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CRAY > SEC Filings for CRAY > Form 10-Q on 1-Nov-2011All Recent SEC Filings

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Form 10-Q for CRAY INC


1-Nov-2011

Quarterly Report


Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Preliminary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This quarterly report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties, as well as assumptions that, if they never materialize or if they prove incorrect, could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are based on our management's beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to them. In some cases you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as "may," "will," "should," "could," "would," "expect," "plans," "anticipates," "believes," "estimates," "projects," "predicts" and "potential" and similar expressions, but the absence of these words does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking. All statements other than statements of historical fact are statements that could be deemed forward-looking statements, and examples of forward-looking statements include any projections of earnings, revenue or other results of operations or financial results; any statements of the plans, strategies, objectives and beliefs of management of the Company; any statements concerning proposed new products, technologies or services; any statements regarding future research and development or co-funding for such efforts; any statements regarding future economic conditions; and any statements of assumptions underlying any of the foregoing. These forward-looking statements are subject to the safe harbor created by Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and
Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements for many reasons, including the risks faced by us and described in Item 1A. Risk Factors in Part II and other sections of this report and our other filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, or Commission. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which apply only as of the date of this report. You should read this report completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We assume no obligation to update these forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.

Overview and Executive Summary

We design, develop, manufacture, market and service high performance computing, or HPC, systems, commonly known as supercomputers, and provide engineering services, storage and data analytics solutions related to HPC systems and solutions. Our supercomputer systems provide capability and sustained performance far beyond typical server-based computer systems and address challenging scientific, engineering and national security computing problems.

We believe we are well positioned to meet the HPC market's demanding needs by providing superior supercomputer systems and solutions with performance and cost advantages when sustained performance on challenging applications and total cost of ownership are taken into account. We differentiate ourselves from our competitors primarily by concentrating our research and development efforts on the interconnect network, packaging, system software capabilities and processing capabilities that enable our systems to provide efficient and high sustained performance at scale - that is, that enable our systems to continue to increase performance as they grow in size. Purpose-built for the supercomputer market, our high-end systems balance highly capable processors, very dense design, highly scalable system software and very high speed interconnect and communications capabilities. Our current strategy is to gain market share in the high-end supercomputer market segment, extend our technology leadership, maintain our focus on execution and profitability and expand our addressable market from certain growth opportunities that have developed from our Custom Engineering businesses and selling our Cray XE6m and Cray XK6m systems.

We focus our sales and marketing activities on government agencies, academic institutions and commercial entities that purchase HPC systems and related solutions. We sell our HPC systems and services primarily through a direct sales force that operates throughout the United States and in Canada, Europe, Japan and Asia-Pacific. Our HPC systems are installed at more than 100 sites around the world.


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Summary of First Nine Months of 2011 Results

Total revenue increased $44.5 million for the first nine months of 2011 compared to the first nine months of 2010, from $100.0 million to $144.5 million, largely due to increased product revenue of $38.6 million. The increase in product revenue was primarily driven by unusually low revenue in 2010 due to the anticipated release of the new Cray XE6 system in the second half of 2010. Service revenue also increased $6.0 million resulting from the benefits of a large number of systems starting maintenance in late 2010.

Net loss for the first nine months of 2011 was $16.7 million compared to a net loss of $37.0 million for the same period in 2010, due to increased gross profit of $30.5 million, partially offset by $1.9 million in restructuring charges and a $9.6 million increase in net research and development expenses. Research and development expenses increased due to $12.2 million lower co-funding reimbursements.

Net cash provided by operations was $33.6 million for the first nine months of 2011 compared to net cash used in operations of $37.5 million for the first nine months of 2010. Cash provided from operations in the first nine months of 2011 was driven by large cash collections from multiple customers that accepted large systems in the fourth quarter of 2010. Cash and cash equivalents, including restricted cash balances, were $92.0 million as of September 30, 2011 compared to $61.3 million as of December 31, 2010.

Market Overview and Challenges

Significant trends in the HPC industry include:

The commoditization of HPC hardware, particularly processors and interconnect systems;

The growing commoditization of software, including plentiful building blocks and more capable open source software;

Supercomputing with many-core commodity processors driving increasing scalability requirements;

Electrical power requirements becoming a design constraint and driver in total cost of ownership determinations;

Increased micro-architectural diversity, including many-core processors and growing experimentation with accelerators, as the rate of per-core performance increases slows; and

Data needs growing faster than computational needs, particularly with the prevalence and increasing volume of unstructured data (the "Big Data" problem).

