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CVI > SEC Filings for CVI > Form 10-Q on 6-Nov-2012All Recent SEC Filings

Show all filings for CVR ENERGY INC

Form 10-Q for CVR ENERGY INC


6-Nov-2012

Quarterly Report


Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes and with the statistical information and financial data appearing in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2012, as well as our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2011. Results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2012 are not necessarily indicative of results to be attained for any other period.

Forward-Looking Statements

This Form 10-Q, including this Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, contains "forward-looking statements" as defined by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). Such statements are those concerning contemplated transactions and strategic plans, expectations and objectives for future operations. These include, without limitation:


statements, other than statements of historical fact, that address activities, events or developments that we expect, believe or anticipate will or may occur in the future;


statements relating to future financial performance, future capital sources and other matters; and


any other statements preceded by, followed by or that include the words "anticipates," "believes," "expects," "plans," "intends," "estimates," "projects," "could," "should," "may," or similar expressions.

Although we believe that our plans, intentions and expectations reflected in or suggested by the forward-looking statements we make in this Form 10-Q, including this Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, are reasonable, we can give no assurance that such plans, intentions or expectations will be achieved. These statements are based on assumptions made by us based on our experience and perception of historical trends, current conditions, expected future developments and other factors that we believe are appropriate in the circumstances. Such statements are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control. You are cautioned that any such statements are not guarantees of future performance and actual results or developments may differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including but not limited to those set forth in the summary risks noted below and under "Risk Factors" attached hereto as Exhibit 99.1:


change in control;


volatile margins in the refining industry;


exposure to the risks associated with volatile crude oil prices;


the availability of adequate cash and other sources of liquidity for our capital needs;


our ability to forecast our future financial condition or results of operations and our future revenues and expenses;


disruption of our ability to obtain an adequate supply of crude oil;


interruption of the pipelines supplying feedstock and in the distribution of our products;


competition in the petroleum and nitrogen fertilizer businesses;


capital expenditures and potential liabilities arising from environmental laws and regulations;


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changes in our credit profile;


the cyclical nature of the nitrogen fertilizer business;


the seasonal nature of our business;


the supply and price levels of essential raw materials;


the risk of a material decline in production at our refineries and nitrogen fertilizer plant;


potential operating hazards from accidents, fire, severe weather, floods or other natural disasters;


the risk associated with governmental policies affecting the agricultural industry;


the volatile nature of ammonia, potential liability for accidents involving ammonia that cause interruption to our businesses, severe damage to property and/or injury to the environment and human health and potential increased costs relating to the transport of ammonia;


the dependence of the nitrogen fertilizer operations on a few third-party suppliers, including providers of transportation services and equipment;


new regulations concerning the transportation of hazardous chemicals, risks of terrorism and the security of chemical manufacturing facilities;


our dependence on significant customers;


the potential loss of the nitrogen fertilizer business' transportation cost advantage over its competitors;


our potential inability to successfully implement our business strategies, including the completion of significant capital programs;


our ability to continue to license the technology used in our operations;


existing and proposed environmental laws and regulations, including those relating to climate change, alternative energy or fuel sources, and existing and future regulations related to the end-use and application of fertilizers;


refinery and nitrogen fertilizer facility operating hazards and interruptions, including unscheduled maintenance or downtime, and the availability of adequate insurance coverage;


our significant indebtedness, including restrictions in our debt agreements; and


instability and volatility in the capital and credit markets.

All forward-looking statements contained in this Form 10-Q speak only as of the date of this document. We undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances that occur after the date of this Form 10-Q, or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

Company Overview

We are an independent petroleum refiner and marketer of high value transportation fuels in the mid-continental United States. In addition, we own the general partner and approximately 70% of the common units of CVR Partners, LP, a publicly-traded limited partnership that is an independent


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producer and marketer of upgraded nitrogen fertilizers in the form of ammonia and urea ammonia nitrate, or UAN.

We operate under two business segments: petroleum and nitrogen fertilizer. Throughout the remainder of the document, our business segments are referred to as our "petroleum business" and our "nitrogen fertilizer business," respectively.

