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AGN > SEC Filings for AGN > Form 10-Q on 7-May-2012All Recent SEC Filings

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Form 10-Q for ALLERGAN INC


7-May-2012

Quarterly Report


Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and
Results of Operations
This financial review presents our operating results for the three month periods ended March 31, 2012 and 2011, and our financial condition at March 31, 2012. The following discussion contains forward-looking statements which are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. We discuss such risks, uncertainties and other factors throughout this report and specifically under the caption "Risk Factors" in Part II, Item 1A below. The following review should be read in connection with the information presented in our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes for the three month period ended March 31, 2012 included in this report and our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes for the year ended December 31, 2011 included in our 2011 Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

Critical Accounting Policies, Estimates and Assumptions The preparation and presentation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, or GAAP, requires us to establish policies and to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements. In our judgment, the accounting policies, estimates and assumptions described below have the greatest potential impact on our consolidated financial statements. Accounting assumptions and estimates are inherently uncertain and actual results may differ materially from our estimates.
Revenue Recognition
We recognize revenue from product sales when goods are shipped and title and risk of loss transfer to our customers. A substantial portion of our revenue is generated by the sale of specialty pharmaceutical products (primarily eye care pharmaceuticals, skin care and urologics products) to wholesalers within the United States, and we have a policy to attempt to maintain average U.S. wholesaler inventory levels at an amount less than eight weeks of our net sales. A portion of our revenue is generated from consigned inventory of breast implants maintained at physician, hospital and clinic locations. These customers are contractually obligated to maintain a specific level of inventory and to notify us upon the use of consigned inventory. Revenue for consigned inventory is recognized at the time we are notified by the customer that the product has been used. Notification is usually through the replenishing of the inventory, and we periodically review consignment inventories to confirm the accuracy of customer reporting.
We generally offer cash discounts to customers for the early payment of receivables. Those discounts are recorded as a reduction of revenue and accounts receivable in the same period that the related sale is recorded. The amounts reserved for cash discounts were $5.7 million and $4.5 million at March 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011, respectively. Provisions for cash discounts deducted from consolidated sales in the first quarter of 2012 and 2011 were $16.8 million and $14.3 million, respectively.
We permit returns of product from most product lines by any class of customer if such product is returned in a timely manner, in good condition and from normal distribution channels. Return policies in certain international markets and for certain medical device products, primarily breast implants, provide for more stringent guidelines in accordance with the terms of contractual agreements with customers. Our estimates for sales returns are based upon the historical patterns of product returns matched against sales, and management's evaluation of specific factors that may increase the risk of product returns. The amount of allowances for sales returns recognized in our consolidated balance sheets at March 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011 were $67.4 million and $68.5 million, respectively, and are recorded in "Other accrued expenses" and "Trade receivables, net" in our consolidated balance sheets. Provisions for sales returns deducted from consolidated sales were $99.7 million and $103.9 million in the first quarter of 2012 and 2011, respectively. The decrease in the provisions for sales returns in the first quarter of 2012 compared to the first quarter of 2011 is primarily due to a decrease in estimated product sales return rates for our skin care products. Historical allowances for cash discounts and product returns have been consistent with the amounts reserved or accrued. We participate in various managed care sales rebate and other incentive programs, the largest of which relates to Medicaid, Medicare and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Sales rebate and other incentive programs also include contractual volume rebate programs and chargebacks, which are contractual discounts given primarily to federal government agencies, health maintenance organizations, pharmacy benefits managers and group purchasing organizations. We also offer rebate and other incentive programs for our aesthetic products and certain therapeutic products, including Botox® Cosmetic, Juvéderm®, Latisse®, Acuvail®, Aczone®, Sanctura XR® and Restasis®, and for certain other skin care products. Sales rebates and incentive accruals reduce revenue in the same period that the related sale is recorded and are included in "Other accrued expenses" in our consolidated balance sheets. The amounts accrued for sales rebates and other incentive programs were $267.0 million and $249.1 million at March 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011, respectively. Provisions for sales rebates and other incentive programs deducted from consolidated sales were $237.0 million and $174.5 million in the first quarter of 2012 and 2011, respectively. The increases in the amounts accrued at March 31, 2012 compared to December 31, 2011 and the provisions for sales rebates and other incentive