Several of these trends have resulted in the expansion and acceptance of lower-bandwidth cluster systems using processors manufactured by Intel, AMD and others combined with commercially available commodity networking and other components, particularly in the middle and lower segments of the HPC market. These systems may offer higher theoretical peak performance for equivalent cost, and "price/peak performance" is often the dominant factor in HPC procurements outside of the high-end supercomputer market segment. Vendors of such systems often put pricing pressure on us in competitive procurements.

In the markets for larger systems, particularly in those costing significantly in excess of $3 million, the use of commodity networking components can result in increasing data transfer bottlenecks as these components do not balance processor power with network communication capability. With the arrival of increasing processor core counts due to new many-core processors, these unbalanced systems will typically have even lower productivity, especially in larger systems running more complex applications. We and other vendors have also begun to augment standard microprocessors with other processor types, such as graphics processing units (GPUs), in order to increase computational power, further complicating programming models. In addition, with increasing scale, bandwidth and processor core counts, large computer systems use progressively higher amounts of power to operate and require special cooling capabilities.

To position ourselves to meet the market's demanding needs, we concentrate our research and development efforts on the interconnect, system and programming environment software and packaging capabilities that enable our supercomputers to perform at scale - that is, to continue to increase actual performance as systems grow ever larger in size. We also have demonstrated expertise in several processor technologies. Further, we offer unique capabilities in high-speed, high-bandwidth system interconnect design, compiler technology, system software and packaging capabilities. We believe our experience and capabilities across each of these fronts are becoming ever more important, especially in larger procurements. We expect to be in a comparatively advantageous position as larger many-core processors become available and as multiple processing technologies become integrated into single systems in heterogeneous environments. In addition, we intend to expand our addressable market by leveraging our technologies and customer base, the Cray brand and industry trends by introducing complementary products and services to new and existing customers, as developed from our emphasis on our Custom Engineering businesses and our Cray XE6m and Cray XK6m systems.


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Key Performance Indicators

Our management monitors and analyzes several key performance indicators in order to manage our business and evaluate our financial and operating performance, including:

Revenue. Product revenue generally constitutes the major portion of our revenue in any reporting period and, for the reasons discussed elsewhere in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q, is subject to significant variability from period to period. In the short term, we closely review the status of product shipments, installations and acceptances in order to forecast revenue and cash receipts; longer-term, we monitor the status of the pipeline of product sales opportunities and product development cycles. Product revenue growth is an indicator of whether we are achieving our objective of increased market share in the supercomputing market. The introduction of the Cray XE and Cray XK families and our longer-term product roadmap are efforts to increase product revenue. We also plan to grow our revenue from our Custom Engineering businesses, and market new products, such as the Cray XE6m and Cray XK6m and successor systems, to increase revenue in the mid-range segment of the supercomputing market. Maintenance service revenue is more constant in the short term and assists, in part, to offset the impact that the variability in product revenue has on total revenue.

Gross profit margin. Our product gross profit margin increased from 26% for the nine months ended September 30, 2010 to 33% during the same period in 2011 principally due to higher volume. Service gross profit margin increased from 31% for the nine months ended September 30, 2010 to 51% for the nine months ended September 30, 2011. The increase in service gross profit margin is due to higher margins from our maintenance services as we begin to service the large systems that were accepted in the fourth quarter of 2010 and an additional $5.7 million in revenue recorded on a Custom Engineering contract in the first nine months of 2011 where revenue is being recorded on the cash basis as the Company's ability to collect payment is not reasonably assured. The increase in our service gross margin drove the increase in our total gross profit margin from 29% in the first nine months of 2010 to 41% in the first nine months of 2011.

Operating expenses. Our operating expenses are driven largely by headcount, the level of recognized co-funding for research and development and contracted third-party research and development services. The level of government co-funding can vary significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year as we do not record a receivable from the U.S. government prior to completing the requirements necessary to bill for a milestone or cost reimbursement largely due to varying milestone schedules, milestone completion risk and because funding from the U.S. government is subject to certain budget restrictions. Operating expenses for the nine months ended September 30, 2011 were $10.2 million higher than for the same period in 2010, increasing from $65.1 million to $75.3 million. The increase in operating expenses was caused by a $9.6 million increase in net research and development expenses, due primarily to $12.2 million less in recognized co-funding, and a restructuring charge of $1.9 million. In our restructuring, we eliminated approximately 50 positions. The restructuring was designed to rebalance our headcount to areas of more need in the future such as software development, custom engineering and customer service, and in select international geographies. The elimination of these positions is expected to be substantially offset by planned increases of personnel and, as a result, we currently expect to end 2011 with approximately the same number of employees that we employed at the beginning of 2011.