Petroleum business. Our petroleum business includes a 115,000 bpd complex full coking medium-sour crude oil refinery in Coffeyville, Kansas and, as of December 15, 2011, a 70,000 bpd crude oil unit refinery in Wynnewood, Oklahoma. In addition, our supporting businesses include (1) a crude oil gathering system with a gathering capacity of approximately 50,000 bpd serving Kansas, Oklahoma, western Missouri, southwestern Nebraska and Texas, (2) a rack marketing division supplying product through tanker trucks directly to customers located in close geographic proximity to Coffeyville, Kansas and Wynnewood, Oklahoma and at throughput terminals on Magellan and NuStar Energy, LP's ("NuStar") refined products distribution systems, (3) a 145,000 bpd pipeline system (supported by approximately 350 miles of Company owned and leased pipeline) that transports crude oil to our Coffeyville refinery from its Broome Station tank farm and associated crude oil storage tanks with a capacity of 1.2 million barrels,
(4) crude oil storage tanks with a capacity of 0.5 million barrels in Wynnewood, Oklahoma, (5) an additional 3.3 million barrels of leased storage capacity located in Cushing, Oklahoma and other locations and (6) 1.0 million barrels of company owned crude oil storage in Cushing, Oklahoma.

Our Coffeyville refinery is situated approximately 100 miles northeast of Cushing, Oklahoma, one of the largest crude oil trading and storage hubs in the United States and our Wynnewood refinery is approximately 130 miles southwest of Cushing. Cushing is supplied by numerous pipelines from various locations including Canada. The early June 2012 reversal of the Seaway Pipeline that now flows from Cushing, OK to the U. S. Gulf Coast has eliminated our ability to source foreign waterborne crude oil from around the world, as well as deep water U.S. Gulf of Mexico produced sweet and sour crude oil grades. In addition to rack sales (sales which are made at terminals into third party tanker trucks), we make bulk sales (sales through third party pipelines) into the mid-continent markets via Magellan and into Colorado and other destinations utilizing the product pipeline networks owned by Magellan, Enterprise Products Operating, L.P., and NuStar.

Crude oil is supplied to our Coffeyville refinery through our gathering system and by a Plains pipeline from Cushing, Oklahoma. We maintain capacity on the Spearhead and Keystone pipelines (as discussed more fully in Note 15 to the financial statements) from Canada to Cushing. We also maintain leased storage in Cushing to facilitate optimal crude oil purchasing and blending. Our Coffeyville refinery blend consists of a combination of crude oil grades, including domestic grades, various Canadian medium and heavy sours and sweet synthetics. Our Wynnewood refinery is capable of processing a variety of crude oils, including West Texas sour, West Texas Intermediate, sweet and sour Canadian and other U.S. domestically produced crude oils. The access to a variety of crude oils coupled with the complexity of our refineries allows us to purchase crude oil at a discount to WTI. Our consumed crude oil cost discount to WTI for the third quarter of 2012 was $4.38 per barrel compared to $2.57 per barrel in the third quarter of 2011.

On July 10, 2012, CVR and the union representing approximately 65% of the employees at our Wynnewood refinery agreed to a new three-year collective bargaining agreement extending to June 2015.

Nitrogen fertilizer business. The nitrogen fertilizer business consists of our interest in the Partnership. We own the general partner and approximately 70% of the common units of the Partnership. The nitrogen fertilizer business consists of a nitrogen fertilizer manufacturing facility that is the only operation in North America that utilizes a petroleum coke, or pet coke, gasification process


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to produce nitrogen fertilizer. The facility includes a 1,225 ton-per-day ammonia unit, a 2,025 ton-per-day UAN unit and a gasifier complex having a capacity of 84 million standard cubic feet per day of hydrogen. The gasifier is a dual-train facility, with each gasifier able to function independently of the other, thereby providing redundancy and improving reliability. In 2011, the nitrogen fertilizer business produced 411,189 tons of ammonia, of which approximately 72% was upgraded into 714,130 tons of UAN. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2012, the nitrogen fertilizer business produced 104,161 and 302,339 tons of ammonia, respectively, of which approximately 72% and 70% was upgraded into 181,861 and 516,465 tons of UAN, respectively.