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programs in the first quarter of 2012 compared to the first quarter of 2011 are primarily due to an increase in activity under previously established rebate and incentive programs, principally related to our eye care pharmaceuticals, Botox® Cosmetic, urology, skin care and facial aesthetics products, an increase in the number of incentive programs offered and increased overall product sales volume. In addition, an increase in our published list prices in the United States for pharmaceutical products, which occurred for several of our products in each of 2012 and 2011, generally results in higher provisions for sales rebates and other incentive programs deducted from consolidated sales.
Our procedures for estimating amounts accrued for sales rebates and other incentive programs at the end of any period are based on available quantitative data and are supplemented by management's judgment with respect to many factors, including but not limited to, current market dynamics, changes in contract terms, changes in sales trends, an evaluation of current laws and regulations and product pricing. Quantitatively, we use historical sales, product utilization and rebate data and apply forecasting techniques in order to estimate our liability amounts. Qualitatively, management's judgment is applied to these items to modify, if appropriate, the estimated liability amounts. There are inherent risks in this process. For example, customers may not achieve assumed utilization levels; customers may misreport their utilization to us; and actual movements of the U.S. Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers, or CPI-U, which affect our rebate programs with U.S. federal and state government agencies, may differ from those estimated. On a quarterly basis, adjustments to our estimated liabilities for sales rebates and other incentive programs related to sales made in prior periods have not been material and have generally been less than 0.5% of consolidated product net sales. An adjustment to our estimated liabilities of 0.5% of consolidated product net sales on a quarterly basis would result in an increase or decrease to net sales and earnings before income taxes of approximately $7.0 million to $8.0 million. The sensitivity of our estimates can vary by program and type of customer. Additionally, there is a significant time lag between the date we determine the estimated liability and when we actually pay the liability. Due to this time lag, we record adjustments to our estimated liabilities over several periods, which can result in a net increase to earnings or a net decrease to earnings in those periods. Material differences may result in the amount of revenue we recognize from product sales if the actual amount of rebates and incentives differ materially from the amounts estimated by management.
We recognize license fees, royalties and reimbursement income for services provided as other revenues based on the facts and circumstances of each contractual agreement. In general, we recognize income upon the signing of a contractual agreement that grants rights to products or technology to a third party if we have no further obligation to provide products or services to the third party after entering into the contract. We recognize contingent consideration earned from the achievement of a substantive milestone in its entirety in the period in which the milestone is achieved. We defer income under contractual agreements when we have further obligations that indicate that a separate earnings process has not been completed. Contingent Consideration
Contingent consideration liabilities represent future amounts we may be required to pay in conjunction with various business combinations. The ultimate amount of future payments is based on specified future criteria, such as sales performance and the achievement of certain future development, regulatory and sales milestones and other contractual performance conditions. We estimate the fair value of the contingent consideration liabilities related to sales performance using the income approach, which involves forecasting estimated future net cash flows and discounting the net cash flows to their present value using a risk-adjusted rate of return. We estimate the fair value of the contingent consideration liabilities related to the achievement of future development and regulatory milestones by assigning an achievement probability to each potential milestone and discounting the associated cash payment to its present value using a risk-adjusted rate of return. We estimate the fair value of the contingent consideration liabilities associated with sales milestones by employing Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the volatility and systematic relative risk of revenues subject to sales milestone payments and discounting the associated cash payment amounts to their present values using a credit-risk-adjusted interest rate. The fair value of other contractual performance conditions is measured by assigning an achievement probability to each payment and discounting the payment to its present value using our estimated cost of borrowing. We evaluate our estimates of the fair value of contingent consideration liabilities on a periodic basis. Any changes in the fair value of contingent consideration liabilities are recorded through earnings as "Selling, general and administrative" in the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated statements of earnings. The total estimated fair value of contingent consideration liabilities was $217.1 million and $214.6 million at March 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011, respectively, and was included in "Other accrued expenses" and "Other liabilities" in our consolidated balance sheets. Pensions
We sponsor various pension plans in the United States and abroad in accordance with local laws and regulations. Our U.S. pension plans account for a large majority of our aggregate pension plans' net periodic benefit costs and projected benefit obligations. In connection with these plans, we use certain actuarial assumptions to determine the plans' net periodic benefit costs and projected benefit obligations, the most significant of which are the expected long-term rate of return on assets and the discount rate.


