future reimbursement policies that reward or penalize facilities on the basis of the reported quality of care parameters.

CMS has incorporated hospital readmissions review into the Quality Indicators Survey. Under Medicare's Inpatient Prospective Payment System, CMS began adjusting payments to hospitals for excessive readmissions of patients for heart attacks, heart failure, and pneumonia during fiscal years beginning on and after October 1, 2012. Long term care facilities will be under increased scrutiny to prevent residents from being readmitted to hospitals for these conditions in particular, and have an opportunity to demonstrate their quality of care by reducing their hospital readmission rates. It is anticipated that hospital readmissions will be a consideration in the (CMS) Five Star ratings.

Office of the Inspector General Activities. The Office of Inspector General's (OIG) Work Plan for fiscal year 2013, which describes projects that the OIG plans to address during the fiscal year, includes a number of projects related to nursing homes. Reviews of Medicare Part A and Part B payments and services for SNFs will focus on the following: (1) adverse events in post-acute care; (2) Medicare requirements for quality of care; (3) verification of state agency identified deficiencies' corrections; (4) oversight of poorly performing SNFs;
(5) use of atypical antipsychotic drugs; (6) hospitalizations of SNF residents;
(7) questionable billing practices for Part B services; and (8) oversight of the accuracy and completeness of MDS data. Medicaid reviews will focus on communicable diseases and MDS data. The OIG plans to continue its efforts in addressing fraud and abuse. While we cannot predict the results of the OIG's activities, the projects could result in further scrutiny and/or oversight of nursing homes.


Fraud and Abuse. There are various federal and state civil and criminal laws and regulations governing a wide array of healthcare provider referrals, relationships and arrangements, including laws and regulations prohibiting fraud by healthcare providers. Many of these complex laws raise issues that have not been clearly interpreted by the relevant governmental authorities and courts. In addition, federal and state governments are devoting increasing attention and resources to anti-fraud initiatives against healthcare providers.

The federal anti-kickback statute is a criminal statute that prohibits the knowing and willful offer, payment, solicitation or receipt of any remuneration in return for, to induce or to arrange for the referral of individuals for any item or service payable by a federal or state healthcare program. There is also a civil analogue. States also have enacted similar statutes covering Medicaid payments, and some states have broader statutes. Some enforcement efforts have targeted relationships between SNFs and ancillary providers, relationships between SNFs and referral sources for SNFs and relationships between SNFs and facilities for which the SNFs serve as referral sources. The federal self-referral law, commonly known as the "Stark Law," is a civil statute that prohibits a physician from making referrals to an entity for "designated health services" if the physician has a financial relationship with the entity. Some of the services provided in SNFs are classified as designated health services. There are also criminal provisions that prohibit filing false claims or making false statements to receive payment or certification under Medicare and Medicaid, as well as failing to refund overpayments or improper payments. Violation of the anti-kickback statute or Stark Law may form the basis for a federal False Claims Act violation. In addition, the federal False Claims Act allows a private individual with knowledge of fraud to bring a claim on behalf of the federal government and earn a percentage of the federal government's recovery. Because of these incentives, these so-called "whistleblower" suits have become more frequent. The violation of any of these laws or regulations by an operator may result in the imposition of fines or other penalties, including exclusion from Medicare, Medicaid and all other federal and state healthcare programs.

Privacy. Our operators are subject to various federal, state and local laws and regulations designed to protect the confidentiality and security of patient health information, including the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 and the corresponding regulations promulgated thereunder ("HIPAA"). HIPAA was amended by the Health Information Technology For Economic and Clinical Health ("HITECH") Act, which was part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, known as the Stimulus Bill. The HITECH Act increases penalties for HIPAA violations, imposes stricter requirements on healthcare providers, expands the scope of enforcement and, in most cases, requires notification if there is a breach of unsecured individual protected health information, including notification to the affected individual(s), the Secretary of the Department of Human Services and, in some cases, the media. Various states have similar laws and regulations that govern the maintenance and safeguarding of patient records, charts and other information generated in connection with the provision of professional medical services. These laws and regulations require our operators to expend the requisite resources to secure protected health information, including the funding of costs associated with technology upgrades. Operators found in violation of HIPAA or any other privacy law or regulation may face large penalties. In addition, compliance with an operator's notification requirements in the event of a breach of unsecured protected health information could cause reputational harm to an operator's business.

Licensing and Certification. Our operators and facilities are subject to various federal, state and local licensing and certification laws and regulations, including laws and regulations under Medicare and Medicaid requiring operators of SNFs and ALFs to comply with extensive standards governing operations. Governmental agencies administering these laws and regulations regularly inspect our operators' facilities and investigate complaints. Our operators and their managers receive notices of observed violations and deficiencies from time to time, and sanctions have been imposed from time to time on facilities operated by them.

Other Laws and Regulations. Additional federal, state and local laws and regulations affect how our operators conduct their operations, including laws and regulations protecting consumers against deceptive practices and otherwise generally affecting our operators' management of their property and equipment and the conduct of their operations (including laws and regulations involving fire, health and safety; quality of services, including care and food service; residents' rights, including abuse and neglect laws; and the health standards set by the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration).


General and Professional Liability. Although arbitration agreements have been . . .

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