The Partnership's growth strategy includes expanding production of UAN and acquiring additional infrastructure and production assets. The Partnership is anticipating completion of its UAN expansion project designed to increase the UAN production capacity by 400,000 tons, or approximately 50%, per year by January 1, 2013.

The primary raw material feedstock utilized in the nitrogen fertilizer production process is pet coke, which is produced during the crude oil refining process. In contrast, substantially all of the nitrogen fertilizer business' competitors use natural gas as their primary raw material feedstock. Historically, pet coke has been significantly less expensive than natural gas on a per ton of fertilizer produced basis and pet coke prices have been more stable when compared to natural gas prices. The nitrogen fertilizer business currently purchases most of its pet coke from CVR Energy pursuant to a long-term agreement having an initial term that ends in 2027, subject to renewal. On average, during the past five years, over 70% of the pet coke utilized by the nitrogen fertilizer plant was produced and supplied by CVR Energy's crude oil refinery in Coffeyville.

Transaction Agreement

On April 18, 2012, CVR Energy entered into a Transaction Agreement (the "Transaction Agreement") with IEP Energy LLC (the "Offeror"), a majority owned subsidiary of Icahn Enterprises, L.P. ("Icahn Enterprises") and certain other affiliates of Icahn Enterprises, and Carl C. Icahn (collectively with the Offeror, the "Offeror Parties"). Pursuant to the Transaction Agreement, the Offeror offered (the "Offer") to purchase all of the issued and outstanding shares of CVR Energy's common stock (the "Shares") for a price of $30 per Share in cash, without interest, less any applicable withholding taxes, plus one non-transferable contingent cash payment ("CCP") right for each Share which represents the contractual right to receive an additional cash payment per share if a definitive agreement for the sale of CVR Energy is executed on or before August 18, 2013 and such transaction closes.

On May 7, 2012, the IEP Parties announced that a majority of CVR's common stock had been acquired through the Offer. As a result of Shares tendered into the Offer during the initial offering period and subsequent additional purchases, the IEP Parties owned approximately 82% of CVR Energy's outstanding common stock as of September 30, 2012.

Pursuant to the Transaction Agreement, for a period of 60 days CVR Energy solicited proposals or offers from third parties to acquire CVR Energy. The 60-day period began on May 24, 2012 and ended on July 23, 2012 without any qualifying offers.

Pursuant to the Transaction Agreement, all employee restricted stock awards ("awards") that vest in 2012 will vest in accordance with the current vesting terms and upon vesting will receive the offer price of $30 per share in cash plus one CCP. For all such awards that vest in accordance with their terms in 2013, 2014 and 2015, the holders of the awards will receive the lesser of the offer price or the appraised value of the shares at the time of vesting. For awards vesting subsequent to 2012, the awards will be remeasured at each subsequent reporting date until they vest.


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Nitrogen Partnership Shelf Registration Statement

On August 29, 2012, the Partnership's registration statement on Form S-3 (initially filed on August 17, 2012), was declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") enabling CRLLC to offer and sell from time to time, in one or more public offerings or direct placements, up to 50,920,000 common units.

Major Influences on Results of Operations

Petroleum Business

Our earnings and cash flows from our petroleum operations are primarily affected by the relationship between refined product prices and the prices for crude oil and other feedstocks. Feedstocks are petroleum products, such as crude oil and natural gas liquids, that are processed and blended into refined products. The cost to acquire feedstocks and the price for which refined products are ultimately sold depend on factors beyond our control, including the supply of and demand for crude oil, as well as gasoline and other refined products which, in turn, depend on, among other factors, changes in domestic and foreign economies, weather conditions, domestic and foreign political affairs, production levels, the availability of imports, the marketing of competitive fuels and the extent of government regulation. Because we apply first-in, first-out ("FIFO") accounting to value our inventory, crude oil price movements may impact net income in the short term because of changes in the value of our unhedged on-hand inventory. The effect of changes in crude oil prices on our results of operations is influenced by the rate at which the prices of refined products adjust to reflect these changes.