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Our assumption for the weighted average expected long-term rate of return on assets in our U.S. funded pension plan for determining the net periodic benefit cost is 6.75% and 7.25% for 2012 and 2011, respectively. Our assumptions for the weighted average expected long-term rate of return on assets in our non-U.S. funded pension plans are 4.80% and 5.70% for 2012 and 2011, respectively. For our U.S. funded pension plan, we determine, based upon recommendations from our pension plan's investment advisors, the expected rate of return using a building block approach that considers diversification and rebalancing for a long-term portfolio of invested assets. Our investment advisors study historical market returns and preserve long-term historical relationships between equities and fixed income in a manner consistent with the widely-accepted capital market principle that assets with higher volatility generate a greater return over the long run. They also evaluate market factors such as inflation and interest rates before long-term capital market assumptions are determined. For our non-U.S. funded pension plans, the expected rate of return was determined based on asset distribution and assumed long-term rates of return on fixed income instruments and equities. Market conditions and other factors can vary over time and could significantly affect our estimates of the weighted average expected long-term rate of return on plan assets. The expected rate of return is applied to the market-related value of plan assets. As a sensitivity measure, the effect of a 0.25% decline in our rate of return on assets assumptions for our U.S. and non-U.S. funded pension plans would increase our expected 2012 pre-tax pension benefit cost by approximately $1.8 million. The weighted average discount rates used to calculate our U.S. and non-U.S. pension benefit obligations at December 31, 2011 were 4.63% and 5.14%, respectively. The weighted average discount rates used to calculate our U.S. and non-U.S. net periodic benefit costs for 2012 were 4.63% and 5.14%, respectively, and for 2011, 5.51% and 5.57%, respectively. We determine the discount rate based upon a hypothetical portfolio of high quality fixed income investments with maturities that mirror the pension benefit obligations at the plans' measurement date. Market conditions and other factors can vary over time and could significantly affect our estimates for the discount rates used to calculate our pension benefit obligations and net periodic benefit costs for future years. As a sensitivity measure, the effect of a 0.25% decline in the discount rate assumption for our U.S. and non-U.S. pension plans would increase our expected 2012 pre-tax pension benefit costs by approximately $4.6 million and increase our pension plans' projected benefit obligations at December 31, 2011 by approximately $42.8 million.
Share-Based Compensation
We recognize compensation expense for all share-based awards made to employees and directors. The fair value of share-based awards is estimated at the grant date and the portion that is ultimately expected to vest is recognized as compensation cost over the requisite service period.
The fair value of stock option awards that vest based on a service condition is estimated using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The fair value of share-based awards that contain a market condition is generally estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation model, and the fair value of modifications to share-based awards is generally estimated using a lattice model.
The determination of fair value using the Black-Scholes, Monte Carlo simulation and lattice models is affected by our stock price as well as assumptions regarding a number of complex and subjective variables, including expected stock price volatility, risk-free interest rate, expected dividends and projected employee stock option exercise behaviors. We currently estimate stock price volatility based upon an equal weighting of the historical average over the expected life of the award and the average implied volatility of at-the-money options traded in the open market. We estimate employee stock option exercise behavior based on actual historical exercise activity and assumptions regarding future exercise activity of unexercised, outstanding options.
Share-based compensation expense is recognized only for those awards that are ultimately expected to vest, and we have applied an estimated forfeiture rate to unvested awards for the purpose of calculating compensation cost. These estimates will be revised in future periods if actual forfeitures differ from the estimates. Changes in forfeiture estimates impact compensation cost in the period in which the change in estimate occurs. Compensation expense for share-based awards based on a service condition is recognized using the straight-line single option method.
Product Liability Self-Insurance
In 2011, we elected to largely self-insure for future product liability losses related to Botox® and Botox® Cosmetic for injuries alleged to have occurred on or after June 1, 2011. We are also self-insured for product liability losses related to our breast implant products. Future product liability losses associated with Botox®, Botox® Cosmetic and our breast implant products are, by their nature, uncertain and are based upon complex judgments and probabilities. The factors to consider in developing product liability reserves include the merits and jurisdiction of each claim, the nature and the number of other similar current and past claims, the nature of the product use and the likelihood of settlement. In addition, we accrue for certain potential product liability losses estimated to be incurred, but not reported, to the extent they can be reasonably estimated. We estimate these accruals for potential losses based primarily on historical claims experience and data regarding product usage.