Liquidity and cash flows. Due to the variability in cash collections due to the timing of new contracts, product deliveries and acceptances, our cash position varies significantly from quarter-to-quarter and within a quarter. We closely monitor our expected cash levels, particularly in light of increased inventory purchases for large system installations and the risk of delays in product shipments and acceptances and, longer-term, in product development. Sustained profitability over annual periods is our primary objective and should improve our cash position.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

This discussion, as well as disclosures included elsewhere in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q, are based upon our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements, which have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosure of contingencies. In preparing our financial statements in accordance with GAAP, there are certain accounting policies that are particularly important. These include revenue recognition, inventory valuation, accounting for income taxes, research and development expenses and share-based compensation. Our significant accounting policies are set forth in Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in our 2010 Annual Report on Form 10-K and should be reviewed in conjunction with the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and notes thereto as of September 30, 2011 in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q, as they are integral to understanding our results of operations and financial condition in this interim period. In some cases, these policies represent required accounting. In other cases, they may represent a choice between acceptable accounting methods or may require substantial judgment or estimation.

Additionally, we consider certain judgments and estimates to be significant, including those relating to the fair value and selling price determination used in revenue recognition, percentage of completion accounting, estimates of proportional performance on co-funded engineering contracts and prepaid engineering services, realization of accounts receivable, determination of inventory at the lower of cost or market, useful lives for depreciation and amortization, determination of future cash flows associated with impairment


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testing of long-lived assets, determination of the fair value of stock options and other assessments of fair value, realization of deferred income tax assets, including our ability to utilize such assets, potential income tax assessments and other contingencies. We base our estimates on historical experience, current conditions and on other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ materially from these estimates and assumptions.

Our management has discussed the selection of significant accounting policies and the effect of judgments and estimates with the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors.

Revenue Recognition

The Company recognizes revenue when it is realized or realizable and earned. The Company considers revenue realized or realizable and earned when it has persuasive evidence of an arrangement, delivery has occurred, the sales price is fixed or determinable, and collectibility is reasonably assured. Delivery does not occur until the products have been shipped or services provided to the customer, risk of loss has transferred to the customer, and, where applicable, a customer acceptance has been obtained. The sales price is not considered to be fixed or determinable until all material contingencies related to the sales have been resolved. The Company records revenue in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations net of any sales, use, value added or certain excise taxes imposed by governmental authorities on specific sales transactions. In addition to the aforementioned general policy, the following are the Company's statements of policy with regard to multiple-element arrangements and specific revenue recognition policies for each major category of revenue.

Multiple-Element Arrangements. The Company commonly enters into revenue arrangements that include multiple deliverables of its product and service offerings due to the needs of its customers. Product may be delivered in phases over time periods which can be as long as five years. Maintenance services generally begin upon acceptance of the first equipment delivery and future deliveries of equipment generally have an associated maintenance period. The Company considers the maintenance period to commence upon acceptance of the product or installation in situations where a formal acceptance is not required, which may include a warranty period and accordingly allocates a portion of the arrangement consideration as a separate deliverable which is recognized as service revenue over the entire service period. Other services such as training and engineering services can be delivered as a discrete delivery or over the term of the contract. A multiple-element arrangement is separated into more than one unit of accounting if the following criteria are met:

The delivered item(s) has value to the customer on a standalone basis; and

If the arrangement includes a general right of return relative to the delivered item(s), delivery or performance of the undelivered item(s) is considered probable and substantially in the control of the Company.

If these criteria are not met, the arrangement is accounted for as one unit of accounting which would result in revenue being recognized ratably over the contract term or being deferred until the earlier of when such criteria are met or when the last undelivered element is delivered. If these criteria are met for each element, the arrangement consideration is allocated to the separate units of accounting based on each unit's relative estimated selling price.

The Company follows a selling price hierarchy in determining the best estimate of the selling price of each deliverable. Certain products and services are sold separately in standalone arrangements for which the Company is sometimes able to determine vendor specific objective evidence, or VSOE. The Company determines VSOE based on normal pricing and discounting practices for the product or service when sold separately.

When the Company is not able to establish VSOE for all deliverables in an arrangement with multiple elements, the Company attempts to establish the selling price of each remaining element based on third-party evidence, or TPE. The Company's inability to establish VSOE is often due to a relatively small sample of customer contracts that differ in system size and contract terms which can be due to infrequently selling each element separately, not pricing products within a narrow range, or only having a limited sales history, such as in the case of certain advanced and emerging technologies. TPE is determined based on our prices or competitor prices for similar deliverables when sold separately. However, the Company is often unable to determine TPE, as the Company's offerings contain a significant level of customization and differentiation from those of competitors and the Company is often unable to reliably determine what similar competitor products' selling prices are on a standalone basis.