Feedstock and refined product prices are also affected by other factors, such as product pipeline capacity, local market conditions and the operating levels of competing refineries. Crude oil costs and the prices of refined products have historically been subject to wide fluctuations. An expansion or upgrade of our competitors' facilities, price volatility, international political and economic developments and other factors beyond our control are likely to continue to play an important role in refining industry economics. These factors can impact, among other things, the level of inventories in the market, resulting in price volatility and a reduction in product margins. Moreover, the refining industry typically experiences seasonal fluctuations in demand for refined products, such as increases in the demand for gasoline during the summer driving season and for home heating oil during the winter, primarily in the Northeast. In addition to current market conditions, there are long-term factors that may impact the demand for refined products. These factors include mandated renewable fuels standards, proposed climate change laws and regulations, and increased mileage standards for vehicles.

In order to assess our operating performance, we compare our net sales, less cost of product sold, or our refining margin, against an industry refining margin benchmark. The industry refining margin benchmark is calculated by assuming that two barrels of benchmark light sweet crude oil is converted into one barrel of conventional gasoline and one barrel of distillate. This benchmark is referred to as the 2-1-1 crack spread. Because we calculate the benchmark margin using the market value of NYMEX gasoline and heating oil against the market value of NYMEX WTI, we refer to the benchmark as the NYMEX 2-1-1 crack spread, or simply, the 2-1-1 crack spread. The 2-1-1 crack spread is expressed in dollars per barrel and is a proxy for the per barrel margin that a sweet crude oil refinery would earn assuming it produced and sold the benchmark production of gasoline and distillate.

Although the 2-1-1 crack spread is a benchmark for our refinery margin, because our refineries have certain feedstock costs and logistical advantages as compared to a benchmark refinery and our product yield is less than total refinery throughput, the crack spread does not account for all the factors that affect refinery margin. Our Coffeyville refinery is able to process a blend of crude oil that includes quantities of heavy and medium sour crude oil that has historically cost less than WTI. We measure the


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cost advantage of our crude oil slate by calculating the spread between the price of our delivered crude oil and the price of WTI. The spread is referred to as our consumed crude oil differential. Our refinery margin can be impacted significantly by the consumed crude oil differential. Our consumed crude oil differential will move directionally with changes in the WTS differential to WTI and the West Canadian Select ("WCS") differential to WTI as both these differentials indicate the relative price of heavier, more sour, slate to WTI. The correlation between our consumed crude oil differential and published differentials will vary depending on the volume of light medium sour crude oil and heavy sour crude oil we purchase as a percent of our total crude oil volume and will correlate more closely with such published differentials the heavier and more sour the crude oil slate.

We produce a high volume of high value products, such as gasoline and distillates. We benefit from the fact that our marketing region consumes more refined products than it produces so that the market prices in our region include the logistics cost for U.S. Gulf Coast refineries to ship into our region. The result of this logistical advantage and the fact that the actual product specifications used to determine the NYMEX 2-1-1 crack spread are different from the actual production in our refineries is that prices we realize are different than those used in determining the 2-1-1 crack spread. The difference between our price and the price used to calculate the 2-1-1 crack spread is referred to as gasoline PADD II, Group 3 vs. NYMEX basis, or gasoline basis, and Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel PADD II, Group 3 vs. NYMEX basis, or Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel basis. If both gasoline and Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel basis are greater than zero, this means that prices in our marketing area exceed those used in the 2-1-1 basis.

Our direct operating expense structure is also important to our profitability. Major direct operating expenses include energy, employee labor, maintenance, contract labor, and environmental compliance. Our predominant variable cost is energy, which is comprised primarily of electrical cost and natural gas. We are therefore sensitive to the movements of natural gas prices. Assuming the same rate of consumption of natural gas for the nine months ended September 30, 2012, a $1.00 change in natural gas prices would have increased or decreased our natural gas costs by approximately $5.8 million.

Because petroleum feedstocks and products are essentially commodities, we have no control over the changing market. Therefore, the lower target inventory we are able to maintain significantly reduces the impact of commodity price volatility on our petroleum product inventory position relative to other refiners. This target inventory position is generally not hedged. To the extent our inventory position deviates from the target level, we consider risk mitigation activities usually through the purchase or sale of futures contracts on the NYMEX. Our hedging activities carry customary time, location and product grade basis risks generally associated with hedging activities. Because most of our titled inventory is valued under the FIFO costing method, price fluctuations on our target level of titled inventory have a major effect on our financial results.