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Income Taxes
The provision for income taxes is determined using an estimated annual effective tax rate, which is generally less than the U.S. federal statutory rate, primarily because of lower tax rates in certain non-U.S. jurisdictions, research and development, or R&D, tax credits available in California and other foreign jurisdictions and deductions available in the United States for domestic production activities. We currently expect the U.S. R&D tax credit to be renewed in the fourth quarter of 2012, with retroactive effect to January 1, 2012; however, until appropriate legislation is enacted in the United States to renew the R&D tax credit, our estimated annual effective tax rate for fiscal year 2012 must exclude any potential benefit for this credit. Our effective tax rate may be subject to fluctuations during the year as new information is obtained, which may affect the assumptions used to estimate the annual effective tax rate, including factors such as the mix of pre-tax earnings in the various tax jurisdictions in which we operate, valuation allowances against deferred tax assets, the recognition or derecognition of tax benefits related to uncertain tax positions, expected utilization of R&D tax credits and changes in or the interpretation of tax laws in jurisdictions where we conduct business. We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities for temporary differences between the financial reporting basis and the tax basis of our assets and liabilities along with net operating loss and tax credit carryovers.
We record a valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets to reduce the net carrying value to an amount that we believe is more likely than not to be realized. When we establish or reduce the valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets, our provision for income taxes will increase or decrease, respectively, in the period such determination is made. The valuation allowance against deferred tax assets was $14.9 million at March 31, 2012 and December 31, 2011.
We have not provided for withholding and U.S. taxes for the unremitted earnings of certain non-U.S. subsidiaries because we have currently reinvested these earnings indefinitely in these foreign operations. At December 31, 2011, we had approximately $2,505.1 million in unremitted earnings outside the United States for which withholding and U.S. taxes were not provided. Income tax expense would be incurred if these earnings were remitted to the United States. It is not practicable to estimate the amount of the deferred tax liability on such unremitted earnings. Upon remittance, certain foreign countries impose withholding taxes that are then available, subject to certain limitations, for use as credits against our U.S. tax liability, if any. We annually update our estimate of unremitted earnings outside the United States after the completion of each fiscal year.
Acquisitions
The accounting for acquisitions requires extensive use of estimates and judgments to measure the fair value of the identifiable tangible and intangible assets acquired, including in-process research and development, and liabilities assumed. Additionally, we must determine whether an acquired entity is considered to be a business or a set of net assets, because the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of net assets acquired can only be recognized as goodwill in a business combination.
On June 17, 2011, we acquired Alacer Biomedical, Inc., or Alacer, for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $7.0 million, net of cash acquired. On July 1, 2011, we purchased the commercial assets related to the selling and distribution of our products from our distributor in South Africa for $8.6 million, net of a $2.2 million pre-existing receivable from the distributor. On July 22, 2011, we acquired Vicept Therapeutics, Inc., or Vicept, for $74.1 million in cash and estimated contingent consideration of $163.0 million as of the acquisition date. On August 8, 2011, we acquired Precision Light, Inc., or Precision Light, for $11.7 million in cash and estimated contingent consideration of $6.2 million. On February 1, 2012, we purchased the commercial assets related to the selling and distribution of our products from our distributor in Russia for $3.1 million in cash, net of a $6.6 million pre-existing net receivable from the distributor, and estimated contingent consideration of $4.7 million. We accounted for these acquisitions as business combinations. The tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed in connection with these acquisitions were recognized based on their estimated fair values at the acquisition dates. The determination of estimated fair values requires significant estimates and assumptions including, but not limited to, determining the timing and estimated costs to complete the in-process projects, projecting regulatory approvals, estimating future cash flows and developing appropriate discount rates. We believe the estimated fair values assigned to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed are based on reasonable assumptions.
Impairment Evaluations for Goodwill and Purchased Intangible Assets We evaluate goodwill for impairment on an annual basis, or more frequently if we believe indicators of impairment exist. We have identified two reporting units, specialty pharmaceuticals and medical devices, and perform our annual evaluation as of October 1 each year.
For our specialty pharmaceuticals reporting unit, we performed the qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that its fair value is less than its carrying amount. For our medical devices reporting unit, we evaluated goodwill for impairment by comparing its carrying value to its estimated fair value. We primarily use the income approach and the market approach to valuation that include the discounted cash flow method, the guideline company method, as well as other generally accepted valuation methodologies to determine the fair value.