When the Company is unable to establish selling price using VSOE or TPE, the Company uses estimated selling price, or ESP, in its allocation of arrangement consideration. The objective of ESP is to determine the price at which the Company would transact a sale if the product or service were sold on a standalone basis. In determining ESP, the Company uses either the list price of the deliverable less a discount or the cost to provide the product or service plus a margin. When using list price less a discount, the Company uses discounts from list price for previous transactions. This approach incorporates several factors, including the size of the transaction and any changes to list prices. The data is collected from prior sales, and although the data may not have the sample size or consistency to establish VSOE, it is sufficiently objective to estimate the selling price. When using cost plus a margin, the Company considers the total cost of the product or service, including customer-specific and geographic factors. The Company also considers the historical margins of the product or service on previous contracts and several factors including any changes to pricing methodologies, competitiveness of products and services and cost drivers that would cause future margins to differ from historical margins.


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Products. The Company recognizes revenue from sales of products upon customer acceptance of the system or delivery or installation in situations where a formal acceptance is not required, when the price is fixed or determinable, collection is reasonably assured and no significant unfulfilled obligations exist.

Services. Maintenance services are provided under separate maintenance contracts with customers. These contracts generally provide for maintenance services for one year, although some are for multi-year periods, often with prepayments for the term of the contract. The Company considers the maintenance period to commence upon acceptance of the product or installation in situations where a formal acceptance is not required, which may include a warranty period. When service is part of a multiple element arrangement, the Company allocates a portion of the arrangement consideration to maintenance service revenue based on estimates of selling price. Maintenance revenue is recognized ratably over the term of the maintenance contract. Maintenance contracts that are billed in advance of revenue recognition are recorded as deferred revenue.

Revenue from engineering services is recognized as services are performed.

Project Revenue. Revenue from design and build contracts is recognized under the percentage-of-completion, or POC method. Under the POC method, revenue is recognized based on the costs incurred to date as a percentage of the total estimated costs to fulfill the contract. If circumstances arise that change the original estimates of revenues, costs, or extent of progress toward completion, revisions to the estimates are made. These revisions may result in increases or decreases in estimated revenues or costs, and such revisions are recorded in income in the period in which the circumstances that gave rise to the revision become known by management. The Company performs ongoing profitability analyses of its contracts accounted for under the POC method in order to determine whether the latest estimates of revenue, costs and extent of progress require updating. If at any time these estimates indicate that the contract will be unprofitable, the entire estimated loss for the remainder of the contract is recorded immediately.

The Company records revenue from certain research and development contracts which include milestones using the milestone method if the milestones are determined to be substantive. A milestone is considered to be substantive if management believes there is substantive uncertainty that it will be achieved and the milestone consideration meets all of the following criteria:

It is commensurate with either of the following:

The Company's performance to achieve the milestone; or

The enhancement of value of the delivered item or items as a result of a specific outcome resulting from the Company's performance to achieve the milestone.

It relates solely to past performance.

It is reasonable relative to all of the deliverables and payment terms (including other potential milestone consideration) within the arrangement.

The individual milestones are determined to be substantive or nonsubstantive in their entirety and milestone consideration is not bifurcated.

Revenue from projects is classified as Product Revenue or Service Revenue, based on the nature of the work performed.

Inventory Valuation

We record our inventory at the lower of cost or market. We regularly evaluate the technological usefulness and anticipated future demand for our inventory components. Due to rapid changes in technology and the increasing demands of our customers, we are continually developing new products. Additionally, during periods of product or inventory component upgrades or transitions, we may acquire significant quantities of inventory to support estimated current and future production and service requirements. As a result, it is possible that older inventory items we have purchased may become obsolete, be sold below cost or be deemed in excess of quantities required for production or service requirements. When we determine it is not likely we will recover the cost of inventory items through future sales, we write-down the related inventory to our estimate of its market value.

Because the products we sell have high average sales prices and because a high number of our prospective customers receive funding from U.S. or foreign governments, it is difficult to estimate future sales of our products and the timing of such sales. It also is difficult to determine whether the cost of our inventories will ultimately be recovered through future sales. While we believe our inventory is stated at the lower of cost or market and that our estimates and assumptions to determine any adjustments to the cost of our inventories are reasonable, our estimates may prove to be inaccurate. We have sold inventory previously reduced in part or in whole to zero, and we may have future sales of previously written-down inventory. We also may have additional expense to write-down inventory to its estimated market value. Adjustments to these estimates in the future may materially impact our operating results.


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Accounting for Income Taxes

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards and are measured using the enacted tax rates and . . .

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