Consistent, safe, and reliable operations at our refineries are key to our financial performance and results of operations. Unplanned downtime at our refineries may result in lost margin opportunity, increased maintenance expense and a temporary increase in working capital investment and related inventory position. We seek to mitigate the financial impact of planned downtime, such as major turnaround maintenance, through a diligent planning process that takes into account the margin environment, the availability of resources to perform the needed maintenance, feedstock logistics and other factors. Our refineries generally require a facility turnaround every four to five years. The length of the turnaround is contingent upon the scope of work to be completed. Our Coffeyville refinery completed the first phase of a two phase turnaround during the fourth quarter of 2011. The second phase began and was completed during the first quarter of 2012. The turnaround at the Wynnewood refinery will be completed during the fourth quarter of 2012.

Our Coffeyville refinery experienced an equipment malfunction and small fire in connection with its FCCU on December 28, 2010, which led to reduced crude oil throughput and repair cost approximately $2.2 million net of insurance receivable for the year ended 2011. We used the resulting


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downtime to perform certain turnaround activities which had otherwise been scheduled for later in 2011, along with opportunistic maintenance, which cost approximately $4.0 million in total. The refinery returned to full operations on January 26, 2011. This interruption adversely impacted the production of refined products for the petroleum business in the first quarter of 2011. We estimate that approximately 1.9 million barrels of crude oil processing were lost in the first quarter of 2011 due to this incident.

Our Coffeyville refinery also experienced a small fire at its CCR in May 2011, which led to reduced crude oil throughput for the second quarter of 2011. Repair costs, net of the insurance receivable, recorded for the year ended December 31, 2011 approximated $2.5 million. The interruption adversely impacted the production of refined products for the second quarter of 2011.

On September 28, 2012, our Wynnewood refinery experienced an explosion in a boiler unit that had been temporarily shut down as part of the turnaround process. Two employees were fatally injured. Damage at the refinery was limited to the boiler; process units and other areas of the facility were unaffected and there was no evidence of environmental impacts. The Company immediately launched an internal investigation of the incident and continues to cooperate with the U.S. Occupational Health and Safety Administration ("OSHA") and Oklahoma Department of Labor ("ODL") investigations.

Nitrogen Fertilizer Business

In the nitrogen fertilizer business, earnings and cash flows from operations are primarily affected by the relationship between nitrogen fertilizer product prices, on-stream factors and direct operating expenses. Unlike its competitors, the nitrogen fertilizer business does not use natural gas as a feedstock and uses a minimal amount of natural gas as an energy source in its operations. As a result, volatile swings in natural gas prices have a minimal impact on its results of operations. Instead, our adjacent Coffeyville refinery supplies the nitrogen fertilizer business with most of the pet coke feedstock it needs pursuant to a long-term pet coke supply agreement entered into in October 2007. The price at which nitrogen fertilizer products are ultimately sold depends on numerous factors, including the global supply and demand for nitrogen fertilizer products which, in turn, depends on, among other factors, world grain demand and production levels, changes in world population, the cost and availability of fertilizer transportation infrastructure, weather conditions, the availability of imports, and the extent of government intervention in agriculture markets. Nitrogen fertilizer prices are also affected by local factors, including local market conditions and the operating levels of competing facilities. An expansion or upgrade of competitors' facilities, international political and economic developments and other factors are likely to continue to play an important role in nitrogen fertilizer industry economics. These factors can impact, among other things, the level of inventories in the market, resulting in price volatility and a reduction in product margins. Moreover, the industry typically experiences seasonal fluctuations in demand for nitrogen fertilizer products.

In addition, the demand for fertilizers is affected by the aggregate crop planting decisions and fertilizer application rate decisions of individual farmers. Individual farmers make planting decisions based largely on the prospective profitability of a harvest, while the specific varieties and amounts of fertilizer they apply depend on factors like crop prices, their current liquidity, soil conditions, weather patterns and the types of crops planted.

Natural gas is the most significant raw material required in our competitors' production of nitrogen fertilizers. Over the past several years, . . .

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