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Upon completion of the October 2011 annual impairment assessment, we determined that no impairment was indicated. As of March 31, 2012, we do not believe any significant indicators of impairment exist for our goodwill that would require additional analysis.
We also review purchased intangible assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of our intangible assets may not be recoverable. An impairment in the carrying value of an intangible asset is recognized whenever anticipated future undiscounted cash flows from an intangible asset are estimated to be less than its carrying value. In March 2011, we decided to discontinue development of the EasyBand™ Remote Adjustable Gastric Band System, or EasyBand™, a technology that we acquired in connection with our 2007 acquisition of EndoArt SA, or EndoArt. As a result, in the first quarter of 2011 we recorded a pre-tax impairment charge of $16.1 million for the intangible assets associated with the EasyBand™ technology. Significant management judgment is required in the forecasts of future operating results that are used in our impairment evaluations. The estimates we have used are consistent with the plans and estimates that we use to manage our business. It is possible, however, that the plans may change and estimates used may prove to be inaccurate. If our actual results, or the plans and estimates used in future impairment analyses, are lower than the original estimates used to assess the recoverability of these assets, we could incur future impairment charges.
Operations
Headquartered in Irvine, California, we are a multi-specialty health care company focused on developing and commercializing innovative pharmaceuticals, biologics, medical devices and over-the-counter products that enable people to live life to its full potential - to see more clearly, move more freely and express themselves more fully. We discover, develop and commercialize a diverse range of products for the ophthalmic, neurological, medical aesthetics, medical dermatology, breast aesthetics, obesity intervention, urological and other specialty markets in more than 100 countries around the world.
We are also a pioneer in specialty pharmaceutical, biologic and medical device research and development. Our research and development efforts are focused on products and technologies related to the many specialty areas in which we currently operate as well as new specialty areas where unmet medical needs are significant. We supplement our own research and development activities with our commitment to identify and obtain new technologies through in-licensing, research collaborations, joint ventures and acquisitions. At March 31, 2012, we employed approximately 10,000 persons around the world. Our principal geographic markets are the United States, Europe, Latin America and Asia Pacific.

Results of Operations
We operate our business on the basis of two reportable segments - specialty pharmaceuticals and medical devices. The specialty pharmaceuticals segment produces a broad range of pharmaceutical products, including: ophthalmic products for dry eye, glaucoma, inflammation, infection, allergy and retinal disease; Botox® for certain therapeutic and aesthetic indications; skin care products for acne, psoriasis, eyelash growth and other prescription and over-the-counter skin care products; and urologics products. The medical devices segment produces a broad range of medical devices, including: breast implants for augmentation, revision and reconstructive surgery and tissue expanders; obesity intervention products; and facial aesthetics products. We provide global marketing strategy teams to coordinate the development and execution of a consistent marketing strategy for our products in all geographic regions that share similar distribution channels and customers.
Management evaluates our business segments and various global product portfolios on a revenue basis, which is presented below in accordance with GAAP. We also report sales performance using the non-GAAP financial measure of constant . . .

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